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VOL. Ill No. 1 MARCH, 1919 




Columbus, Ga., and General Henry L. Benning 

--------By Henry R. Goetchkis 3-10 

The Capture of the U. S. Steamer "Water Witch" 
IN OssABAw Sound, Ga., June 2-3, 1864 _ _ _ 
-______--__ By the Editor ii-2y 

Eightieth Annual Meeting of the Georgia His- 
torical Society __________ 28-30 

Annual Report of A. R. Lawton, Chairman of 
Committee on The Telfair Academy of Arts 
AND Sciences ___________ 30-32 

Special Meeting of Board of Curators of the Geor- 
gia Historical Society, February 21, 19 19 _ _ 33-34 

Queries and Answers _________ 35-37 

Editor's Notes ____________ 37-41 








VOL. Ill No. 1 MARCH, 1919 

Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 


A;k County Public Obrarj 

OTKe Georgia Historical Quarterl}? 

Volume III MARCH, 1919 Number I 

Columbus, Ga., and General Henry L. Benning 


The following article was written for the Columbus Eve- 
ning Ledger, but with the kind consent of the author, we are 
permitted to use it here, feeling assured that it will prove of 
interest to our readers on account of the historical facts con- 
tained in It.— EDITOR. 

War telegrams, memorial days and patriotic women are 
not the only reminders of martial days "then and now." There 
are other reminders when war news is coming and our streets 
are full of soldiers and I want this afternoon to tell your 
readers whom I do not know something about the war notes 
sounding in Columbus before and in 1861. 

Before doing this I may tell something about the origin 
of this old town and briefly the part she took in other wars. 

Columbus is one of the most historic places in America. 
This is not generally known, but it is a fact. Long before 1827 
and long before 1733, when Yamacraw Bluff was settled by 
General Oglethorpe, Columbus was right here on the Chatta- 
hoochee river at the foot of its Coweta falls, and was the most 
important Indian town in all this countrv between the Missis- 
sippi river and the Atlantic ocean. How long it had been 
so regarded by the Southern states no one knows, but Ogle- 
thorpe and his handful of followers found it that way in 1739, 
when white men, for the first time, so far as anybody knows, 
saw it. This was only six years after Oglethorpe landed at 
Savannah (Yamacraw Bluff). He found here, where Colum- 
bus now is, the famous and very important place known as 
Cowetah — afterwards Coweta Town — and changed in name 


by the whites in a legislative act to Columbus. It is well 
known that all this territory was the country of the Upper and 
Lower Creeks, the great Indian nation known as the Muskho- 
gees, or Creek Confederation. We have today, for our county 
and social club, this very name spelled Muscogee. Above the 
34th line were the Cherokees, a powerful tribe in the upland 
and mountain country of Georgia and Tennessee. They co- 
operated with the Creeks in general political and war m.atters. 
The Creek Confederation was made up of smaller tribes. I 
could not now give all of them, but there were among them, 
the Hitchcittees (now a creek in Chattahoochee county) ; the 
Uchees (now a creek in Alabama) ; the Coosas (now the 
Coosa river) the Apalachee (now a bay just below us) ; the 
Seminoles in Florida; the Wetumpkes (now Wetumpka) and 
so on. But especially there was a tribe called the Cussetahs, 
from which comes our Cusseta in Chattahoochee county, and 
the Oscoochees from which tribe was an Indian town called 
Oscayoochee and now our Oswitchee (or Oswichee). It is 
nine miles southwest of Columbus. In Indian days this place 
was surrounded by and had in it magnificent woods and splendid 
trees. Just here Oglethorpe came in 1739 and met under these 
trees the Indian chiefs and settled a treaty which bound the 
Georgia colony and England her parent and the Great Creek 
Confederation. That treaty kept the Spaniards in Florida 
from getting the Indians on their side, and eventually saved 
to England and America all of the country south of the 
Potomac river and east of the Mississippi. So it was that 
in this section is this Coweta Town, existing long prior to and 
through the Revolutionary war and down to 1827. Let us 
remember that Georgia then was actually only a Httle strip of 
land between the Savannah and Oconee rivers extending to 
the headwaters. The English charter granted land west to 
the South seas, but Georgia as a colony, could not "occupy" 
as the Indians held the land. It took grants and treaties for 
the white man to get it. He got his first grant confirmed which 
he was occupying between the two above named rivers. Then 
by treaty and purchase he got the land between the Oconee 


and the Ocmulgee rivers; then between that and the FHnt 
river (Thronateeska in Indian) and lastly between tne Flint 
and the Chattahoochee. This last was long after the Revo- 
lutionary war and long after the end of Georgia as a colony. 
As a state, Georgia agreed with the United States Government 
to let her part of the great war debt go at exchange for al\ 
her land west of the Chattahoochee. The government took it 
and made Alabama and Mississippi out of it, executing treaties 
with the Indians by which they gave up all their land in these 
states and went to Indian Territory. That is the reason all 
residents of these two states trace their land titles back to 
Indian grants. Georgia owned her land; cut it into forty 200 
and 250 acre lots, and had big lottery schemes to start her titles. 
In laying off her lots she reserved a strip over here where 
Coweta Town stood and called it the Coweta Reserve, and cut 
it into ten and twenty acre lots. Coweta Town stood along its 
western edge and on the river being about half way between 
the 32d and 33d parallel of latitude. In 1827 the General 
Assembly authorized five commissioners to lay out not less 
than five hundred half-acre building lots at Coweta Town and 
give it a name. The commissioners did this and called it Co- 
lumbus. In 1828 the General Assembly incorporated the town 
under this act and the people elected an intendant (mayor) and 
six commissioners (aldermen). Columbus then started out on 
its history. It would be intensely interesting to recount this 
history, social, religious, political, civil and military. I began, 
expecting to tell something about the last and especially in the 
sixties, as contrasted with what we see in and about here now. 
I find, however, that it has been necessary to write about the 
"founding of the city" (ab urbe condita). 

I have written about the origin of Columbus. Let us read 
now a few Hues about her military history. It is pertinent 
just at this time. We have a training camp and because of this 
present war our streets are filled with khaki boys. Everybody 
is doing what he can to help on our side. Columbus always 
did that. 


A man recently said this about Columbus: "You have a 
fine set of people clown here and I have found after half a 
century of observation that they always make good. If there 
are any black berries about, Columbus seems to claim she has 
the largest and most juicy; so with apples. She always has the 
largest and reddest. If a group of women are together, - 
Columbus claims she has the handsomest and best in the lot; 
she always thinks she is just a little bit ahead of any community 
with which she may be contrasted." And said he, "I believe 
she has a right to say so." Think of this coming as it did from 
a life-long resident of Atlanta ! He knew Columbus and her 
people, however, for he had visited here from the beginning of 
his long life. 

So it has been with Columbus about her soldiers and her 
interest in the welfare of her section and her country. 

When she was laid out in 1827, the town proper was 
bounded on the south and west by the river, on the north by 
what is now Sixteenth street, and on the east by what is now 
Sixth avenue. The land north to Seventeenth street and east 
to Tenth avenue was commons. It was made into lots and 
tracts in 1873. In 1887 Rose Hill was annexed and later 
East Highlands. Wynnton has always been a suburb and so 
has Girard and Phoenix City. Many people think Girard is 
older than Columbus. As a matter of fact it was not laid out 
until 1834. All lands across the river were Indian lands as 
before stated. Phoenix City, at first Browneville, was not known 
till after the Civil war. Now, includmg the Alabama suburb, 
Columbus has a population of about forty thousand. At first 
she was but an Indian trading town. In i860 there were only 
about eight thousand people within her limits and not over 
two thousand in her suburbs, including Alabama. 

In those early days of her existence all her male population 
could shoot and were prepared to do so. Just as now, the men 
felt that some organization in this line should be had, and so 
at the very first, what was called the "Frontier Guards" came 
into life. In 1831, however, they disbanded and in September 
of that year there was organized the ''Columbus Volunteers" 


with A. S. Rutherford, captain. Notwithstanding the treaties 
there were Indian rtoubles constantly arising, for the whole 
country was filled with Indians. 

The Columbus Guards were organized with Dr. John A. 
Urquhart as captain, sometime prior to 1835, but in May of 
that year they received their commission and have been in ex- 
istence to this day. They are now in France. They fought the 
Indians, when necessary, from the very first and were ready 
to protect Columbus, together with the help of all other males 
in that dreadful time. In 1836 matters with the Indians were 
so unsettled that Columbus also organized the Cadet Rifles and 
Muscogee Blues. This was the year of the war with the 
Seminole Indians in Florida. Many men volunteered from 
Columbus and fought in that war. The maternal grandfather 
of the writer was one of these and he carried a bullet to his 
death from a wound in that war. He gave a son to the 
Mexican war, three sons and two grandsons to the Civil war, 
and two of his great grandsons are fighting in France. Federal 
and state troops rendezvoused for these troubles in 1836. 
Forty-four Georgia companies were in Columbus at the call of 
General Winfield Scott. Among them from Columbus were 
the Columbus Guards, the Muscogee Drafted; the Muscogee 
Cadet Riflemen and the Muscogee Artillery. 

These were strenuous and exciting days. The Indians 
had threatened to massacre the inhabitants here. All the male 
population and military men assembled in the Baptist Church 
yard. All the women were put within the brick wall fence of 
the old Oglethorpe building. For a long time they went there 
every night. The wall extended from First to Second avenue 
and along there and Twelfth street. First avenue was Ogle- 
thorpe street, Second was Jackson street and Twelfth was 
Randolph street. The last vestige of that wall came down a 
short while ago when the store of Brannon & Carson was 
located. Paddy Carr, a friendly half-breed Indian, saved the 
town the night of the intended massacre. You can doubtless 
read all about him in the Public Library. I cannot undertake 
to give the list and history of all the military companies of 


those and subsequent days, which were in Columbus. There 
were numbers of them. In 1846 came the war with Mexico. 
The South took a large share in this important event which 
finally resulted in fixing the southwestern line for the United 
States, and ended many other difficulties. Columbus sent her 
crack company, the Columbus Guards, and many volunteers. 
A regiment of troops rendezvoused here under Col. Henry R. 
Jackson, marched to Chehaw in Alabama and entrained for 
Mexico. It was in this year the City Light Guards organized. 
Its first captain was a gallant young attorney, A. H. Cooper, 
who afterwards fell in the Civil war. His descendants are 
here today. This was a noble company and was a strong rival 
of the famous Columbus Guards. My earliest recollection, 
as a boy, was seeing these two companies marching up Broad 
street one summer afternoon. It was just before the Civil 
war. In those days there were no paved streets and no central 
parkway or transfer station. I can see them now. The 
Columbus Guards were on the west side. The City Light 
Guards were on the east side. The drum corps was in the 
center. Captain Paul V. Semmes commanded the Columbus 
Guards and Peyton H. Colquitt the City Lights. Both com- 
panies were in full dress. The Columbus Guards had on red 
cut-away coats with white fronts and white trousers (this for 
summer). The City Lights had on blue cut-away coats and 
buff fronts and blue trousers with buff stripe. There was an 
abundance of brass buttons and epaulets and shako hats and 
plumes. At the two bass drums were Peter De Votie and 
Lymus Jones, and at the fifes were Tom Rhodes and Tom 
Hicks and the kettle drums were handled by Peter Harris and 
Henry Harris. All these were colored except the last named. 
Henry Harris fought through the war with his company and is 
buried in Linnwood. I saw all this about where Kirven's 
store now stands. These companies marched in platoon for- 
mation and moved as one. They were magnificently drilled. 
When war broke out they went at once to the front. I saw 
them march out Randolph (Twelfth street) on the plank road 
then there and board the train just beyond where Golden's 


Foundry now is. We had no Terminal station then. Few of 
them came back. Captain Semmes was made colonel of the 
Second Georgia Regiment and afterwards brigadier general 
of Semmes' brigade. He fell at Gettysburg and is buried in 
Linnwood. Captain Colquitt was made colonel of the 46th 
Georgia Regiment. He was commanding a brigade at Chica- 
mauga when he fell. His commission as brigadier general had 
then been issued, but not received at his death. He, too, is 
buried in Linnwood. There was one other brave man from 
Columbus, who stood as "Old Rock" in the Civil war, who 
was a brigade commander. 

This was General Henry L. Benning, after whom the 
Columbus people ask that our camp be named. It may be 
well just here to say that General Benning, at the time he died 
in July, 1875, was one of the most widely known and highly 
esteemed men in Georgia. He was great as a lawyer, judge, 
soldier and patriot. As a member of the Supreme Court of 
Georgia, before the Civil War, he ranked with the highest. 
When war came in the sixties he was one of the first to go out. 
He raised his own regiment, the 17th, and was its colonel. He 
was soon promoted to the office of brigade commander, and 
was attached to Longstreet's bloody corps. I cannot here go 
into his military record. He was one of the bravest of the 
brave. He escaped death, but not wounds. He fought through 
every important battle of the Army of Northern Virginia, 
and came at last home to help rebuild the fallen fortunes of 
his country. One of the last signatures of the Secretary of 
War of the Confederacy was placed on the commission of 
Henry L. Benning as major general. 

If the War Department sees proper to note the suggestion 
of the people of this historic and patriotic city and name their 
military camp after General Benning, such a step will be 
another recognition of what all of our people in Georgia know, 
and that is that Benning, both in war and peace, was one of 
our greatest men. 

All the above were not the only men or companies who 
went out in those days. There were hundreds of other brave, 


noble soldiers, many never to come back. Everything was war 
in the sixties and for years afterwards. Besides the two above 
companies, this city and vicinity in 1861 sent the following: 
The Southern Guards, Home Guards, Georgia Grays, Con- 
federate States Sentinels, Independent Light Infantry, Mus- 
cogee Rifles, Jackson Avengers, Ivey Guards, Semmes Guards, 
Georgia Light Infantry, Terrell Artillery, Columbus Minute 
Men and Columbus Flying Artillery. There may have been 
others not now recalled. 

The next real sign of war, after all these companies went 
forth with fife and drum and brass bands and uniforms and 
other full equipment, did not come in force till that fateful 
day in April, 1865. Then General James Wilson, with his ten 
thousand detached by Sherman and sent southwest to sweep 
through Alabama and Georgia, came upon us, destroyed the 
city and $67,000,000 worth of cotton and other property and 
went his way to halt before he got to Macon because the war 
was ended. The pity of it all was that neither they nor our 
side knew when they destroyed Columbus that hostilities had 
ceased. Space forbids going into the military history of Colum- 
bus in reconstruction days. It would be a long story, and to 
all of us a sad story. Let it pass. Not till 1898, when we were 
at war with Spain did we have soldiers. Then we had a 
brigade and the streets, then as now, were full of *'our men." 
Columbus sent her full complement to fight in this war. And 
now we have "our men" again. May they come, to be always 
in this patriotic old town! I have been asked by some (only 
a few, thank God), why revive such memories? My answer 
is because memory is the root of all the powers of man. Civili- 
zation is memory. Honor is memory. Religion is memory. 
Blot out memory and nothing is left us. It has been well said 
that all the beauty and profit of our future grow out of the 
past as flowers and fruit grow out of the ground. Only by 
looking back can we go forward. 


■^RhY 11 

niie Capture of 4ie U. S. Steamer "Water WitcK" 
in Ossabaw Sound, Ga., June 2-3, 1864 


In the latter part of May, 1864, an expedition was planned 
and suggested to the Confederate authorities at the head of 
the forces defending the City of Savannah and the neighboring 
territory which, for boldness in its design and the completeness 
of its arrangement, insuring its success, has seldom been sur- 
passed and not frequently equalled. While it is true that many 
like performances have been proposed, they have not often 
been* adopted, because of a lack of faith in their success. The 
incident referred to was remarkable for the secrecy with 
which it was designed and carried out, as well as the absolute 
obedience to orders in their most minute detail on the part 
of every one in whom the confidence of the leader was imposed. 
The event to which we allude is the seizing of the United States 
blockading steamer "Water Witch" in Ossabaw Sound, Geor- 
gia, beginning late in the night of the second of June, 1864, 
and ending successfully in the early morning of the third. It 
is true that the expedition was successful in the accomplish- 
ment of the object aimed at by its leader. Lieutenant Com- 
mander Thomas P. Pelot, but it was at the cost of the life of 
that gallant and brave officer. Let us get at some facts in 
the life of the man and see how he obtained his experience 
in the duties of a naval officer. 

Born in South Carolina, and appointed from that state 
to the old United States Navy, young Pelot resigned on the 
eleventh of January, 1861, to take part in the impending con- 
flict between the states, choosing rather to serve his beloved 
Southland than to fight against her interests, even though the 
prospects for rapid promotion in the latter cause seemed cer- 
tain. He was commissioned as first lieutenant in the Con- 
federate States Navy March 26, 1861, and another commission 
as first lieutenant was given him, dated October 23, 1862, to 
rank from the second of that month. 


On the nineteenth of May, 1862, Mr. Mallory, Secretary 
of the Navy of the Confederate States, issued an order to 
Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall, then commanding the naval de- 
fenses of Richmond and vicinity, to proceed to Savannah, Ga., 
and resume the command of the naval defenses of the State of 
Georgia, and on the sixteenth of September, of the same year, 
Commodore Tattnall, by order from the Secretary of the Navy, 
instructed Lieutenant-Commanding Thomas P. Pelot to take 
command of the Confederate steamer Savannah. In less than 
a month from the latter date, that is to say on October 9th, 
Lieutenant Pelot was ordered by the Commodore to ''proceed 
with the steamer Savannah, under your command, to the an- 
chorage between Forts Jackson and Cheves, and be ready at 
all times to man the naval battery (Fort Cheves) with the 
crew of the Savannah''. Then, on the third of November, 
the lieutenant, while on duty off Fort Jackson, was served 
with the commodore's command to "sweep the place in the 
river where the fire rafts were placed with your small boats 
until you recover the anchors and chains which were used to 
moor those rafts." (Naval War Records, Series i, vol. 13, 
pp. 806, 807, 812, 815). 

About six months after the last mentioned order, on the 
twenty-first of May, 1863, Lieutenant Pelot was in command 
of another steamer, as shown by an order from W. A. Webb, 
"Commanding afloat, on board C. S. S. Atlanta, Savannah 
river," to "proceed to city with the steamer Oconee and make 
all dispatch in repairing the smokestack. You will also render 
all assistance to Lieutenant (C. Lucian) Jones in fitting out 
the C. S. S. Savannah." Just a week after Commander Webb 
ordered Lieutenant Pelot "to place coal with dispatch on board 
the Oconee and on Saturday next you will proceed with the 
Oconee to the obstructions and report to me." (Naval War 
Records, series i, vol. 14, pp. 698-703.) 

Nearly three weeks later, on the eighth of June, W. A. 
Webb, then "Commanding Naval Squadron on C. S. S. Atlanta, 
off Thunderbolt," reported to Secretary Mallory that Commo- 
dore Tattnall had shown him a dispatch from the Secretary 


of the Navy, relating to the plan of using the steamer Oconee 
for important service to the government, and that he (Webb) 
had that day transferred her, with the two engineers, to his 
(Tattnall's) command. (Naval War Records, Series i, vol. 
14, p. 709.) 

The next day Commander Webb issued an order to Lieu- 
tenant Pelot, C. S. Navy, commanding the C. S. S. Oconee, off 
Thunderbolt, to proceed to Savannah and ''Report to Flag 
Officer Tattnall, and inform him that you are ordered to turn 
over to him the steamer Oconee and the officers and crew, with 
the exception of yourself and Assistant Surgeon (Theodosius 
B.) Eprd and Midshipman (Wm. D.) Goode, and the men and 
boys who remain after the crew of the Savannah are selected. 
After you have delivered the officers and crew of the steamer 
to Commodore Tattnall, you will return with the remainder 
and take charge of the steamer Resolute lying off Thunderbolt." 
(Naval War Records, Series i, vol. 14, pp. 709-710.) 

We next find Lieutenant Pelot mentioned as commanding a 
vessel of peculiar construction, built at Savannah with the ex- 
pectation that she would be a most formidable war machine, 
almost indestructible, and capable of doing great damage to 
war vessels of the enemy. The mistake in her construction is 
pointed out in the report which will now be quoted. On 
the thirtieth of June, 1863, Commodore William Wallace 
Hunter was flag officer at Savannah, and his flagship was the 
steamer Savannah, from which he that day reported to the 
Secretary of the Navy regarding the several vessels assigned 
to his command, from which this paragiaph is taken: 'The 
Georgia, ironclad floating battery (nine guns), Lieutenant- 
Commanding T. P. Pelot, contributes the chief naval defense 
at the obstructions below the city, and is moored near them. 
Her steam power is scarcely adequate to propel her at the 
slowest rate. Her battery is in serviceable condition, and the 
crew well drilled at her battery, and are in good discipline." 
Two days after this Commodore Hunter, reporting to Secre- 
tary Mallory, mentioned the fact that Pelot was a young 
lieutenant, and suggested that he "may be more appropriately 


placed elsewhere." (Naval War Records, Series i, vol. 14, 
pp. 714, 717.) His further work will now engage our attention. 

In the closing days of the month of May, 1864, it was 
whispered among a circle of officers and men, to a certain 
degree in touch with the heads of the army and navy on duty 
in Savannah, that preparations were in progress looking 
to an attack by night, in the near future, on the vessels com- 
posing the blockading squadron on the coast. In this small num- 
ber of persons not actually of the consulting body were a few 
members of the Signal Corps who, by reason of the knowledge 
gained through the transmission at their hands of telegrams, 
both by flag signals and by telegraph, had information which 
they were forbidden to mention. Among them was the present 
writer, who just then was one of the two telegraph operators, 
from the Signal Corps, on duty at the headquarters of General 
Lafayette McLaws, in Oglethorpe Barracks, where the DeSoto 
hotel now stands. The other operator was Mr. Henry M. 
Stoddard. It was pretty well fixed in the minds of those who 
could in any way communicate with each other on the subject, 
that the time for action on the part of those selected for the 
service was actually at hand on the last day of the month, and 
the feeling of anxiety was intense. Who suggested the plan 
is not known ; but it is quite positive that Lieut. Pelot was, 
from the first, designated as the leader of the attacking party. 
At that time Commodore William Wallace Hunter had assumed 
command of the small navy of the Confederacy in the vicinity 
of Savannah, and he organized the expedition, placing Lieu- 
tenant Joseph Price second in charge under Pelot. There were 
seven boats, manned by fifteen officers and one hundred and 
seventeen men. 

At that period the Confederate iron-clad Georgia was 
moored in the river near Fort Jackson. She was a vessel 
built with money contributed by the ladies of Savannah, in- 
tended as a ram, and covered with railroad iron. Her builder 
was Henry F. Willink, Jr., an experienced ship-builder of 
Savannah, and she was a formidable engine of war in the form 
of a stationary battery; but unfortunately, as already shown, 


she was so heavy that the engines placed in her could not give 
her the power to move through the water except at a very 
slow rate. Because of the manner through which she was 
constructed she was at first known as 'The Ladies' Gunboat", 
but her name was changed to Georgia. The point from which 
the expedition was to start was the mooring of the Georgia, 
and the time of starting the afternoon of the 31st of May. 
The boats were towed to the Isle of Hope battery, whence 
they rowed to the battery at Beaulieu, where they remained 
that night. 

It^was probably not known at the beginning just which one 
of the vessels composing the blockading squadron would be 
attacked, but scouts sent out reported that one of them was 
at anchor in Little Ogeechee river, close under Racoon Key, 
and she was selected for the fight. She proved to be the Water 
Witch. Before we proceed with an account of the attack, let 
us learn something of the history of this boat. 

The date of her building is not known to this writer, and 
the first time of any service she performed, so far as he can 
ascertain, was, according to J. Thomas Scharf, in his "History 
of the Confederate States Navy", page 645, where he mentions 
her as a fine side-wheel steamer, a favorite ship of the navy, 
mounting four guns, adding that she was used in the Paraguay 
War of 1855. Scharf also makes note of the fact that the 
service of the Water Witch as a blockade runner was enhanced 
by her ''speed and handiness". Commander A. T. Mahan, the 
writer of a small volume in a series of books on "The Navy 
in the Civil War", said volume bearing the title "The Gulf and 
Inland Waters", after mentioning the fact that the Water 
Witch, before her transfer to the Georgia coast, was stationed 
in the Mississippi district, described her as "A small side-wheel 
steamer of under four hundred tons, with three light guns, 
then commanded by Lieutenant Francis Winslow". In 
the "Naval War Records", series i, vol. 17, pp. 14-16, we find 
reports showing that she was, from December 25 to 2y, 1861, 
in service in Mobile Bay, when she was commanded by Lieu- 
tenant-Commanding A. K. Hughes ; and the same volume, page 


34, shows that on the last day of that month she was on duty 
still in the Mississippi Sound. Again, in the same volume, 
page 183, a report from Lieutenant Hughes, dated ''at sea", 
March 6, 1862, addressed to Secretary of the Navy, Gideon 
Welles, stated that, with the Water Witch he had captured, 
on the 5th instant, off St. Andrew's Bay, the schooner William 
Mallory, as a prize. We find, in the same volume, page 200, 
a report from Flag-officer Wm. W. McKean, commanding 
Eastern Gulf Squadron, to Secretary Welles that he had dis- 
patched the Water Witch to Philadelphia, ''with instructions 
to Lieutenant-Commanding Hughes to report to the Secretary 
of the Navy immediately". 

The next item, taken from volume 13, is a little more 
definite. On page 355 information is given that on the 3d of 
October, 1862, Commander Charles Steedman, then stationed 
in the St. John's river, reported to Rear Admiral DuPont that 
the Water Witch and two other boats had been sent up the 
river "to feel the batteries at St. John's Bluff, the enemy hav- 
ing been busily engaged several days on some work in and 
around the old battery". The report showed that "the enemy" 
promptly responded to the firing of the boats "with great 
accuracy as to the range" ; and shortly after he "had the result 
hoisted", and the vessels returned out of the range of the 
enemy. More than three months afterward, January 24, 1863, 
Rear Admiral DuPont reported from Port Royal, South Caro- 
lina, to Secretary Welles that "The steamer Water Witch met 
with a serious accident whereby her upper cylinder head has 
been rendered useless". (Naval War Records, series i, vol. 
13, p. 535) ; then, on the 8th of February, Austin Pendergrast, 
who had been placed in command of the steamer, wrote from 
New York harbor to the Secretary of the Navy as follows: 
"In obedience to an order from Rear Admiral S. F. DuPont, 
I have the honor to report the arrival of the U. S. S. Water 
Witch at this port". (Same vol., p. 649.) It took some time 
to make the necessary repairs, and it was not until the 14th of 
June that Admiral DuPont, at Port Royal, informed the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, at Washington, of "the arrival here of the 


U. S. S. Water Witch, Lieutenant-Commander A. Pender- 

We now come to the point where the steam vessel whose 
name has so frequently been mentioned reached the locality 
of the scene to which the foregoing statements are but the 
introduction, and where her operations as an instrument of 
warfare ended with her capture and with disaster to her crew. 
A number of attacks had been made by the monitors and other 
vessels of the blockading fleet on Fort McAllister, Beaulieu 
Battery, and other points occupied by the Confederates ; and 
it was decided at headquarters in Savannah that an attack 
should be made on the squadron, with the hope that at least 
one of the vessels could be taken, or destroyed, and the enemy 
thereby weakened in no inconsiderable 'degree. The plan sug- 
gested and agreed upon was to send a boat expedition down 
the Vernon river in the darkness of the night, the boats to be 
allowed to drift with the falling tide, so as to avoid the noise 
of oars in rowing as far as possible, and the men composing 
the attacking party were well chosen and thoroughly drilled 
as to any emergency that might arise. The name of the person 
from whom the proposition first came will in all probability 
remain a secret forever. The detail for the expedition was 
made by Commodore William Wallace Hunter, and the infor- 
mation concerning the boats and their crews has already been 
given. Scouts had reported that one of the vessels composing 
the blockaders, which proved to be the Water Witch, was 
usually anchored in a solitary position, and she was singled 
out for the attack. 

Early in the morning of the 3d of June, the news began 
to spread throughout the City of Savannah that an expedition, 
planned by the Confederate Navy officials, had, during the 
night just closed, made a strong effort to capture one of the 
ships of war then blockading the Georgia coast; that the at- 
tack had been stoutly resisted ; and that not only the boat con- 
taining the leader of the attacking party but all the others, 
save one, had been taken by the enemy with the loss of the 
life of our leader and others. The news came from the crew 


of the escaped boat who believed all that they had reported. 
Sad countenances were to be seen everywhere, and no doubt 
of the truth of the report was felt by any one. But later in 
the day the people heard a different tale, and sad countenances 
gave way to expressions of joy, and words of congratulation 
were exchanged on all sides. As the truth became known all 
rejoiced over the gallant and successful conduct of that portion 
of the little band of Confederates who stood manfully at the 
post of duty, gaining a victory of which they had reason to 
be proud, little dreaming that a few had turned back in the 
belief that all had been lost. Mingled with the rejoicing, how- 
ever, was a feeling of grief that some had met death in the 
hour of victory, and that the brave leader himself had paid 
with his useful life for the glory which he himself so nobly 
helped to win, but in the celebration of which he could take 
no part. 

And here, with the reader's permission, the writer will 
change the form of the narrative from the third to the first 
person. I had been among the first to be detailed from the 
headquarters of the Signal Corps to the camp of instruction 
in telegraphy, and early learned to read messages by sound. 
I was then attached to the headquarters of General Lafayette 
McLaws, as before said, but that day I was off duty. I strolled 
into the office of the Corps, at the foot of Lincoln Street, on 
the Bay, to get some sort of supplies for my office and was 
conversing with some of my comrades, when, suddenly, the 
call for the Savannah office sounded from the Beaulieu station, 
coupled with the startling words ''Very Important". We were 
all (several being present) much agitated, and the officer in 
charge, nodding to me, said "Take it down !" I did not hesi- 
tate, and, calling to a brother member to write, I received and 
called out to him the following: 

"Beaulieu, June 3, 1864. 
"To Flag Officer W. W. Hunter, 
Savannah, Ga. 

"At 8 o'clock p. m., the expedition got under v/ay and 
formed two columns. Boats Nos. i, 3, 5, and 7, composing 


the port column, 2, 4, and 6, the starboard column; Lieut. 
Thomas P. Pelot, commanding, with Assistant Engineer 
Caldwell, C. S. N., and Moses Dallas (colored) pilot, led in 
boat I ; Lieut. Price, with Master's Mate Gray and Second As- 
sistant Engineer Fabian, in No. 2; Midshipman Minor, with 
Master's Mate Freeman, in boat No. 3 ; Midshipman Trimble, 
in boat No. 4; Boatswain Seymour, with Master's Mate Bar- 
clay, in boat No. 5 ; Master's Mate H. Colder, with Assistant 
Surgeon Thomas, in boat No. 6; Master's Mate Rostler, with 
Assistant Surgeon Jones, in boat No. 7; and proceeded with 
muffled oars to the spot where we supposed the enemy's vessel 
to be. On arriving, we found that she had either shifted her 
anchorage or that we had been mistaken as to her position. 
After searching in vain till nearly daylight, Lieut. Pelot ordered 
Boatswain Seymour, with one man, to remain on Racoon Keys 
as scouts, and the expedition to return to camp at Beaulieu 

*'On the next day (June 2), at 9 o'clock p. m., we got under 
way and proceeded to Racoon Keys, where we took on board 
our scouts, who reported that one of the enemy's vessels was 
lying in Ossabaw Sound, about three miles from where we were. 
After waiting there until midnight we were ordered to get 
under way and pull cautiously. The night being dark and 
rainy we got close aboard of her without being discovered. 
On being hailed, Lieut. Pelot answered we were 'rebels' and 
gave the order to 'board her'. The vessel having steam up at 
the time, as soon as the alarm was given, commenced turning 
her wheels backwards and forwards rapidly, thus thwarting 
the earnest efforts of Boatswain Seymour and Master's Mate 
Rostler to get on board with the entire boat's crew. 

'The port column, led by Lieut. Pelot, boarded on the port 
side ; the starboard column, led by Lieut. Price, boarded on the 
starboard side. In coming alongside, the enemy's fire with small 
arms was quite severe; in fact it was during that time, and 
while the boarding netting, which was triced up, was being cut 
through, that the most of our loss in killed and wounded was 
sustained. After a sharp hand-to-hand fight of some ten 


minutes, the ship was taken. Lieut. Pelot was the first to 
gain the deck, and while bravely fighting was shot and instantly 
killed. In his death the country has lost a brave and gallant 
officer, and society one of her highest ornaments. 

'The command then devolved upon me, and I proceeded 
forthwith to extricate the vessel from the position she was then 
in to avoid recapture by the enemy. Our pilot having been 
killed before the boats reached the side of the ship, I sought 
for the enemy's pilot and found that he was too badly wounded 
to assist me, but finally procured one of the quartermasters, 
whom I compelled to pilot me to the upper end of Racoon 
Key, where, at the top of high water, the ship grounded. I then 
found it necessary to lighten her, which I did by throwing 
overboard some barrels of beef and pork, a few coils of hemp 
rigging, the remainder of the chain, which I had slipped as 
soon as we took the vessel, and lowering two of the guns in 
the boats. On getting ashore I immediately landed the killed, 
wounded and prisoners at Beaulieu Battery. At 4 o'clock 
p. m., having in the meantime obtained a pilot from the shore, 
I succeeded in getting off and anchored her at 7 o'clock p. m., 
under the guns of Beaulieu Battery above the obstructions 
when Lieut. W. W. Carnes, C. S. N., by your order, arrived 
on board and assumed command. 

"In the darkness and confusion on board it was impossible 
for me to observe each and every man ; but I will state, with 
pride, every one, officers and men, did their duty most gal- 
lantly. I would state, however, that I owe my life to E. D. 
Davis, ordinary seaman of the C. S. steamer Savannah, he 
having cut down every opponent when I was sorely pressed 
'by them. 

''Boatswain's Mate J. Perry, of the steamer Sampson, ren- 
dered me most valuable assistance in lightening the vessel and 
general duties on board. The former, although severely 
wounded, remained on deck as long as he could." 

The report was signed by Lieutenant Joseph Price. 

The night was dark and stormy, and while the conflict was 
raging flashes of lightning occasionally enabled the fighters to 


determine how to act. Two of the officers of the Water Witch, 
Commander Pendergrast and Master Charles W. Buck, in their 
reports charged the officer of the deck, E. D. Parsons, with 
taking refuge below deck. It has been stated that the two 
commanders, Pelot and Pendergrast, came face to face and 
actually crossed swords. As seen by officer Price's report, 
the death of Pelot did not cause any confusion, or bring about 
any hiteh in the plans previously mapped out, so completely 
were they prepared. The Federal reports commended the 
Confederates on the manner in which the affair was planned 
and carried out. The casualties on the Confederate side were : 
Lieut. Thomas P. Pelot, Gunner Pat Lotin, Seamen W. R, 

Jones, James Stapleton, Crosby and Pilot Moses Dallas. 

Wounded : Lieutenant Joseph Price, Midshipman Minor, Boat- 
swain Seymour, Surgeon's Steward Harley, and 

Seamen J. R. Rice, J. Barrett, A. McDonald, E. J. Murphy, 

A. Williams, T. King, and Champion. The Federals 

lost two killed and twelve were wounded. 

A most interesting incident in connection with this matter 
is the part borne by the colored man, Moses Dallas. He was 
a pilot, skilled in his business, and held in the highest esteem 
by all who were connected with the little naval force stationed 
about Savannah. That he was reliable and well thought of 
is shown by the following extract from a letter written June 
5, 1863, by Commander John K. Mitchell to officer W. A. 
Webb, in which, after authorizing the placing of Pilot James 
Fleetwood on the same footing as other pilots employed by 
Webb, he added : ''Your action in increasing the pay of Moses 
Dallas, colored pilot, from $80.00 to $100.00 is hereby ap- 

General Sam Jones, on the 4th of June, telegraphed from 
Charleston to General S. Cooper, at Richmond, "Night before 
last the U. S. gunboat Water Witch, of four guns, was cap- 
tured, after a sharp fight, in Ossabaw Sound, by a naval party, 
organized by Commodore Hunter". (Official Records of the 
Union and Confederate Armies, series i, vol. 35, part i, p. 
404.) In the second part of the volume just quoted, page 116, 


will be found a letter from Brig. Gen. Jno. P. Hatch, at Hilton 
Head, June 7, to Asst. Adjt. Gen'l W. L. M. Burgen, Wash- 
ington, containing this request: "Will you please call the at- 
tention of the General Commanding to the necessity of an in- 
creased naval force in Calibogue Sound, since the capture by 
the rebels of the Water Witch f'' The appendix to the Annual' 
Report of Secretary of the Navy Welles for 1864, dated 
December 5th, contains the reports of all the U. S. officials who 
were required to make them on this subject. Rear Admiral 
J. A. Dahlgren made two reports, Lieutenant-Commander 
Austin Pendergrast, of the Water Witch^ two (one written from 
Savannah while he was a prisoner, by courtesy of the Confed- 
erate authorities), Acting Masters Lewis West and Chas. W. 
Buck, Lieutenant-Commander E. E. Stone, Acting Assistant 
Surgeon W. H. Pierson, and Volunteer Lieutenant Wm. W. 
Kennington, two. The first of these is so interesting as coming 
from the enemy's side that it is here given in full : 

From the Official Records of the Union and Confederate 
Armies, Series I, Vol. XXXV, Part II, Pages 137-138. 

Flag Steamer Philadelphia, 
Off Morris Island, S. C, June 17, 1864. 

Maj. Gen. J. G. Foster, 

Commanding Department of the South: 
General : My attention has been drawn to the inclosed 
article, purporting to have been written by a correspondent 
in Hilton Head. It is asserted therein that the only person 
who escaped from the Water Witch gives information that not 
a shot was fired in defense. Now, the fact is that the person 
alluded to makes no such statement, but just the reverse. He 
says that there was hard fighting for half an hour, and that he 
noticed the captain (Pendergrast) three times on the quarter- 
deck encouraging his men, who were fighting briskly. He also 
says that the rebels came in on all sides. It was also known 
that the Savannah papers admitted a loss of 7 men killed and 


12 wounded. The same article is equally wide of the truth 
in stating that the Water Witch was 1,300 tons and carried 
three lOO-pounders and three 12-pounders, and was one of 
the fleetest and most valuable vessels for blockade in the 
squadron. The Water Witch was a small steamer of 378 tons 
and carried only one 30-pounder and three 12 pounders, such 
as are used in boats. Her full crew only amounted to 82 men, 
and of*this small number she was 14 men short when taken, 
which would not have been the case if the quota of men ex- 
pected from the troops of this department had been supplied ; 
whereas not a man was received until you took command, 
and now only 50 to this date, which will not begin to fill defi- 
ciencies. She was a convenient vessel on account of her 
draught, being less than 10 feet, but it is absurd to speak of 
her as a fast or valuable vessel. She was of moderate speed, 
probably not nine knots, and was only of account in compari- 
son with other vessels that have no steam. Her trifling arma- 
ment and number of men gave her little importance. 

Whatever want of vigilance may have existed, all the in- 
formation we have goes to show that it was redeemed by a 
sharp resistance against superior numbers. The official rebel 
report which has reached here states that the fighting was 
hard. , 

I hope that the writer of the notice may be called to account 
for these statements. They are untrue and unjust to the char- 
acter of the commander, officers and crew of the Water Witch, 
who, being prisoners, are unable to say anything in their own 
behalf ; coming, too, from persons within the military juris- 
diction, they so far receive sanction as to endanger ill- 
feelings between the two services. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient 

J. A. DAHLGREN, Rear- Admiral 

Comdg. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. 



It seems proper to state here that "the only person who 
escaped from the Water JVitcli' , referred to in the foregoing, 
was a "contraband" named Peter Mcintosh. 

It is strange that Admiral Dahlgren, while, like all the 
other interested persons so sorely felt the loss of the little 
steamer, after her capture changed his estimate of her value 
and speed. Before her loss to the United States there seems 
to have been no doubt that she was a favorite because of her 
"speed and handiness". That her loss was considered a great 
misfortune may be gathered from the many references to her 
by all of the writers, but it is brought out with stronger em- 
phasis in the following instructions contained in an order 
from Acting Rear Admiral S. P. Lee, June 23, 1864, to Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Babcock, regarding operations in the Pa- 
munkey river : "Be vigilant at all times against surprise from 
the enemy's boats. The recent capture of the Water Witch, 
which had the usual boarding nettings up, impresses the neces- 
sity of having wire nettings and wire ridge ropes for them, 
as used in the Potomac Flotilla, and these you are authorized 
to require for your permanent vessels. Single vessels are very 
subject to assault". (Naval War Records, series i, vol. 10, 

p. 198.) 

Commodore Daniel Ammen, in his book, "The Atlantic 
Coast" (page 149), forming the 2d volume of the series on 
"The Navy in the Civil War," thus writes of this incident: 

"On June 3, 1864, the Water Witch, Commander Pender- 
grast, blockading in Ossabaw Sound, was boarded and cap- 
tured, only one man (a "contraband") escaping. Seven cotton 
barges, carrying 150 men, approached the vessel, the night 
being dark and squally ; they were, in fact, alongside almost as 
soon as discovered, and although boarding nettings were up, 
the vessel soon became a prize. The Water Witch lost i man 
killed, 13 wounded, and 2 missing. The Confederates lost 
their leader, Lieutenant Pelot of their navy, 8 or 10 killed, 
and 15 or 20 wounded". 


We will now leave off any further accounts of the capture 
of the vessel. The reports are nearly all alike, with minor 
variations, none of them of sufficient importance to repeat. 
We have given the facts at hand in regard to the career of 
Liuetenant Pelot. It is proper, then, to close this article with 
extracts from writers who can furnish information in relation 
to the experience during his connection with the U. S. Navy 
of Commander Austin Pendergrast. 

The Water Witch was commanded by Austin Pendergrast 
who, at the time of her capture, as we have seen (as we learn 
from a book compiled by Lewis R. Hammersly, of the U. S. 
Marine Corps, and published by J. B. Lippincott & Co., of 
Philadelphia, in 1870, giving "The Records of Living Officers 
of the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps ; with a History of Naval 
Operations During the Rebellion of 1861-5"), was appointed to 
the U. S. Naval Academy from Kentucky. Before entering, 
he was attached to razee Independence, of the Mediterranean 
squadron, then to the frigate Columbia, of the home squadron, 
and his term in the Academy began in 1854, and, as passed 
midshipman, he was transferred to the Coast Survey the same 
year. Promoted from time to time, he held a position on the 
frigate Congress at the time she was sunk by the Confederate 
ram Merrimac, taking command when, during the engagement, 
Lieut. Joseph Smith was killed. He was commissioned as 
lieutenant-commander July 16, 1862, and commanded the 
Water Witch, of the South Atlantic blockading squadron, from 
that time until she was captured by a party of Confederates, 
led by Lieut. Thomas P. Pelot, in Ossabaw Sound, on the night 
of June 2, 1864. The author from whom the facts just given 
are taken falsely states that the Confederate attacking party 
was "a large body of rebels". 

As to the part taken by Lieutenant Pendergrast in thf 
sinking of the frigate Congress by the Confederate ram Mer- 
rimac, referred to in the preceding paragraph, we give the fol- 
following extracts from ^'Recollections of a Naval Officer" by 
Captain W. H. Parker, of the Confederate States Navy, who 
commanded the Beaufort at that time. Before quoting from 


Parker, however, let us make this statement : After the death 
of Lieutenant Joseph Smith, of the Congress, and her colors 
were struck, Lieutenant Parker was ordered to the ship to 
receive her surrender, and of this incident President Jefferson 
Davis, in his "Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government", 
vol. IT, page 198, says: "The flag of the ship and the sword 
of its then comander were delivered to Lieutenant Parker, by 
whom they were subsequently sent to the Navy Department 
at Richmond". The words of Parker now follow: 

"At midnight the Congress blew up. According to the 
report of Lieutenant Pendergrast she had been on fire from 
the beginning of the action; and Medical Director Shippen, 
who from his station would be likely to know, says: *We 
were on fire in the sick bay, in the main hold, and under the 
ward room near the after magazine. Some of these fires were 
extinguished, but the most dangerous one, that near the after 
magazine, was never extinguished, and was the cause of the 
explosion, which, during the following night, blew the ship 
to pieces' ". ("Recollections of a Naval Officer", p. 259.) 

Again, we have this statement by Parker: 

"Upon my reporting the facts in relation to Captain Smith 
and Lieutenant Pendergrast a question was raised as to 
whether they were not prisoners on parole. Questions of the 
kind were crudely treated by our Navy Department. The 
Secretary himself was ignorant of naval laws, customs and 
precedents ; and his immediate advisers were in the same cate- 
gory. The older officers who had served in the war of 181 2, 
and whose experience gave them a knowledge of such mat- 
ters, were not consulted by him. Those about the Secretary 
were men who had not seen much service in war. It was held 
that Smith and Pendergrast had escaped, and should either 
deliver themselves up or refuse to serve until regularly ex- 
changed, I, on the contrary, insisted that they were not bound 
to do so. They had been prisoners, it is true — so had every 
officer and man of the Congress been; but I left them, and 
rafter the Beaufort left the side of the Congress they had no 
opportunity of getting back to her and they escaped to the 


shore as the others did. The officers and men of the Con- 
federate man-of-war Alabama escaped, after her capture by 
the U. S. S. ship Kearsarge, under precisely the same circum- 
stances — the enemy failed to take possession of them. 

''Some time after, when Pendergrast was unfortunate 
enough to be captured in the Water Witch, a question was 
raised in Savannah, where he had been taken, as to his conduct 
in reference to the Congress affair. I immediately wrote to 
Commodore Tattnall, commanding the station, completely ex- 
onerating him from any unofticerlike or improper conduct on 
that occasion. 

*T justified his action in every particular. Commodore 
Barron was a prisoner at the time, and if I had held Captain 
Smith could have been exchanged for him ; but as I have said, 
I did not know it was Captain Smith; not expecting to see a 
senior officer to the lieutenant, who said he commanded the 
ship. No one regretted more than I did that the result could 
not have been different; but I should have permitted him to 
return to the Congress, under the circumstances, if he had 
combined in himself the entire Smith family". ('Recollections 
of a Naval Officer", pp. 269-270). 

The Water Witch was, as Scharf says, "enrolled in the 
Confederate naval force," but her loss to the enemy was one of 
those incidents which caused more than ordinary bitterness, 
and, for fear that she might at som^e time slip out and do some 
damage to her former owners, great care was taken to have 
a close watch set upon her, and she was never able to evade 
the vigilance of the blockaders, and she was consequently of 
no service to her captors. She was destroyed at the time 
Sherman took possession of Savannah. Pendergrast was tried 
by court-martial, found guilty of culpable inefficiency in the 
discharge of duty, in not taking necessary precautions to save 
the vessel from a surprise attack, and suffered the penalty 
recommended in his case by the court trying him. 


Georgia Historical Societ}?, Eightietn Annual Meeting 

Savannah, Ga., February i8, 1919. 

The eightieth annual meeting of Georgia Historical Society 
was held at Hodgson Hall this day at 8 130 p. m. 

Mr. William W. Mackall, the president, presided, and 
Charles F. Groves, the secretary, acted as secretary of the 


The Minutes of the seventy-ninth annual meeting, held 
February 12, 1918, were read and confirmed. 

The president read his annual report. 


Secretary-Treasurer — The report of the Secretary-Treas- 
urer showing the condition of the finances, covering period for 
twelve months ended January 31, 19 19, was read. He also 
submitted report showing the number of different classes of 
members, with comparison as to the number of members on 
the rolls of the society at the same time last year. As Treas- 
urer of Telfair Trust Fund he read a report covering the 
financial operations of the Telfair Academv of Arts and Scien- 
ces during the past year. All of these reports were ordered 

Telfair Academy — Mr. Alexander R. Lawton^ Chairman 
of the Managing Committee of Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, presented the annual report for the committee. It 
deals with attendance, acquisitions and exhibitions, finances, 
printing of new catalogues, and the death of Abraham L. Mon- 
gin, janitor for the Academy for 36 years. In respect to Mon- 
gin the society approved the 1 ecommendation of the commit- 


tee that the society arrange to place at his g^rave a suitable 
headstone recording his faithful service. The report was 
ordered received and filed. 

Finance Committee — The report of the Finance Commit- 
tee was submitted by its chairman, Mr. J. Florance Minis. 
No action was taken on the recommendation that the society 
authorize the treasurer to withdraw from the saving^s account 
of the Permanent Fund a sufficient amount to liauidate cur- 
rent expenses in case collection of dues could not be made 
promptly. The report was ordered received. 

Librarian — Mr. William Harden reported as librarian, so 
also did he render a report as chairman of the Committee on 
Printing and Publishing. These reports were ordered re- 

Corresponding Secretary — As Corresponding Secretary Mr. 
Otis Ashmore submitted a report, which was ordered received. 

Committee on Library — The Chairman of the Committee 
on Library, Mr. Otis Ashmore, submitted the annual report 
for the committee. It was ordered received. 


Applications for membership were received from Mrs. 
Walter S. Wilson and Capt. F. D. Bloodworth. both of Savan- 
nah. By unanimous consent the rules were suspended and the 
secretary was authorized to cast the ballot for their election. 
This was done, and they were declared active members of the 


Mr. William Harden brought to the attention of the meet- 
ing the death of one of the honorarv members of the society, 
Samuel A. Green, of Massachusetts, who died at Groton on 
December 5, 1918. 



Mr. Mackall, the president, announced that the next order 
of business was the election of five curators to succeed Messrs. 
Otis Ashmore, W. W. DeRenne, H. R. Goetchius, DuPont 
Guerry and Alexander R. Lawton, whose terms would expire 
with this meeting ; and in passing to this business Mr. Mackall 
stated to the meeting what he had previously made known to 
the curators, namely, that on account of his longf and frequent 
absences from Savannah he would not permit his name to be 
considered for re-election as president, and that the question 
of selecting another president would be one of the duties of 
the Board of Curators. 

The following named gentlemen were proposed as cura- 
tors, voted upon, and declared unanimouslv elected curators 
of the society to serve until 1922 : 







CHARLES F. GROVES, Secretary. 

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences— Annual 
Report of Managing Committee 

Savannah, Ga., Februarv 12, 1919. 
To the Georgia Historical Society: 

The Managing Committee of the Telfair Academy of Arts 
and Sciences submits its annual report for the vear ending 
February ist. 


The attendance for the year has been 4,974 against 6,701 
for the preceding year, and 12,529 for the vear ended February 


12, 1917. Attention was called in the last annual report to the 
fact that the 1916-17 attendance was abnormally large on 
account of the Melchers exhibit and other exhibits. The fall- 
ing off in attendance as against last year is attributable to war 


There were no acquisitions and no exhibits during the year. 
With the approval of the Board of Curators the Managing 
Committee carried out a policy of inactivity while the country 
was at war, making the Academy free of debt, and accumu- 
lating a surplus, with a view to the possibility at some time 
in the future of having on hand sufficient funds to acquire one 
or more objects of art of greater market value than those which 
have heretofore been within our reach. We are now without 
an expert art adviser. We have an excellent and creditable 
collection, and nothing can be lost by waiting until, from the 
standpoint of both finances and expert advice, we are able to 
add to it with intelligent discrimination. 

There are now in this country many interesting exhibits 
of war pictures by both American and foreign artists. The 
committee is making inquiries and will lose no opportunity 
to bring one or more of them to the Academy if it be possible 
to do so. 

Mrs. Thomas H. Bowles, of Baltimore, wishes to place in 
the Academy, at her own risk, the portrait of Mr. Bowles, by 
Gari Melchers. We are more than glad to receive it, and this 
valuable addition will soon be on our walls. 


During the year we finally paid in full, principal and in- 
terest, the $1,500 loan made several years ago by the Georgia 
Historical Society, and the Academy is now free of debt. We 
purchased a $1,000 Fourth Liberty Loan Bond, and at a cost 


of $842 War Savings Certificates having a maturity value of 


Cash balance February i, 1919 $3,273.78 

Fourth Liberty Loan Bond 1,000.00 

War Savings Certificates 8zL2.oo 

Total cash and available securities 5,11.^.78 

Cash balance Feb. i, 1918 3,580.75 

Increase i,S35-03 

Add decrease in liabilities i.^oo.oo 

Year's increase in net current assets .^,035-03 

The annual report of the Treasurer is submitted, and shows 

In renewing the burglar and fire alarm service we were 
compelled to contract at an increased price. The annual co"t 
from May 13, 1918, is $180 per annum. The service is essen- 
tial and is believed to be worth its price. 


It is appropriate that the committee should record the death 
on January 25, 1919, of Abraham L. Mongin, the negro janitor 
who had served the Academy for 36 years. He was conscien- 
tious, trustworthy, diligent and efficient, and it will be diffi- 
cult to fill his place. The placing at his grave of a suitable 
headstone recording his faithful service is sugjrested for your 


The supply of catalogues is exhausted. A new edition 
of 1,500 catalogues similar to the last is now being printed 
at a cost of $200. 

Respectfully submitted for the committee, 

(Signed) A. R. LAWTON, Chairman, 


Georgia Historical Society— Special Meeting of 
Board of Curators 

Savannah, Ga., February 21, 1919. 

Pursuant to action taken at the informal meeting of the 
Board of Curators on February i8th, a special meeting of the 
Board of Curators of Georgia Historical Society was held 
at Telfair Academy at 4:30 p. m. this day, for the purpose 
of electing officers. 

Present: Mr. Otis Ashmore, Mr. T. M. Cunningham, Jr., 
Mr. Wymberley W. DeRenne, Mr. William W. Gordon, Mr. 
Alexander R. Lawton, Mr. Benjamin H. Levy, Mr. WilHam 
W. Mackall, Mr. J. Florance Minis, Mr. William W. William- 

Absent: Dr. Thomas J. Charlton, Mr. Charles Ellis, Mr. 
Lawton B. Evans, Mr. H. R. Goetchius, Mr. Alexander C. 
King, Mr. DuPont Guerry. 

Mr. Mackall took the chair and Charles F. Groves acted as 
secretary of the meeting. 

Mr. Mackall announced that the object of the meeting was 
for the purpose of electing officers, and, vacating the chair, 
Mr. Ashmore was asked to preside, after which Mr. Mackall 
nominated Mr. Alexander R. Lawton for the presidency of the 
society. The nomination was seconded, and Mr. Lawton 
tv^as unanimously elected President of Georgia Historical 
Society. The following officers were also elected to serve until 
the next annual meeting or until election of their successors : 

Thomas J. Charlton Vice President 

Otis Ashmore Vice President 

Alexander C. King Vice President 

Lawton B. Evans Vice President 


Otis Ashmore Corresponding Secretary 

Charles F. Groves Secretary and Treasurer 

William Harden Librarian and Editor 


Treasurer Telfair Trust Fund. 

Mr. Lawton took the chair and presided over the meeting 
to its conclusion. He stated that he was deeply interested in 
the Society and would put forth his best effoits to accomplish 
results. In his remarks he touched upon the publication of the 
Quarterly, the condition of the finances and the matter of in- 
ci easing the membership. To meet the demands made upon the 
treasury he stated that more active members should be put on 
the rolls, and that he recommended an addition to the standing 
committees of an active and large Committee on Membership. 
The meeting approved his recomendation. He said he would 
defer the appointment of this committee, as well as the stand- 
mg committees, until he could give the subject further con- 


Announcement was made that applications for active mem- 
bership had been received from Mr. and Mrs. M. F. Harden, 
ii8 West Huntingdon street. It was moved that the rules be 
suspended and that the secretary be authorized to cast the vote 
for the election of Mr. and Mrs. Harden. This was done, 
and they were declared unanimously elected. 


(Signed) CHARLES F. GROVES, Secretary. 

A true copy: 

Chas. F. Groves, Secretary. 


Queries and Answers 

NavTpator. — Please give me, if possible, the true date of 
the departure of the steamship Savannah from the port of 
Savannah, on her memorable trip across the Atlantic. 

Until recently it was supposed that the Savannah left the 
city on the 20th of May, 1819; but the statement in her log- 
book, which has lately appeared in print, gives the 226. as the 
date. Notwithstanding this, there is still some doubt on this 
point, and we will here present the facts as recorded at the 
time, as well as certain other items of interest in this connec- 

The Columbian Museum and Savannah Daily Gazette, of 
that period, carried the following items : 

Wednesday, May 19. — For Liverpool. — The Steamship 
Savannah, Capt. Rodgers, will, without fail, proceed for Liver- 
pool direct tomorrow. Passengers, if any offer, can be ac- 

Thursday, May 20. — An advertisement announcing that 
the Savannah would sail that day. 

Friday, May 21. — Cleared. — Steamship Savannah, Rodgers, 
St. Petersburgh, Russia. 

Monday, May 24. — The Steamship Savannah left this port 
Saturday morning last for St. Petersburgh via Liverpool. 
(Saturday was the 22nd). 

Tuesday, May 25. — Memoranda. 

The Steamship Savannah, Rodgers, left Tybee yesterday 
morning (24th) for St. Petersburgh. (The Georgian of the 
same date had the same news.) 

Tuesday, June 15. — Memoranda. 

The Steamship Savannah. Captain Brown, of the Schooner 
Union, who arrived at New York on the 4th inst., from Ma- 
deira, spoke on the 30th of May, in lat. 38:30, long. 68, the 
Steamship Savannah from this port bound to Liverpool with 
all sails set, and machinery in motion. 


Saturday, June 19. — Steamship Savannah, — When this 
vessel sailed we expected to hear that she would afford some 
amusement on her passage. The Schooner Peace and Plenty 
arrived at ^ew York, from St. Domingo, reports that on the 
28th of May, in lat. 2y 130, long. 70, saw a steam vessel which, 
when first seen, they supposed to be a ship on fire. They 
immediately bore away, to render relief, but soon found their 
mistake, as the vessel, by the help of her sails and machinery. 
was soon out of sight. — A^. Y. Com. Adv., 8th inst. 

Thursday, July i. — Memoranda. 

"The Steamship Savannah was spoken by the ship Canton, 
arrived at New York, from Liverpool, on the 5th of June, in 
lat. 43 130, 12 days out. 

The following are items taken from the Savannah Georgian : 

Saturday, June 26 — Steamship again! The ship Plato, 
Gardner, arrived at Baltimore on the 17th inst., 70 days from 
Bremen, "spoke and passed the elegant steamship Savannah'' 
on the 2nd of June, lat. 42, long. 59, 8 days out from this 
port. She passed the Plato at the rate of 9 or 10 knots, and 
Capt. Rodgers informed him that she worked remarkably 
well. The Plato gave her three cheers, and she returned the 
compliment. Success to her. 

From the Georgian, Thursday, Aug. 19, 1819: 

Steamship Savannah. — The British brig Higson (arrived 
at Norfolk on the 8th inst.) brings the intelligence of the 
arrival of the Steamship Savannah at Kinsale in 21 days from 
this port. On inquiry we found that she did not leave Tybee 
until the evening of the 25th of May — so if she arrived at 
Kinsale on the 13th of June, her passage will only have been 
17 instead of 21 days. See foreign news. 


From correspondent of the Char. City Gaz., Norfolk, Aug. 
10. — I have received no shipping list by this arrival but an 
article of great importance in the steam world, (if I may 
use the expression) is contained in the Cork paper of the 19th 


of June — it is no less than the arrival at Kinsale in 21 days of 
the Steamship Savannah, from Savannah, laden with cotton 
and passengers, she put in for supplies, would remain a day 
or two and then proceeded for Liverpool. Previous to her 
putting in she was chased by a cutter under the impression 
that she was on fire. No further particulars are stated. 

From the Georgian, Tuesday, Aug. 31, 1819: 

Extract of a letter from Liverpool to a gentleman in this 
city. — 'The Steamship Savannah arrived a few days ago, to 
the great astonishment of the people of this city. She came 
up without sails and was much admired. John Bull cannot 
bear the idea that Jonathan should be the first to sail acros.: 
ithe Atlantic, by the operation of steam — ^but it is now too 
evident to be denied. It will not be like some of our scientific 
discoveries, the origin of which have been denied to our 
people, and attempts made by even philosophers to rob us of 
our infant fame. The report is current here that this ship 
is commanded by a brother of Commodore Rodgers, and is 
intended as a present from our government to the Emperor 
Alexander; and from this wise suggestion the politicians of the 
day have augured much importance, as ''secret of ambition" 
covered hostility to the commerce of Great Britain. 

The Columbian Museum and Savannah Gazatte of Wed- 
nesday, Dec. I, 1819, mentioned the arrival of the Savannah, 
from St. Petersburgh, the evening before, in 50 days, adding 
that she brought no news. 

Editors' Notes 

With this number the Quarterly enters upon its third 
year with bright prospects for a successful career. We have 
received many letters of congratulation from readers of the 
two preceding volumes, in which the writers have expressed 
the hope that the Society may keep up its publication for an 


indefinite period. We ask, then, that our members and sub- 
scribers encourage us in our work with their hearty support 
and assistance. 

The year 1919 marks the one hundredth anniversary of 
several events of pecuHar interest and importance to the 
people of the State of Georgia. Among these is the completion- 
of the Steamship Savannah, the first vessel propelled by steam 
to cross the Atlantic. That vessel reached the city of Savannah 
in the month of April, w^as visited by President Monroe, who 
was a guest of the city at the time she was preparing for her 
experimental voyage, and began the trip in the month of May. 

While the Savannah was moored to her dock, the object of 
wonder and curiosity to many, the finishing touches were given 
to that much admired house of worship, the Independent 
Presbyterian Church, and it was solemnly dedicated by its 
beloved pastor and scholarly preacher of the Gospel, the 
Reverend Henry Kollock, D. D., on the 9th of May, the 
President of the United States, James Monroe, being present. 
Dr. Kollock was a remarkable man, and one of the most 
highly respected and honored citizens who ever made a home 
in Savannah; and any facts in connection with his life here 
must be acceptable to all Georgians. At the annual meeting 
of the Georgia Historical Society, in February, 1879, the desk 
which he used daily was presented to that Society by its then 
owner. General Henry C. Wayne, in a letter which contained 
some interesting facts. As the centennial of the building of 
the Church is to be celebrated in a manner of more than a 
local character, the letter accompanying the desk, still in the 
Society's possession, is here transcribed: 

Savannah, Ga., February 15, 1879. 
General Henry R. Jackson, President Georgia Historical 

Society, Savannah : 

My Dear General : — I have had in my possession for more 
than forty years the rosewood brass bound writing desk 


(portable) of the Rev. Henry Kollock, first pastor of the 
Independent Presbyterian Church, corner of South Broad and 
Bull Streets, in this city. Dr. Kollock procured this desk in 
England, when sent over there on business connected with 
the Presbyterian Church, and used it daily from that time to 
his death. It rested, as I remember, upon a table, open, in his 
small study, west of and opening from his dining-room, which 
was the northeast room of the dwelling on the west side of 
Wright square, corner of York street, opposite to the court 
house, and now occupied by the widow and family of the late 
Dr. P. M. Kollock. On this desk Dr. Kollock, as I was told 
by my grandmother, his widow (he was her second husband), 
wrote his sermons. After his death my grandmother kept the 
desk in daily use in her bedroom, until a short time before her 
death, when she had it put in order and gave it to me, with 
two quill pens, brown with ink and age, that Dr. Kollock had 
used, and which she lovingly cherished. The quills have dis- 
appeared in the course of time, but the desk is identically the 
same in all respects as used by Dr. Kollock, except the glass 
silver-topped ink and sand boxes, and the name-plate, which, 
having fallen out, my grandmother replaced with another on 
which she had my name cut. 

Dr. Kollock's life and reputation being so identified with 
Savannah and its Independent Presbyterian Church, the most 
perfect specimen of ecclesiastical architecture (of Saxon 
order) in the city, I know of no more fitting custodian in the 
future of his writing desk, the inanimate companion of his 
studies and compositions, than our Historical Society, if it 
will accept the trust which I now tender to the society through 
you. ' "'1 

My personal reminiscences of Dr. Kollock were few, but 
were so vividly impressed upon my mind by their nature as to 
have always remained with me fresh and distinct. Of himself, 
I have a shadowy vision before me of a portly figure attired 
in the clerical black dress of that day, long cut-away coat and 
vest, knee breeches, silk stockings, shoes and silver buckles 
surmounted by a neat white neck-tie, and florid, kindly face. 


But the circumstances of his death are as clear to my mind 
today as at the time of their occurrence. 

Awaiting the completion of his new house, then being built 
at the corner of Bull and South Broad, now in the possession 
of Mrs. W. W. Gordon, my father occupied with Dr. Kollock 
the house on Wright square already mentioned. 

My father and mother had the north bedroom, my sister 
sleeping in a crib by their bedside, while I slept in a crib by 
the bedside of my grandfather (step) and grandmother 
Kollock, in the south bedroom, over the withdrawing room. 

One morning Dr. Kollock, having risen and seated himself 
by the south window to shave, I was looking at him, interested 
in the process, his hand fell, and my grandmother, shrieking, 
jumped out of bed and ran to him. My father and mother ran 
in. I saw my father take the razor from Dr. Kollock's hand 
and lift him up, when I was snatched up and carried out of the 
room. Next, I remember people coming in and going out of 
the house crying. Escaping from the dining-room, I toddled 
upstairs, and through my grandmother's room into the little 
room leading out of it, west, where I wondered to see my 
grandfather lying on a low pallet, very white, a plate of salt 
on his breast, silver pieces on his eyes and his hands folded 
over his body. I could not understand it, and, while calling 
to him, a lady came in with a young girl, fourteen or fifteen 
years of age. The lady was crying, and the young girl, as 
soon as she saw my grandfather, threw herself on her knees 
by his side in a burst of grief. I wondered the more, and with 
a new sensation at the mass of light brown hair that fell from 
the young girl's head below her waist, completely enveloping 
her person. Was she a fairy or a girl? My gaze was fixed 
upon her hair, when some one picked me up and carried me 
off. The two, I learned subsequently, when speaking of it in 
after years to my mother, were Mrs. S. and her daughter. Miss 
Mary S. 

These are my only personal recollections of Dr. Kollock, 
but I have heard much of him from my mother, who was 


devotedly attached to him, and was his companion in many 
of his studies. 

She describes him as very methodical, preaching only one 
written sermon on Sundays, in the morning, and ex tempore 
in the afternoon, from prepared notes. On Monday morning, 
after breakfast, he went to the bank for small change, and 
devoted Monday and Tuesday to visiting the poor and the 
sick. On Wednesday and Thursday he went 'round among 
the wealthier members of his congregation. Friday and Sat- 
urday were devoted to writing his sermon and preparing his 
notes for the coming Sunday. His evenings were given to 
social intercourse with his friends at his own house, or to 
legular and accidental religious services and calls. Of course 1 
know nothing of his preaching, but I am told by tTiose who 
have heard him that to a natural gift of eloquence he added a 
highly cultivated thought and refined manner. He died young 
— a little over forty, if I recollect aright — and must have been 
a man of unusual attainments in that scholarly age to have 
won the devoted affection of his people and the high reputation 
that adorns his memory. 

My excuse for this trespass upon your time will be found 
in the attachment to the memory of one who, though not my 
ancestor, I have been taught to love and reverence as one. 











VOL. Ill No. 2 JUNE, 1919 




Address at Centennial Celebration of the Voyage 
OF the Steamship ''Savannah" _____ 
_______ B3; Alexander R. Lawton 45-60 

Address of Greeting from New London^ Conn. _ _ 

________ 53; Hon. E. E. Rogers 61^62 

Account of the Loss of the Steamer 'Tulaski" 

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ By Mrs. Hugh McLeod 6.3-95 

Editor's Notes _ _ __ _ _ ___ _ _ 96-97 







VOL. Ill No. 2 

JUNE, 1919 

Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 



OTrie Georgia Historical Quarterl}? 

Volume III JUNE, 1919 Number II 

An Address b}? Alexander R. Lawton* 

Delivered in 4\e City Hall, Sa^ar\nak, Georgia 

April 21, 1919 

QKe "Savannah," 4ie First Transatlantic SteamsKip; 

nUie **JoKn Randolph," America's First Iron Vessel; 

Savannah's Promotion of Transportation 

The year 1819 is conspicuous in Savannah's history. It 
marks not only her projection of the first steamship to cross 
the Atlantic, but two other events far in advance of their date. 
In 1 8 19 was erected the Independent Presbyterian Church, 
totally destroyed by fire seventy years later, but now repre- 
sented on the same site by its exact replica, and universally 
recognized as one of the most beautiful specimens of church 
architecture in America. In the closing days of the preceding 
year the Savannah Theatre was built and opened with a play 
which we are to reproduce in this centennial week. The 
original building though several times restored and improved 
(partly because of a disastrous fire), continues after one 
hundred years to serve the city as its principal theatre. While 
we cannot claim for it the same distinctive characteristics as 
those which mark the church, it is unique as the only American 
theatre which has been in use for a century. We are proud 
that Savannah built it in 1818, but not that we of 1919 are 
content with it! Our present taste for historical housing 
clearly needs artistic stimulation. 

*Unveiling of two memorial tablets commemorating the Centenary of the 
voyage of the "SAVANNAH", the first steamship that crossed the Atlantic, and 
the launching of the "JOHN RANDOLPH", the first iron vessel in American 


The municipality of 1819 which did these things could 
not be called a city. A census taken in September 1818 
"showed 2,564 white inhabitants, of whom 205 were strangers," 
with the incidental added information **and only twelve persons 
ill in the city". The federal census of 1820 gives the popula- 
tion as 7,523. More than half were colored, substantially all 
slaves. The white population could not have exceeded 3,500. 
Slaves being no part of the economic wealth of a community, 
and contributing practically nothing to economic progress, it 
now seems incomprehensible that this small town could either 
gather the resources or supply the energy to carry to a suc- 
cessful conclusion in one year such enterprises as this historic 
inauguration of a trans-Atlantic steam passage, the erection 
of this costly and commodious church, and the inauguration of 
a theatre which for many years must have been far too late 
for the population which it served. 

It would be an inexcusable trespass on your time to give 
here full details of the ''Savannah" and her voyage. Mr. 
Woodcroft (an Englishman) in his work on steam navigation 
pronounced her a myth, and as late as January 16, 1858, the 
London Illustrated Times claimed the honor of the first 
trans-Atlantic steam passage for an English vessel and said 
that it was forced into the belief that the ''Savannah" was 
"merely an afterthought of the Americans" ; but the facts are 
indisputably established. Not only do the English papers of 
the day give contemporary accounts of her, but the American 
Minister at London officially reported her arrival to the Secre- 
tary of State. She was built at Corlear's Hook, N. Y., by 
Crocker and Fickett; was of 380 tons burden; was launched 
Aug. 22, 1818, and thereafter converted into a steamer, with the 
adjustable paddle wheels of which so much has been said. She 
sailed from New York to Savannah in April 1819; made a 
voyage from Savannah to Charleston and return; and finally 
sailed from Savannah for Liverpool on May 22, 1819, leavmg 
Tybee on May 24. The original log book preserved in the 
United States National Museum gives only the usual brief 

^ An address by Alexander r, lawton 47 

sailor-like entries.''' She burned wood, but carried and used a 
little coal. Because of her inability to store enough fuel, and 
apparently for no other cause, she used steam for but eighty 
hours of the twenty-nine days and eleven hours from Savan- 
nah to Liverpool, the longest continuous period being eighteen 
hours. But on her voyage from Liverpool to St. Petersburg, 
where replenishment of fuel was practicable, she used steam 
for 239 hours (or about ten days out of thirty-three) with two 
continuous periods of fifty-two hours each. So far as the 
records show, nothing occurred on the entire round trip to 
condemn the practicability of her construction with the adjust- 
able paddlewheels, and with an ample supply of fuel she ap- 
parently could have made the entire voyage under steam. 

Before she sailed from Savannah, President Monroe, who 
was in the city, took the round trip to Tybee on the "Savan- 
nah", and, on the authority of an affidavit of Stevens Rogers, 
the sailing master, advised Mr. Scarbrough to eventually bring 
her to Washington ''for he thought there was no doubt the 
Government would purchase her and employ her as a cruiser 
on the coast of Cvfba". She did go to Washington, but the 
Government did not purchase her. The historic voyage was 
unprofttable. Her engines were removed and her owners sold 
]ier. She ran for awhile as a sailing packet between New York 
and Savannah, and finally vv^as lost on the Long Island shore in 
November 1822. 

It was nearly ten years before a second steamer crossed 
the Atlantic. In 1828 the steamer "Curacoa" was built by the 
Dutch for trade with the West Indies and made two voyages. 
She also proved an unprofitable venture and was taken out of 
the trade. The third steamer to cross the ocean was the 
"Royal William" (British) in 1833. 

*See the elaborate and interesting account "The Log of the Savannah" 
by J. E. Watkins, Curator of the Section of Transportation and Engineering, 
in the Report of the U. S. National Museum for year ending June 30, 1890 (Wash- 
ington, 1891), pp. 611-639, with illustrations; also Thomas Gamble's articles in 
the Savannah Morning News, Dec. 10, 1916 and March 31, 1919; also Admiral G. H. 
Preble's Chronological History of the Origin and Development of Steam Navi- 
gation (Phila. 1883 and 1895). A cylinder of the "Savannah," and later also the 
original Log Book were exhibited at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, 1853-56 in 
New York, not London, as often stated. 


The era of trans- Atlantic steam navigation may be said 
to have been fully inaugurated in the trans-Atlantic race in 
1838 between two British ships, the "SiRius'' and the ''Great 
Western", but Morrison in his History of American Steam 
Navigation tells us that there was no steamship "owned or run 
by an American Company that navigated the Atlantic ocean 
to a port in Europe until 1847", when the well-known Collins 
Line was established, beginning with the steamships **Wash- 
ington" and ''Herman". For ten years this line had the 
benefit of a mail-carrying contract with the United States 
Government* which was practically a subsidy, but when this 
was withdrawn in 1858 the effect was so disastrous that the 
line was discontinued. 

William Scarbrough, the principal promoter of the "'Sa- 
vannah'', was no ordinary man. He was a descendant of 
Josiah Cotton, a college president and minister who in 1633 
flew from Boston, England, to Massachusetts to avoid religious 
persecution, and is credited with having given the name of his 
native place to the great New England city. Scarbrough was 
born in South Carolina a few months before the date of the 
Declaration of Independence. After a liberal education at the 
University of Edinburgh he became a large planter, and a great 
merchant in the then small city which honors his memory today. 
The dignified and handsome residence which he erected here in 
1804 still stands. How appropriate that this home of an edu- 
cated gentleman, a leader in all that makes for the public good, 
should eventually find its place as part of the educational sys- 
tem of the city he loved so well, and particularly that it should 
be specially devoted to the education of the race which he knew 
only as slaves, and whose future as freeman he could never 
have foreseen. 

It has been said that the losses incurred in the trans- 
Atlantic venture bankrupted him. But this does not seem 
probable, as he was reputed to be a man of large wealth. It is 
easy to find other causes. In 1820 Savannah was visited by a 

*See the Remarks of Mr. T. Butler King, of Georgia, on Steam Mail Packet 
Service; delivered in the House of Representatives of the U. S., July 19, 1848 
(V/ashington, 1848, p. 16). 


disastrous yellow fever epidemic, a storm which did great 
damage, and a fire which destroyed practically all the business 
portion of the town. The damage was so great and the loss 
so serious that she received large and generous contributions 
from cities all 0¥er the United States to relieve her distress. 
Insurance was not so common in those days as it is now ; and 
it would be more natural to attribute the financial fall of this 
pioneer merchant to these causes than to his venture in 
trans-Atlantic steam navigation. 

Moses Rogers was one of those hardy, bold, resourceful 
New England mariners, who in the first half of the nineteenth 
century gave to America ''The Heritage of Tyre", carried her 
mercantile marine to every port in the seven seas, and almost 
monopolized the ocean sail transportation of the world. Born 
in New London, Conn, during the American Revolution, he 
soon took to the sea. He was not only a skillful navigator, 
but had a technical knowledge of the marine engine of his day. 
He is alleged to have commanded the "Clermont", Fulton's 
first steamer on the Hudson river, but this cannot be verifiecl. 
It is clearly established, however, that he did command the 
Thoenix", built fti 1808 by the well-known Stevens family in 
Hoboken, which sailed from New York to Philadelphia, navi- 
gating the Atlantic from Sandy Hook to Cape May, and which 
was the first vessel to navigate the ocean by steam. It was 
probably this experience that gave to Moses Rogers the dream 
of trans-Atlantic steam navigation which he realized eleven 
years thereafter. 

When the "Savannah" returned to her home port in 1820, 
Moses Rogers, who was able to boast that during his historical 
voyage of many thousand miles "neither screw, bolt, or rope 
yarn parted," formed a connection with a company engaged 
in river navigation at Georgetown, South Carolina. He sur- 
vived his return to America less than two years, and died at 
Georgetown at the age of forty-two. 

Stevens Rogers, sailing master of the "Savannah", a 
brother-in-law, and perhaps a blood relative of Moses Rogers, 
and ten years his junior, survived this historic voyage for 


nearly fifty years, and his tombstone in the cemetery at New- 
London, Conn., displays a sculpture of the *' Savannah" with 
her conspicuous paddlewheels, with a brief appropriate narra- 
tive of the most conspicuous event of his life. 

Moses Rogers became a resident and citizen of Savannah 
as an incident of his occupation as a navigator. He first ar- 
rived here in December 1817 in command of the steamboat 
"Charleston" regularly plying as a passenger and freight 
vessel between Charleston and Savannah. Thomas Gamble, 
who has dug from the files of old newspapers and other sources 
many interesting facts about the "Savannah" and her master, 
notes that Joseph Habersham, an incorporator and a director 
of The Steamship Company, was a passenger on Captain 
Rogers' first voyage to Savannah; and he plausibly suggests 
that the first plan for the historic ship grew out of this contact 
of the mariner and navigator with the merchant and capitalist. 
The enterprise required a mariner who knew not only what a 
ship should be, but what her engines should be ; a merchant to 
devise and handle the commercial features of the voyage; 
and capitalists to provide the necessary funds. To these quali- 
fications of experience, knowledge and resources must be added 
in both cases a spirit of progress and the courage and boldness 
which are a necessary adjunct of all new enterprises; willing- 
ness of the one to risk his reputation and his life, of the other 
to risk his reputation and his fortune. To meet this want, 
Savannah was able to supply William Scarb rough and his 
associates and also Moses Rogers. That it was not only one 
Savannah merchant and capitalist, but many who promptly 
took this great risk which proved so unprofitable, excites not 
only our admiration for the enterprise and the boldness includ- 
ed in the small population, but our wonder that, given the will 
to venture, the capital could be found here. To William 
Scarbrough and his associates and to Moses Rogers are due 
full credit and honor for this bold enterprise. According 
them to the one take nothing from the other. Scarbrough 
was not a mariner; Rogers was neither a merchant nor a 


Moses Rogers moved to Savannah in 1817. Savannah 
then as now cordially invited and heartily welcomed additions 
to her population. From the moment a new citizen comes to 
live among us we know no difference between him and those 
whom he found there. In the heat of political campaigns I 
sometimes hear arguments which do not fully sustain this 
statement; but I hope it is true. Moses Rogers was of Sa- 
vannah, and we claim not only the glory that was Scarbrough's, 
but the glory that was Rogers', and on this centennial occasion 
Savannah honors the memory of her two pioneer citizens that 
glorified her name in the farthest corners of the world. 

A writer in a New York paper of April thirteenth claims 
the credit for Nev\^ York because the ship was built at Cor- 
iear's Hook. He would transfer credit for the ''Clermont" 
from Robert Fulton to the iron works that built the engines 
under his design and the ship yard that built the hull ; for 
the clipper ship from John Willis Griffiths, her designer, to 
Smith & Dimon, owners of the yard which built and launched 
the "Rainbow" on Griffiths' design; for the *'Bon Homme 
PviCHARD^s^' brilliant victory gallant John Paul Jones to the 
French shipbuilder, who constructed her. 

An act to incorporate The Savannah Steamship Company 
was approved December 19, 1818. The corporators were Will- 
iam Scarborough (sic), A. B. Fannin, J. P. McKinne, Samuel 
Howard, Charles Howard, John Haslett, Moses Rogers, A. S. 
Bullock (sic), John Bogue, Andrew Low & Co., Robert Isaacs, 
I. Minis, S. C. Dunning, J. P. Henry, John Speakman, Robert 
Mitchell, R. & J. Habersham, James S. Bullock (sic), Gideon 
Pott, W. S. Gillett and Samuel Yates, all of Savannah.* The 
directors were William Scarbrough, Robert Isaacs, S. C. 
Dunning, James S. Bulloch, Joseph Habersham. The capital 
stock (not named in the charter) was $50,000. 

The hazardous nature of the enterprise seems to have been 
well understood and frankly avowed. The charter recites that 
the incorporators were seeking a charter "with a view of mak- 
ing a laudable and meritorious experiment", and refers to 

»Acts of 1818, p. 187, and Lamar's Digest, p. 523. 


their "sanguine expectations". It is probable that these were 
not based on their knowledge of trans-Atlantic navigation or 
trans-Atlantic commerce. They can be explained by the won- 
derful returns from boats on the Savannah river, the stock 
of an existing company selling at many times par value. On 
the same day on which "The Savannah Steamship Company" 
was chartered, the legislature also chartered "The Savannah 
River Navigation Company" with a capital stock of $600,000, 
for the navigation of additional boats on the Savannah river. 
The stock in the two water ventures was offered for subscrip- 
tion in Savannah at the same time and was all taken im- 

While we lack fifteen years of reaching the centennial of 
the "John Randolph", also commemorated by a tablet un- 
veiled this day, her history is another evidence of the pioneer 
enterprise of Savannah in transportation, particularly in water 
transportation. She was clearly the first iron ship in Ameri- 
can waters ; and she was an American ship, built, owned and 
operated in Savannah. I say built in Savannah notwithstand- 
ing the fact that her plates were made by the great shipbuilder, 
John Laird (well known as builder of the Confederate cruiser 
"Alabama"), and shipped to Savannah where she was con- 
structed, being launched July 9, 1834. She was a "fabricated" 
iron steam boat, as are the steamships now being turned out 
in large quantities from the Hog Island Shipyard (the largest 
shipyard in the world) and many others, where not only the 
plates, but nearly all of the structural pieces going to make 
up the vessels, are fabricated at other points and shipped to 
the yard, and there put together and launched. In 1834 Sa- 
vannah could not produce the steel plates, and the facilities 
for producing them anywhere in the United States were so 
inferior that Savannah's enterprising citizen, Gazaway B. La- 
mar, naturally, if not necessarily, went abroad for them. 

Mr. Lamar was for many years a leader in business in 
Savannah and an active participant in all her more important 
enterprises. He closed his career in New York as president 
of the Bank of the Republic, a bank of much importance today. 


Looking for the best, willing to take risks, he was not appalled 
by the fact that iron boats of any form were new and untried. 
The first iron steamboat, and probably the first iron boat of 
any kind, that the records show, was the "Aaron Manby", 
launched in 1820 and named for her builder. She was Hke- 
wise a fabricated ship, being constructed at the Horsley Iron 
Works in sections, sent to London, and put together in dock. 
She was not broken up until 1855 after thirty-five years of 
service. Mr. Lamar probably knew of her, for at the time of 
the launching of the "John Randolph" she had been in service 
for twelve or thirteen years. 

We have but few particulars of the "John Randolph". 
She was built for Savannah river traffic, where an iron boat 
with lighter draft than could be obtained with wood construc- 
tion was very desirable. The Georgian of July 10, 1834, 
says "she is a beautiful model of a boat and sat as lightly on the 
water as a duck". She was advertised to "go all the way by 
steam" and to go "with two tow-boats", (clearly meaning 
"tows"), and her sailing, probably on August sixteenth, is an- 
nounced in the Georgian of Tuesday, August 19, 1834. 

Whether she was ultimaFely successful and how long she 
continued in service we do not know; but Savannah can look 
with great pride on the act of her enterprising citizen who to 
her earlier glory as projector of the first steamship to cross the 
ocean, added that of being builder and owner of the first iron 
boat constructed or even seen in American waters, a feat which 
was entirely and solely a Savannah enterprise. Here, at least, 
we have no dispute as to where credit and honor are due. 

Savannah is essentially a port. Situated on the flat coastal 
plain, not surrounded by rich agricultural lands, center of a 
circle of which one-half is the boundless ocean, she has little 
or no back country as a local territory. For her prosperity 
and her growt'h, for her contribution to the general advance 
in the trade and commerce of the country, her chief business 
has been and must ever be the water traffic which she handles 
locally and the rail-and-water traffic which passes over her 


Except for the splendid river on whose bank she sits, 
nature gave to her as a port no advantages over her neighbors ; 
and the development of rail traffic has practically neutralized 
the advantage of the river. Nature gave her a narrow tortuous 
and uncertain fourteen-foot channel of eighteen miles to the 
sea. Awakening early in her history to the importance of the 
improvement of her harbor, contributing to its development 
to the extent of her ability, she has received the benefit of 
large appropriations from the Federal Government which have 
resulted in a splendid deep channel and steady growth of her 
water tonnage. Mr. Burton of Ohio (afterwards Senator Bur- 
ton), who so long and so ably filled the important position of 
Chairman of the River and Harbor Committee, told a Savan- 
nah delegation several years ago that there was little difficulty 
in getting for Savannah appropriations recommended by the 
Board of Engineers, because statistics showed that Savannah's 
water commerce always promptly responded to every increase 
in the depth of water, to every improvement in the harbor. 
Ker enterprising merchants have ahvays taken advantage of 
what was given them. 

It is interesting to note an early evidence of appreciation 
of the rapidly grov/ing importance of the combined rail and 
water traffic which moves up and down the Atlantic coast. 
The preserved records of Savannah's first railroad", completed 
to Macon in 1841, show that as early as 1848 the railroad 
corporation was the owner of stock in a steamship company 
operating between Savannah and New York; and one of the 
first cases of resumption of business between the sections 
which had been interrupted by the v/ar between the States was 
the accounting of persons in New York to this same railroad' 
company for large interests in coastwise steamship properties 
which it had owned in 1861, and for which it collected a large 
sum in 1866. 

Savannah's position as a pioneer in ocean steam navigation 
was but the forerunner by a few years of her remarkable 
record in promoting other methods of transportation. In the 
decade succeeding that which was closed by the voyage of the 


"Savannah", came the promotion of a canal to connect the Sa- 
vannah, the Ogeechee and the Altamaha rivers. The records 
of the city government record many cases of financial assist- 
ance to this enterprise, which finally resulted in the comple- 
tion and the operation for several years of a thirteen-mile 
canal to the Ogeechee river. This unfortunate transportation 
corporation is now dead, and its canal (finally acquired by the 
city) is no more; but in one element of corporate adventure, 
it was truly a pioneer. We think of corporate "re-organiza- 
tions" as products of the last quarter of the nineteenth century, 
but this limping enterprise, whose history until its final closing 
shows many alternating periods of operation and shutting down 
(with the latter strongly predominating), also furnishes in 
1837 the first instance I have found of the "re-organization" 
of an insolvent corporation. 

But as Savannah had not been content with transportation 
by sail across the water she was not content with transportation 
by canal boat across the land. It was but a few years after 
Stephenson had first propelled railroad cars by steam that she 
reached out for transportation to the interior. She was already 
operating profitable lines of steamboats on the Savannah river 
to the head of navigation at Augusta. Some doubt as to the 
practicable feasibility of rail transportation by steam is ex- 
pressed in the first effective charter obtained for a line to Ma- 
con. This doubt is shown in the title of the corporation, "The 
Central Railroad and Canal Company," chartered in 1833, with 
the right to construct either a railroad or a canal as might be 
found most expedient. Macon was also interested in this 
enterprise, but when two years later the charter was changed 
by the elimination of the canal, by the addition of banking 
privileges, and the change of name to "The Central Railroad 
and Banking Company of Georgia", Macon's interest had dis- 
appeared and it was distinctly a Savannah enterprise. There 
stands in Wright Square a handsome monument to William 
Washington Gordon, who resigned the mayoralty that he 
might as a member of the legislature more successfully pro- 
mote this charter, and who as first president of the new cor- 


poration died in its service just before the completion of the 
line, a victim of the diligent discharge of his duties. Savan- 
nah has thus shown that her appreciation of her heroes is not 
confined to those who have distinguished themselves on the 
field of battle or in the realms of statesmanship, but is freely 
accorded to her enterprising and patriotic citizens who have 
given their labors, their fortunes, and if need be their lives, 
to the development of the material resources of the country 
and the improvement and betterment of their fellowmen. 

All difficulties were overcome, and the new railroad was 
built. For many years the main line of "The Central Rail- 
road and Banking Company of Georgia", 191 miles long, 
(now constituting the backbone of the 1,900-mile system of 
Central of Georgia Railway Company, with Savannah as its 
only port), was the longest railroad in the world. The munici- 
pality, though never owning the majority of its stock, was prac- 
tically its most influential stockholder. She invested in it not 
less than $1,000,000, for which she incurred large indebtedness. 
Through the wisdom of the city council, when and as a favor- 
able market presented itself the stock was from time to time 
sold, and the bonds retired with a small profit to the city. 

She was a large subscriber to the stock of the South- 
western Railroad Company, the Augusta and Savannah Rail- 
road, and other railroads in Georgia now constituting part of 
the Central of Georgia, and still preferentially directing their 
traffic to the wharves of their foster mother. In all of these 
cases the financial results were equally satisfactory. But she 
had one disastrous financial experience in the promotion of her 
commerce. She was a heavy subscriber to the Atlantic and 
Gulf Railroad, now a prosperous and profitable part of the 
Atlantic Coast Line System, running across the State near the 
Florida line. It was not a profitable venture for the original 
investors, and when it went through bankruptcy the municipal- 
ity was still a large stockholder, with a large amount of bonds 
issued against the subscription still outstanding. That the city 
lost heavily in this enterprise is due to an interesting incident 
in the development of our economic policy and our laws. In 


1868 she made a contract for the sale of this and other stocks, 
on favor'Sble terms, which included the assumption and pay- 
ment of all her outstanding bonds that had been issued for 
railway stock subscriptions. Dissatisfied stockholders of the 
Southwestern Railroad Company and The Central Railroad 
and Banking Company, the proposed purchasers, successfully 
enjoined the sale.* The contract was cancelled, most of the 
stock involved became worthless, and Savannah lost a million 
and a quarter dollars. 

"Big Business" today would be astonished to read the 
frank resolutions of the Southwestern Railroad Company pre- 
sented to the city council as authority for the proposition : 

"Whereas, The consummation of those proposi- 
tions contemplate an amicable and just settlement of 
the present unhappy and ruinous competition on the 
part of the Atlantic & Gulf Road for business legiti- 
mately belonging to the Southwestern and Central 
Railroads : 

"Now Therefore, Relying upon the good faith of 
the city of Savannah, to protect as far as possible the 
investments already made in the great channels of 
commerce terminating at the port of Savannah hy re- 
fraining from fostering other competing lines, and for 
the purpose of rendering the lines now in existence 
not only self sustaining but profitable — disclaiming all 
antagonistic feeling, and desiring to contribute, as 
far as possible, to the commercial wealth and pros- 
perity of Savannah, be it 

"Resolved, &c." 

It would be difficult to find a modern instance of so frank 
an avowal by big business of its intention to limit, if not wholly 
to suppress, competition. That such frankness does not pay 
will appear from the decision of the Supreme Court of Georgia 
{Central R. R. vs. Collins, 40th Ga. 583), which by a vote of 
two judges against one sustained the position of the objecting 


Stockholders. If not the first, it is one of the first formal 
decisions which have so firmly imbedded into American law 
the basic principle that public service corporations may not 
suppress competition. 

This decision also shows the importance which was at- 
tached, even as late as 1868, to inland river transportation. 
Of the two lines which were held to be competitive, one runs 
northwest and west from Savannah through Macon to the 
Chattahoochee river at Eufaula and Fort Gaines, the other 
from Savannah southwest to the Flint river, a tributary of the 
Chattahoochee, at Bainbridge. The rail connection between 
the two was treated as negligible, but the suppression of com- 
petition was expected to come from the throttling of trans- 
portation on the Chattahoochee river, treated by the court as a 
great highway of commerce. About thirty year? later, in 
another case (Dady vs. Ga. & Ala. Ry., 112 Fed. Rep., 838) 
involving a similar question, another high court in analyzing 
competitive conditions between two other railroads, both reach- 
ing from Savannah to the Chattahoochee river and more nearly 
parallel than were the earlier roads, treated the river com- 
merce as insignificant and immaterial. 

I have sketched some, but not all, of the transportation 
enterprises which are the result of Savannah's progressive 
activities because they teach us that it was no haphazard acci- 
dent that made the small town of 18 19 the successful projector 
of the first steamship to cross the ocean, and fifteen years later 
of the first iron vessel in American waters. Realizing from 
the beginning that her interest lay in establishing and main- 
taining herself as an important station, intermediate and ter- 
minal, for the transportation of the commerce of the state; 
the nation and the world, she has persistently and consistently, 
sometimes with great money loss, always with the risk of it, 
seen to it that she was well provided with rail and water lines 
ample for her needs. She has had no small part in the building 
up of her state and her nation, and as a transportation centre 
she is reaping her reward. Today she is served by the four 
largest railway systems in the South, all well provided with 


ample terminals. Though limited by the ocean to only a half 
circle of adjacent territory, ten railway lines radiate from her 
stations, of which but three may be described as "short lines". 
An important and successful coastwise steamship line bears 
her name and claims her as a home port. This line has recently 
built at large cost a modern pier and terminal of great size, 
recognized as probably the best in America. The great war 
has distorted all navigation statistics, but in normal times the 
ships of all nations, steam and sail, line her wharves to bear to 
the uttermost parts of the earth the commerce which her rail 
lines have brought from the interior. 

For the past thirty years her foreign commerce has grown 
steadily, and she has gradually outdistanced her competitors 
as a port. In i9io-'ii-'i2 the value of the foreign exports 
from Savannah exceeded the value of the foreign exports from 
all other South Atlantic ports combined. This means that in 
normal times her foreign business was greater than the com- 
bined foreign business of Norfolk, Newport News, Wilming- 
ton, Charleston, Beaufort, Brunswick, Fernandina and Jack- 

In 19 1 2 the value of her foreign exports was exceeded 
only by that of New York. Savannah was second, with Balti- 
more, Boston and Philadelphia following behind. In 191 3-' 14- 
'15 the value of the water borne commerce, foreign and do- 
mestic, through the district of Savannah exceeded that of every 
other district except New York and Philadelphia. Between 
1904 and 1 9 14 (the last year for which statistics are available) 
the foreign exports from Savannah increased 105.5% while 
those of New York increased 70.5% ; and from 1884 to 1914 
Savannah's increase was 454.75% while that of New York 
was 162.25%. These figures were not approached by any 
other port. 

It is impossible to eliminate from the causes which brought 
this supremacy the persistent encouragement and assistance 
always given to transportation enterprises ; and today we com- 
memorate the spirited activity and courage of the little embryo 
city which gave them birth. 


The city of which I speak is not only the little Savannah 
which carried out the three enterprises whose centenaries are 
now commemorated, and which projected the first iron vessel 
ever seen in American waters, but is the Savannah which was 
foremost in the building of the some time longest railroad 
in the world, and the establishment in connection with it, of a 
large and important bank ; the Savannah which subscribed near 
two millions of dollars to the capital of this and other import- 
ant railroads ; the Savannah which converted a site of naturally 
unsanitary surroundings into one of the most healthful cities 
in the country, with a low death rate; the Savannah which 
from her founding to this day has never seen an insolvent bank 
close its doors ; the Savannah which forty years ago, more than 
decimated by pestilence and overburdened with debt incurred 
through her unprofitable railroad venture, successfully strug- 
gled with and avoided impending bankruptcy; the Savannah 
which, notwithstanding the difficulties of this struggle, con- 
tinued from year to year on her march of progressive munici- 
pal improvement ; the Savannah whose debt, nothwithstanding 
these improvements, is today less than it was forty years ago ; 
the Savannah who in the race for foreign commerce has so 
far outstripped all other South Atlantic ports, and many of 
her more pretentious competitors. 

These things have our forefathers and our predecessors 
done. The benefits and advantages which come from their 
work are ours, but with them come corresponding obligations. 
Ours is the duty to emulate their virtues and to follow their 
example. Let us not make this centenary an empty form. Let 
us seriously reflect on what these others have done, and here 
and now firmly resolve that their work shall not prove to have 
been in vain, and that, proud as we are of their achievements 
in the past, we shall by united and determined action endeavor 
to excel them. Today must be better than yesterday, and to- 
morrow better than today. 

An Address 

In tKe City Auditorium of Savannah, G«. 

April 21. 1919 

Mr. Chairman, Your Excellency the Governor, Your 
Honor the Mayor, Ladies and Gentlemen of Savannah: 

It has been the privilege of Mrs. Rogers and me to attend 
many pubHc occasions, but never have we journeyed so far in 
response to so gracious an invitation, nor with keener anticipa- 
tion, than to this celebration. 

As the official representative of the city of New London, 
Conn., by direction of the city council, I am pleased to convey 
to the people of Savannah the heartiest greetings from the 
citizens of New London, with their best wishes for the success 
of this Centennial, celebrating as it does the first trans-Atlantic 
voyage by steam. 

New London and Savannah are associated historically. 
Both were captured during the Revolutionary War. 
Your Sergeant Jasper sealed his patriotism with his life. 
Within a few rods of my residence in New London stands the 
school house where Nathan Hale resigned as principal to accept 
his commission in the Continental Army, which service he 
sealed with his life, regretting that he had but one life to lose 
for his country. After reading your traditions and history and 
seeing your historic memorials on every side, I must pay a 
word of tribute to your patriotic women of such societies as 
The Colonial Dames, Daughters of the American Revolution, 
and United Daughters of the Confederacy, and others who 
liave been instrumental in erecting such memorials, and I will 
do this in the words of Georgia's historian Lamar when refer- 
ring to the patriotic women of Georgia, he said, "Whose un- 
wearied efforts to rescue from oblivion the fading records of 
your great commonwealth, have made them, in a peculiar sense, 
the guardians of Georgia's immortality." 


A few minutes ago I learned the Jasper Memorial was 
organized and successfully completed by your local historian, 
Gen. Meldrim. 

Savannah and New London have been associated commer- 
cially. One hundred years ago the wealthy and enterprising 
Savannah merchants lead by William Scarbrough financed the 
building, equipping and trans-Atlantic voyage of the S. S. 
Savannah. It was one of the most patriotic, commercial 
undertakings ever financed by the citizens of any municipality 
and is deserving of the highest praise. 

New London is pleased to have had a share in this great 
undertaking by furnishing Captain Moses Rogers, commander 
of the ship^ and Captain Stevens Rogers, the sailing master. 
While the ship was built in New York, yet the crew was 
shipped from New London. I am simply a relative of the 
Captains Rogers (the press reports me a descendant) having 
descended from the same New London ancestor, in which 
city the Rogers family has lived for 264 years. Judge and Mrs. 
Arthur P. Anderson have come with us and Mrs. Anderson is 
the great-great-niece of Captain Moses Rogers. 

Felicitating you on the great honor which is yours, and 
congratulating you on the superb enterprise of your people of 
today, it is a delight to be present with you. 

"* The Loss of the Steamer Pulaski 

By MRS. HUGH McLEOD (Mits Rebecca Lamar) 

An account of the disaster so graphically described in the following 
paper, by a gentleman whose name was not given, was published in 
1854, in the Rev. George White's "Historical Collections of Georgia." 
The sketch here given was written by one of the survivors of the 
wreck, Miss Rebecca Lamar, not for publication, and in the preparation 
of it she consulted two of her fellow passengers, Mr. James Hamilton 
Couper, of Georgia, and Major J. B. Heath, of Baltimore. Miss Lamar 
afterwards married Hugh McLeod, who graduated at the U. S. Military 
Academy in 1835, entered the U. S. Army as 2nd Lieutenant, resigned 
to join the Texan forces in their struggle with Mexico, commanded a 
company in the battle with the Cherokees in 1839; later became a 
lawyer; entered the Confederate Army in 1861, attained the rank of 
Colonel, and died in Dumfries, Va., January 2, 1862. — Editor. 

The steam packet "Pulaski", Captain Dubois, sailed from 
Savannah on Wednesday, June 13, 1838. She arrived at 
Charleston the afternoon of the same day, and left Charleston 
the next morning. In the afternoon the wind was fresh from 
the east, and produced a heavy sea which retarded her prog- 
ress and required a full pressure of steam. At 10:30 p. M. the 
wind continued fresh with a clear star-light, and there was 
every promise of a fine night. At 11 o'clock the starboard 
boiler exploded with a tremendous violence, blowing off the 
promenade deck above and shivering the starboard side about 
rnidship; at the same time the bulkhead between the boilers 
and forward cabin was stove in, the stairway to it blocked up, 
and the bar-room swept away. The head of the boiler was 
blown out, and the top went fore and aft. In consequence 
of the larboard boiler and works being comparatively unin- 
jured, the boiler keeled to that side and the starboard side was 
kept out of water except when she rolled, when the sea washed 
in at the break. The boat continued to settle rapidly, and 
in about forty minutes the water had reached the promenade 
deck above the ladies' cabin. Previously to this period the 
ladies, children and the gentlemen who were on the after part 
of the boat were placed on the promenade deck. About the 
time the water reached that point the boat parted in two with 
a tremendous crash, and the bow and stern rose somewhat out 


of the water, but the latter again continued to sink until the 
water reached the promenade deck, when it separated into 
two parts, upset and precipitated all on it into the water. 
Many then regained the detached portions. The cause of the 
disaster was obviously the neglect of the second engineer in 
permitting the water to boil off in the starboard boiler and 
then letting in a full supply of water on the heated copper. 

Passengers, so far as their names are known, inhabitants 
and residents of Savannah : 

Dr. John Gumming, lady and servant; Samuel B. Park- 
man, Esq.; Misses Authexa, Caroline and Theresa Parkman; 
Master Whitney Parkman; Dr. P. H. Wilkins, lady and son, 
Francis; Mr. Robert Hutchinson, lady, two children and 
servant; Mr. G. B. Lamar, lady and servant; Misses Martha, 
Rebecca and Garoline Lamar ; Masters, Gharles, William, 
Thomas and George Lamar; Mrs. William Mackay, two chil- 
dren and servant ; Mrs. John Wagner ; Golonel William Robert- 
son; Gaptain R. W. Pooler and son, Robert; Messrs. George 
Huntington, B. W. Fosdick, Sirman Miller, A. Hamilton, L. 
Bird, Samuel Livermore, A. Stansfield, R. Brown, W. W. 
Foster, G. Ward. 

Golored women — Jenny, Priscilla and Sallie Middleton. 

Inhabitants of other places who embarked at Savannah: 

Mrs. Nightingale, child and servant; Mrs. Fraser and 
child ; Golonel W. A. Dunham and lady ; Rev. L L. Woart and 
lady ; Dr. J. E. Stewart, lady and servant ; Rev. E. Grafts ; Mrs. 
J. E. Taylor, Misses Rebecca and Eliza Lamar; J. H. Gouper, 
Esq.; Major J. P. Fleath, Dr. Thomas F. Ash, Messrs. H. 
Eldridge, H. N. Garter, A. Lovejoy, A. Burns, Wm. A. Stew- 
art, Farquhar McRae, G. Hodson. 

Embarked at Charleston : 

Mr. Ed. J. Pringle, lady, child and servant; T. P. Rut- 
ledge and lady; H. S. Ball and lady, child and servant; B. F. 
Smith and lady; Rev. S. S. Murray, lady and four children; 
Mr. G. S. Davis and lady; Mr. J. Lengworth and lady; Mr. 
Eddings, lady and cfcld; Mr. N. Smith, lady and child; Mr. 
Hubbard, Misses Evans, Mr. Merritt, lady and child; Miss 



R. W. Freeman, Judge Wm. B. Rochester, C. B. Tappan, 
Judge S. A. Cameron, Master T. Whaley, Captain Daniel Britt 
and lady, J. D. Twiggs, Mr. Coy, lady and child; T. Dowaie, 
Major G. L. Twiggs, Lieutenant Thornton, U. S. A. ; Misses E. 
Drayton, Rutledge, Heald, Trassier, Michel, Clark, Green- 
wood; Messrs. R. Seabrook, S. Keith, R. D. Walker, E. W. 
James, Joseph Anse, Bennett, C. W. Clifton, B. L. Greenwood, 
E. W. Innis, W. C. N. Swift. 


The "Pulaski" was born of a wreck. In the autumn of 
1837 the "Home", a packet steamer plying between Charleston 
and New York, returning South, was lost on the coast of 
North CaroHna. She had many passengers, the majority of 
whom were lost — among them some prominent persons. This 
calamity was deeply felt, particularly at the South. The in- 
security of the traveling public was never so apparent, and 
those whose habit it was to go North with their families in 
summer deemed it incumbent upon them to insure against a 
similar recurrence, if possible. The subject was discussed 
among prominent merchants of Savannah, which resulted in a 
joint stock company for the building of a boat of greater 
strength and speed, to ply between Savannah and Baltimore 
touching at Charleston, remaining over night, and leaving at 
C A. M., and would the following morning reach Baltimore to 
breakfast, "being only one night at sea". The boat was built 
and named "Pulaski". Her officers and men were duplicated. 
Those who served in the day rested at night. The steamer had 
made three successful voyages, meeting the expectations of the 
company and her passengers, who, on their arrival in Balti- 
more, tendered complimentary cards to Captain Dubdis, her 

Captain Pearson was the sailing master. My brother 
was a stock-holder, and, knowing that I intended going North, 
invited me to go with him and his family on the fourth voyage 
of the "Pulaski". Having a natural .dread of the sea, and 
the "Home" so fresh in my memory, I declined the invitation. 


In reply, he said, "Were you to see the boat, you would not 
refuse." Just after, I received a letter from a friend, inviting 
me to visit her — "Come, but not by sea." This confirmed my 
resolution. A special duty called me to Savannah some time 
before the family would leave. My brother's house had been 
my home for several years before his removal to Savannah, 
and the strong attachment mutually subsisting had known no 
dmiinution. The pleasure of being again with the family! I 
was next to the parents in the affection of the children, and 
whom I loved not much less. My fears had not abated, but 
the reputation of the steamer and my wish to be with the 
family decided me, and my passage was engaged, without per- 
suasion, and without my having seen the boat. 

The day — 13th June, 1838 — when the "Pulaski" would 
leave on her fourth voyage, arrived. A pleasant breeze was 
blowing that tempered the heat and made it feel like Springs 
The passengers were from the elite of the city. Sojourners 
returning to their distant homes, and others from farther 
South and West, assembled on the deck, presenting a picture 
of unusual brightness ; so many happy faces animated by hope 
and expectation. She inspired confidence. She appeared so 
strong, and looked so comfortable. 

The partings over, the steamer sped on her way. W^ 
reached Charleston at the usual hour for her arrival, long 
before the sun went down. The passengers generally went 
ashore. Our party remained aboard, and sought the shady 
side of the boat, as the heat began to be felt for the first time 
during the day. Seated on a settee we saw two ladies, one 
supporting the other who seemed fainting, while a gentleman 
stood fanning her. Just then my brother appeared, followed 
by a carrying some iced syrups. Perceiving the 
condition of the lady, refreshments were offered the party who 
accepted the timely offer with many thanks. The gentleman 
also had the appearance of an invalid, and the look of a clergy- 

The "Pulaski" was a low pressure boat. She was built 
differently from the sea steamers now. She was broad, and 


sat low in the water. No ladies' cabin was built on the stern 
of the boat. Outside the cabin were projetcions called 
"guards", and were a part of the continuations of the main 
deck. Opposite the door of the ladies' cabin, with twenty 
feet of space between, was the captain's ofhce, or state-room, 
on each side of wjiich, with a passage between, five feet in 
width, were the closets for china, glass and butler's pantry. 
Behind these closets, opening on the passages, were two state- 
rooms opening on the east side of the boat. In the rear of 
these rooms were the wheels, the passages continuing to the 
bow. My brother's wife, three children and nurse occupied 
one of the state-rooms. His oldest daughter, not sixteen, 
Eliza, her cousin, not seven, and the daughter of my oldest 
brother and my especial charge, occupied the other with me. 
Opposite my state-room door there was a stairway leading to 
the lower deck. There was another cabin at the bow. As the 
passage opened on the bow, on either side were stairways 
leading to the upper deck which roofed all the boat I have 
described, except the bow. 

After tea Miss Parkman and I went upon the upper deck, 
and she pointed to two little boats covered with canvas, or 
tarpaulin, with oars alongside each, and said : "In the event of 
an accident I would prefer clinging to the steamer rather than 
get into one of them. The sea may have opened the seams 
and caused them to leak." My fears had vanished as my feet 
pressed the deck of the "Pulaski" ; and now the conversation 
did not trouble m.e in the least ; but I agreed with her in what 
she said. Yes, I too, w^ould remain on the steamer in prefer- 
ence. There were so many of us that the captain, after leaving 
Charleston, offered his state-room to my brother, remarking 
that he never slept at sea. We did not know of the offer, 
nor did I know where the boys slept. My apprehensions left 
so entirely I never thought of inquiring, nor do I believe their 
m.other knew. The state-rooms were large, containing every 
convenience. Three large berths each, the bottom one on 
casters so as to make more space between the other two, con- 
sequently the lower one had to be drawn out after shutting 


the door, as it occupied nearly the width of the floor. There 
was a large window seaward and opening over the door oppo- 
site, the sash arranged to hook up to a joint. The breeze was 
so cool that I had to put a calico double gown over my night 
gown and usual under garments. To avoid sea-sickness I had 
undressed and kept my berth, not having ventured out but 
a short time after leaving Savannah. After leaving Charleston 
1 had not risen, and for the first time escaped sea-sickness, 
owing partly to my abstinence, but more to the constant 
draught of fresh air through the state-room. 

My sister sent me word at tea time that she and the 
nurse were too sick to give the baby his supper. I dressed 
and took the child to the table. The meal was over; two men 
only lingered, and a lady with a child in her arms, occupied as I 
was in feeding the child. The table was spread on the guard 
between tiie ladies' cabin and the captain's office. There were 
no saloons in those days. I have no recollection of tasting 
food after leaving the breakfast table in Savannah. I think 
it highly probable I took tea in Charleston, as I only avoided 
food to prevent sea-sickness. The baby fed and restored to 
his mother, I went back to my berth. Eliza came in soon, and 
then Martha. I heard Eliza say her prayers, and as she lifted 
her eyes I remember how beautiful she looked as she knelt 
before me. We went to sleep, free from anxiety, to wake in 
Baltimore ! 

Everything had been propitious. We slept soundly until 
awakened by the most appalling sound that is only equaled when 
the thunderbolt strikes near. I have only heard it repeated in 
storms ; but the sound was followed by the trembling and 
careening of the steamer. The engine was stopped ; the wheels 
did not move. I leaped from the upper berth unconsciously, 
almost simultaneously with the sound, and found the two 
nieces beside me, exclaiming in terror : ''What can be the 
m.atter?" The boat was quivering and careening ©ver to one 
side. Martha and I pushed with our might against the berth, 
but it would not go under, or be move;!, nor could we open 
the door until it was under. Martha's strength was exhausted 


I then proposed to get through the transom, she to hft Ehza, 
and 1 would then assist her. The proposition was made 
while I was executing the plan. My head and shoulders were 
through the opening when the steamer gave a tremendous 
mrch. The berth flew under in a flash, and the door opened 
with tremendous violence. The china and glass fell in the 
closets with a crash, and every light went out. We found my 
sister with the nurse and three children at her state-room door, 
quietly waiting the coming of her husband. I heard groans 
proceeding from the now darkened passage. I stepped a few 
paces, and found a negro man on his hands and knees, in 
agony. I said: '^Daddy, what is the matter?" "Oh, missis, 
my feet done burnt off !" My heart was full of sympathy, but 
1 saw the boys coming from the lower saloon with their 
clothes in their arms. Charles followed immediately, dressed 
save his cap. We held the different articles, handing them as 
they were needed. Charles held William's jacket, and, as he 
handed it, the little boy said: "Thank you, brother." It was 
characteristic of the child, the most obliging and most grateful 
of children. Charles collected the clothing of his brothers, 
put them in their arms, and made them precede him up the 
stairs. He was fourteen years old. 

A man came along, begging us to come on the upper deck 
and help balance the boat. We asked what was the matter. 
He said there had been a collision ; that the boat was leaking, 
and he wanted help to bail her. This was the only man I had 
seen save the poor negro who was wounded. It was strange 
that, hearing the explosion and seeing him and the condition 
of the steamer, the truth had not forced itself on our minds. 
Now my brother had copie, and several voices cried out: 
"What is the matter?" He had not heard the explosion, but 
was awakened by the cries of the women and children. 'T 
don't know, but will return and see." He came, pale and 
trembling, and said : "The boiler has burst, the boat is sinking, 
and we shall be lost in five minutes !" These hopeless words 
were received in silence which I was the first to break. "Could 
we not get on the upper deck? Stay there until I run and see." 


j ust then the same man came again, begging us to come up and 
help to balance the boat. My sister said: "Let us go; he will 
thmk us obstinate in staying here; but be careful we are not 
separated from the children/' We moved in a compact body, 
each carrying or leading a child, all clinging together. We 
touched the outer circle of the crowd, but our faces were on 
our little ones ; and, though touching, did not see a face in the 
crowd. Almost immediately my brother came, and said: 
"Follow me!" We retraced our steps to the lower side of 
the deck where the little boat had hung — now gone. A voice 
now said: "Mr. Lamar, save my children, and Mr. Mackay 
will bless you !" He replied : "I will do all I can for you, but L- 
have no hope for any of us !" He directed his aaugnter to get 
up on the upper deck by climbing the davit. She was up, and 
he handed her a child. She caught hold, but cried out: 
"Father, don't let go ; I have no strength !" I immediately took 
her place, and all were soon on the upper deck, where we found 
a man, only an acquaintance of my brother's, Mr. Huntingdon, 
of New York. They stripped one of the boats of its canvas, 
but before they could turn her over, Mr. Smith, of Augusta, 
with his wife and her babe, gained the deck from the upper 
side of the steamer. He now aided in turning the boat, looking 
for pieces of plank as substitutes for oars, placing the boat 
on the edge of the steamer, so that when she sank to the bed 
of the ocean he and Mr. Lamar could push her off and jump in 
to row her. A tin basin had been found, or a biggin (I forget 
which), to bail her, Mr. Mackay saying, "I will bail her, Mr. 
Lamar," all were seated in the boat. My brother asked Mr. 
Huntingdon if he vvould not go with us ; he said : "No, I prefer 
to stay on the steamer." I had said the same words the night 

While the preparations were being made a cry attracted 
me to the other side of the deck, where I found a colored 
woman clinging to the side of the boat. Extending my hands, 
she was enabled to reach the deck. Running back to Eliza, 
seated in the boat, I lost sight of the woman. The child no 
longer screamed. She was the only one of our family who 


cried or screamed. The little baby would look from face to 
face in astonishment only. Martha exclaimed: "Oh, Aunt 
Rebecca, what shall I do?" "Look to Jesus who alone can 
help us." Seeing the boat so crowded, and no room for the 
two men to use their oars, as I thought, and doubtful of their 
being able to jump in on time, reminded me of my words the 
night before when -I was not excited by fear. I deliberately 
took Eliza from the boat, saying: "I, too, prefer to remair 
on the steamer." My brother said: "I implore you, Rebecca, 
to get in the boat. I do not promise that you will be saved, 
but it is our only hope !" I got in with Eliza, with my arms 
around her. I sat facing seaward. Instantly, I felt a blow 
on my chest, and that I was drowning. The steamer had sud- 
denly parted; the machinery went to the bottom, and the two 
ends stuck up out of the water. Our boat, I suppose, was 
upset, but I was knocked by a wave backward out of the boat 
which I saw no more. The water was so buoyant that I rose 
upon the waves, and I could catch a gleam of the struggling, 
drowning people around me. Once I caught hold of something 
while beneath a wave, but as I rose to the surface I saw that I 
had caught hold of a man's vest, just between the shoulders. 
As I saw the white sleeves and the black back, I let go, for 
fear of drowning myself amd him. I found afterwards my 
brother's vest corresponded to the glimpse I had of him while 
struggling in the water. It was the only conscious thought I 
had while drowning or struggling in the waves. A piece of 
scantling, nine or ten feet long, but not heavy, floated to my 
arms. I folded them over it as it lay across my chest, and 
floated on my back, seeing only the sky. 

At last I floated against something which resisted the 
touch, and I looked and saw the stern from which I had been 
precipitated. I caught an iron stanchion, and drew myself 
upon the wreck, still clinging to the stanchion, and bracing 
my feet against one higher up, with head downward and thfe 
sea lapping its waves partly over me. I was so exhausted I 
could not think. My brother came swimming in a few mo- 
ments. He extended his hand, calling out in alarm : "You will 


be washed off! Come up higher!" I was hfted to my feet, 
and immediately a wave brought Martha up. We recognized 
her instantly, she holding up her hand and crying out: ''Give 
me your hand, Aunt Rebecca!" Charles, fortunately, could 
swim, and he came next. His father stood almost, or quite, 
in the water, watching for others. We continued to stand 
near the water, when my brother called to us to go up higher. 
We crept up the inclined plane to the steamer's wheel, and 
each took hold of a brass spoke. The deck was fast assuming 
the perpendicular, and my brother called out, ''Go higher! 
The wheel will break off with you ; go still higher !" We then 
crept up to the end of the stern, and as we took hold of the 
tailing and looked down perceived the windows in the end of 
the ladies' cabin were nearly horizontal. On the paneling be- 
tween the windows sat a colored nurse with a lovely child, two 
or three years old. 

Quick as thought we were precipitated into the ocean. 
The deck had now broken away. My brother told me at that 
moment he had his second son, Willie, by the hand, again 
struggling with the waves. I cannot call it drowning, for I 
never swallowed a drop of sea water. I was alternately undei; 
and on the waves. Soon a feather pillow was floated to my 
arms. It was a life preserver. I floated on my back again 
until I felt something firm under my feet. I stood again on the 
upper deck from which I had been twice precipitated, and 
which was now floating on the surface of the sea. Its dimen- 
sions were easily defined, as it was covered with canvas 
painted white. 

I gained the wreck near me, and I saw a solitary man 
near one end; his back was turned towards me, in one hand 
a carpet-bag and the other hand in his pocket from whence he 
drew a key, fitted it to the lock, and opened it while I still 
approached. My brother, swimming, came on board between 
me and the unknown person. He cried out: "Oh, my sister, 
do we meet again once more?" and, opening his arms, em- 
braced me. His voice attracted the attention of the gentle- 
man, who turning, recognized my brother, and they shook 


hands, and I was introduced to Mr. Hutchinson, of Savannah. 
There were about six inches of water on the wreck generally. 
At the ends where the plank was broken and the canvas 
loose, the planks being depressed increased the water to a 
foot at least. There was a counter ward (sic) for stowing 
cables from the. weather, four feet high and three sided, with 
a top. It looked like a small counter, with several coils of 
rope, some large cables. 

The cover of the Pulaski's hold had floated on. It was 
ten feet square, substantially built, nearly two feet high, but 
sloping towards the sides a foot and a half. It was a boon 
to us. A pile of lumber massed together, of all kinds, so 
jammed that no iise could be made of it. 

It was a starlight night, becoming mor^ brilliant as the 
night advanced. A man came on board, with a little child in 
his arms, crying, "Whose child is this ?" Brother and I rushed 
to him; we had lost so many; but it was not ours. The child 
recognized her father, and called, *Tapa, papa !" He replying, 
''Connie," Connie, my child !" She was three years old^ at least, 
and beautiful. She had only a night slip on, and it wet. The 
breeze was fresh and chilly. Fortunately a brown camlet cloak 
had floated on with the carpet-bag. She seemed to feel the 
situation, and, adapting hersslf to her strange circumstances, 
did not ask for her mother, her nurse, or any of her family; 
and seeing her father's emotion, she tried to divert his attention 
by pointing to the stars : 'Tapa, papa, see the beautiful stars !" 
Her attempt seemed to increase his emotion, and he brought 
the child to me and said: "Will you keep the child for me?" 
putting her in my lap, and I readily consented. He covered 
us both with the camlet cloak. I was sitting on the cover to 
the hold, with Connie in my lap; she did not object to my 
taking her, but she ceased to prattle. 

Next came a man, calHng, "Whose child ?" It was Thomas, 
my brother's son. I at once gave Connie to her father, and 
took Thomas in my arms. He was greatly moved at seeing us, 
and cried himself to sleep in my lap where he slept all night. 
He was a child of great independence of character, full of 


gaiety and intelligence for his years, now so depressed that 
he never spoke except in reply, and I dared not question him 
of his experience. He only cried the first night, and then not 
audibly. Connie was transferred to Mrs. Smith, who sat beside 
me. In fact it was a seat for as many as could find room ; the 
only other was the cover for the poop, and which the gentlemen 
used exclusively, as it was too high for ladies, and not so 
comfortable, though the spray never reached so high. 

The box for cordage afforded seats for three men com- 
fortably. It was high enough to enable them to sit comfortably 
with their feet out of the water, and they were seldom wet 
with the spray. In the day time while some were walking or 
sitting elsewhere, one would take advantage of the moment to 
catch a nap. These men would alternate in sitting up out of 
the water, and I saw no exhibition of selfishness towards any, 
but on the contrary, exhibitions of little kindnesses. Mr. 
Hutchinson drew forth several garments from his bag for 
those who needed them. 

I must record a most touching instance of sympathy to- 
wards myself. Dr. Stewart, from Maryland, a consumptive, 
and very feeble, asked for a knife one morning early, when the 
breeze was chilly and the sun not up, and cut off the tops of 
his long woollen stockings and gave them to me to put on as 
I was bare-footed. I was extremely sorry for the sacrifice, 
but have never forgotten it. 

The night wore on, all quiet on the wreck. Suddenly 3 
manly voice sung out beyond us : "Help ! Help !" "We have 
no means to help" was the despairing cry. "Who are you?" 
some one called out. "Colonel Ball, wife and daughter, of 
Columbus, Georgia." They were never heard of afterwards. 
That helpless cry increased our sadness, and each, burdened 
with his own thoughts, was silent again — the only sound the 
dash of the waters, and that far off murmuring sound so 
peculiar to the ocean and always disposing towards melancholy 
under ordinary circumstances, but now so extraordinary, 
taking away almost hope itself. Just then a voice cried out: 


"See the light! What can it be? It may be a ship approach- 
ing ! It brightens ! It is coming nearer ! Let us unitedly 
call; we might be heard, if not seen!" The signal given, we 
shouted, as the moon rose off the sea, as it were. 

The morning of Jthe 15th (14th?) was beautiful, and we 
could see in the early light ships afar off, sailing from us. 
The men now commenced to brace the wreck by stretching 
ropes from one end to the other, using large cables for the 
purpose. Little sails were arranged to increase the speed of 
the drifting. There came a boat so near that she was secured — 
a valuable acquisition, though there was a hole in her side 
as large as the crown of a man's hat ; it was, however, high up. 
She did not leak, and was tied to the end of the wreck. (Then 
follows this paragraph, the connection of which cannot be 
determined: — "His clothes were torn, and the flesh visible 
through the rents showed how he was bruised, and could only 
creep about the wreck now and then.") 

The sea was covered with the debris of the Pulaski. Dur- 
ing the night a large pile of lumber, massed together in such 
a way as not to afford even a seat, had gathered in the middle 
of the wreck. Before we readied it a champagne basket came 
near enough to be hooked with a stick from the pile. It con- 
tained two bottles of wine, one a quart, the other a pint bottle ; 
two phials, one of peppermint, the other contained laudanum. 
The basket was placed in my charge. Now another object 
was seen — a boat with two men in her. Very soon one jumped 
into the sea and commenced swimming for his life. The man 
in the boat soon reached us. The boat leaked, and the man 
jumped out for fear of swamping her. The men now shouted 
and cheered the man, promising to throw him a rope, which 
they did. No one recognized him until he was almost to the 
wreck, when I called out: "Mrs. Smith, here is your 
husband!" He stepped aboard, tottered to her feet, threw 
his head in her lap, and wept. Mr. Smith was tall, large in 
proportion, young and athletic in appearance. He certainly 


maintained the character of a swimmer. The boat had been 
upon the wreck. The men, with their pen-knives and bits of 
rope, caulked her at once, and fastened her to the wreck. 

Then two trunks came floating by, and were caught by Dr. 
Stewart's servant, CaroHne. One was filled with papers; the 
other contained two silk dresses and two shirred bonnets. The 
trunks were open as they came; they were placed on the pile 
of lumber to dry. Soon another object appeared. It proved 
to be two settees lashed together, a man in one, a woman in 
the other. The little boat was manned and went to the rescue. 
They caught the arms of the settees and drew them to the 
wreck. The man was laid on the cover of the hold. He was in 
an exhausted condition. The blood had settled under his nails, 
which were very blue, and his fair skin was mottled where the 
blood had settled. Neither he nor the lady could speak. The 
peppermint was applied to their lips, and as they were in their 
senses they put out their tongues to receive the stimulant. In 
a very short time the gentleman rose, to our amazement, and 
staggered to the trunk of papers, and, pointing to them, said 
to Caroline : 'These are mine ; dry them !" She replied : "A 
pretty place to dry papers!" His friends went to him just in 
time to prevent his falling, and laid him on the cover. The 
peppermint was again resorted to, but he never recovered suffi- 
ciently to speak, and died in half an hour. By some mischance 
he was nude, save a linen sheet around his loins. The lady, 
in an hour, was able to speak. My brother went to wet her 
lips and tongue, when she said: 

"Mr. Lamar, I saw your little boy, this morning." 


"Yes, Charles. I called to him not to give up." 

"When did you see him?" 

"He was in a little box." 

"How came you to know him?" 

The lady was Mrs. Smith, of South Carolina. She could 
not have been over twenty, finely developed, fair complexion, 
now only sun-burnt, dressed in a silk .dress, but without a cape. 
It was the fashion in that day to wear low-necked dresses, 


hooked up the back, and a cape like the dress. The cape was 
now wanting?- and her neck was blistered with the sun. She 
told my brother that she had gone to the same school with 
Charles in Savannah — Mr. White's* — and that he must keep 
a look out for Charles, as he would be along soon. Mr. Lamar 
was now watching for his son with great anxiety, and before 
long he saw a speck upon the ocean. It grew larger as it came 
nearer, but long before I could distinguish the object we felt 
assured that it was Charles. It drew nearer, and three persons 
were on the wreck — a man and boy, with their shoulders 
together, and a lady leaning on them, as she sat in front. The 
boat was now in readiness, and my brother called for Mr. 
Smith. He replied: "I am tired." The reply was: "Oh, 
Smith, it is my son !" Mr. Smith and some one else went into 
the boat. The lady was lifted into the boat and on the wreck, 
and laid alongside Mrs. Smith. She, too, was completely ex- 
hausted and unable to speak; but her eyes were so intelligent. 
The small bottle of wine had been opened, and with the 
remainder of pepperment she was enabled to speak in a few 
hours, and as my brother was ministering to the ladies on the 
settees, she said: *T recognize you as the gentleman who 
offered me refreshment in Charleston, and now you are so 
kind in your attentions." I could not leave Charles, who had 
gone to sleep in my lap, as we sat beside the corpse, and 
Thomas sitting by my side. I have always regretted that I 
was so short-sighted as not to think of loosening Mrs. Smith's 
dress and cutting the corset spring. She was naturally vigor- 
ous, and if her circulation had not been impeded I am confident 
she might have lived. As it was, she soon relapsed into a 
speechless and unconscious condition, and remained so several 
days. Charles came to my arms and wept, but could not speak 
for emotion. He went to sleep, and when he awoke he said: 
"Oh, aunt Rebecca, what do you think has become of mother 
and the children ?" "I don't know ; we must not talk of them 
now, but let us hope for the best, and try not to cry ; you will 
waste your strength." Dear little Thomas hearing, but not 

♦Rev. George White. 


speaking a word. Dear little fellow, he must have had a dread- 
ful experience to have changed him so. Before, so quick to 
think, to speak, to act. If he had been in the boat with his 
mother, he would have spoken. But where could he have been 
all the time until he was picked up on the wreck by the man 
who brought him to us? I dared not ask him questions that 
would make him still more sad. 

The gentleman that Charles was with I heard called Mr. 
Woart, and I recognized him as the same that we saw fanning 
the lady at Charleston. I now went to thank him for his 
kindness to Charles, and asked him if he was the Rev. Mr. 
Woart. He said: 'T am the Rev. Mr. Woart, of Tallahassee, 
Florida." I said : "I thank God we have one good man among 
us." With almost sternness, he said: "I warn you not to 
put your trust in an arm of flesh. Look to God, who can save 
all who trust Him!" I repHed: "Surely it cannot be wrong 
to wish for the company of the righteous ; for if the righteous 
had been found Sodom would have been spared." He then 
said: ''Are you a Christian?" 'T hope so," was my reply. 
''But where did you hear of me?" "At Augusta, when you 
were the guest of Colonel Lindsay, U. S. A., when our volun- 
teers were going to Florida. You prayed on the boat, before 
they left. I did not see you, but I heard the prayer." He 
came and sat down beside me, but seemed so feeble that I told 
him to lean upon my shoulder. He did so for a little time. 

The cover of the box had broken down by so many getting 
upon it at one time. 

Now there was one only seat, and that without a back. 
Those who could not sit on the cover to the hold had now to 
sit on the wreck in the water. Mr. Woart was so anxious 
that his wife should be able to reach her relatives. 

Sails distant, and going from us, were seen. The children 
would be soon exhausted, and the invalids too. Dear Connie 
had not cried or become impatient, but her thirst increased 
and her demand increased in proportion. She would say, in a 
most plaintive tone : "Dear papa, when we get to New York 
won't you give me three cups o5 tea?" "Yes, my darling, as 


many as you want I will give you." She now asked for food. 
Nobody felr hungry, and I am inclined to think that eating 
human flesh is not because the shipwrecked feel hunger, but 
as a precautionary measure to saving human life. The sur- 
vivors now began to feel anxious to leave the raft and take to 
the boats. A proposal was made that the company should be 
divided, the larger number taking the small boat and the 
smaller number the large boat, to equalize the chances— the 
large boat having a round hole in the side, but high up. It 
was agreed to. 

Friday, P. M. — The little boat was immediately filled. 
Those on the raft complained that the able-bodied men were 
in the small boat. Captain Hubbard got out immediately. My 
brother then began to offer premiums to anybody who would 
go in the large boat. Of course these offers were conditional 
should he reach land. There were two sailors, one a Dane, and 
spoke broken English, but was a true man. He pleaded with 
the people, advising them to remain on the raft, as being more 
secure than the boat — that there were too many in the boat, it 
was in danger of being swamped, when all would be lost ; that 
were we to see land the boat would be turned over in the 
breakers, and only expert swimmers could reach the shore. 
Brother would not listen. I asked the Dane why he came if he 
thought the raft ^afer. ''Because I cannot be left alone, and 
if I go, I cannot go in the best boat." I began to translate 
the man's broken English, and begged brother to listen, the 
man, too, assuring them of the peril. The boat had been pushed 
off, and we had been rowed about lOO yards, when the order 
was given to return. Nor was the question asked, why we had 
returned. My heart was lighter when my feet were again on 
the raft. It was Friday afternoon, the evening of the first 
day on the raft. This confirms the idea that the sailing from 
Savannah and Charleston was Thursday, the 14th, and not 
Wednesday, the 13th of June, 1838. I suggested to my brother 
the removal of the dead bodies, but it was objected to, and we 
passed the night in close proximity to the poor gentleman that 
I saw die. Brother urged me to lie down, and to please him I 


tried, but rose up with Paul's words in my thought: "Who 
shall deliver me from the body of this death?" I sat down, 
with Thomas leaning on me on one side and Charles on the 
other, with my arms around both, and they slept. 

I was not conscious of sleeping day or night, but one 
moment, when I dreamed and awoke. The night was darker 
than the last. The silence was profound, broken only by the 
surging sea and dash of the waves. The morning light ap- 
peared. It was always chilly before the sun was up, the sea 
breeze cool, and the clothes sometimes damp with spray, and 
the feet always in the water. My teeth chattered for a moment. 

Sails were seen afar off early Saturday morning. Capt. 
Hubbard, a seaman, captain of a merchantman, a man that 
inspired confidence, now proposed that six men who could 
swim, and who could depend on themselves as swimmers, 
should take the best boat and go ashore, and send aid to those 
on the raft from thence. Mr. Hutchinson came to me and said, 
brother being present: 'T am unwilling that the men should 
take the boat and leave us helpless, unless Mr. Lamar goes in 
the boat. I have urged him to go, and you must persuade him 
to do so, and he will consent. We have seen vessels, but we 
have not been seen. This may be repeated every day. The 
children cannot survive much longer without food. Relief 
must be sought, and the sooner the better. These men are 
strangers — they have no loved ones here. They might have 
no influence to send relief. We know Mr. Lamar can send us 
help, and he leaves his dearest interest on the wreck. He ought 
to go. Persuade him!" How could I persuade him to the 
peril I had heard described? I could only think of the hazard 
to him. He said: ''You must decide for me." I felt the 
responsibility — but the starving children, and the invalids wast- 
ing away! 'T consent on two conditions: One is that you 
will let me fix this pillow around your waist, as a Hfe preserver, 
promising me not to take it off until you reach the land; 
second, that the dead be removed before you leave." 

On Friday morning a drowned man was discovered on the 
wreck, lying on his face. It was some time before he was 


turned, and he was recognized as Mr. S. B. Parkman, a promi- 
nent citizen of Savannah. Mr. Hutchinson took his spectacles 
and watch from his pocket, for an only child, since his three 
daughters and his son had perished in this terrible disaster. 
Consent was given, and Mr. Hutchinson gave the articles to my 
brother to take with4iim. Capt. Hubbard now proposed that 
the large bottle should be opened, and each person should take 

a swallow of wine. *'No one will enough 

to object." It was done. My brother was handed the bottle, 
but refused to drink, leaving it for the children. He brought 
the bottle to me, saying: ''Keep this, for the children will 
need it." Oh, #hat a pity he had not suggested the sacrifice to 
all ! I am sure Capt. Hubbard would have been one of the 
first to follow the suggestion. 

The dead were laid on the extreme end of the wreck, out 
of sight, where the water was deepest, and left for the waves 
to float them off, and we knew not when they left us. The same 
pillow that had floated out on the wreck was now tied around 
my brother's waist, and he got into the boat, and called : 
'Thomas !" The little fellow seemed to guess something, and 
he moved with more spirit than he had shown; but a sailoi 
who had an oar pushed off the boat. I did not then compre- 
hend the movement, nor what the call meant. I learned after- 
wards he intended taking Thomas with him, and no doubt 
that intention made him willing to go. He had not made 
known the intention, and the sailor, perceiving and knowing 
the peril, frustrated the plan. Thomas, too, had perceived the 
intention, and returned disappointed. It was a sore trial to 
the father. 

All the wine in the first bottle was now exhausted, and 
very little remained in the quart bottle. The peppermint was 
gone also. The laudanum had been used but once. A gentle- 
man drank sea-water, which caused severe cramps in the 
stomach. He came to me almost frantic with pain, and asked 
for the laudanum ; he was in such agony that he wished to kill 
himself. I was afraid to give it to him, so I gave it to Dr. 
Ash,"and asked him to give him a dose, and to keep the bottle. 


The gentleman was a Mr. Brown, only 25 years of age, large, 
over the ordinary size, and seemed the picture of health. He 
was polite and kind to me, but he never seemed well after that 
night. Though he did not complain, he looked as if he was 
ever after under the influence of laudanum. A person, 
whose name I did not know, with piercing black eyes, would 
beg for one only drop of wine, that I could not refuse, though I 
would say: ''You know it is for the children." When poor 
Mr. Woart, parched with thirst, would hold his hand for one 
drop, I did not refuse, as he was really ill with fever, and his 
tongue so hard and dry. But the. little now left I regarded as 
a sacred trust for the children. During the day he held his 
hand for one drop to moisten his tongue. I said : ''You know 
it was given me for the children." "Yes, I know, and feel 
ashamed while I ask, but as some excuse for me just look at 
my tongue !" I never saw anything like it — brown, and looked 
hard, like horn. Charles said: "Aunt Rebecca, give him my 
share!" Mr. Woart was overcome with emotion. Laying 
his hand on Charles' head, he said: "You are a noble boy!" 
It was the last time he asked for any. He would carry it to 
his wife and Mrs. Smith who had become speechless again, 
although Mrs. Woart's expression showed that she still re- 
tained her senses to the last moment. Mrs. Smith was appar- 
ently in a sleep, or stupor. Poor young woman ! H she had 
had her corset off, she might have lived, in my opinion ; but it 
was stupid in me not to see it then. The departure had rather 
depressed than revived hopes in those that remained. The 
active spirits had gone. The wind had changed, and with it 
hope seemed renewed, as the opinion prevailed that we were 
drifting toward the shore. The idea gave me no little fear, as 
neither Thomas nor I could swim, and the men discussed the 
question of landing, and seemed to think that the raft would be 
broken in pieces in the surf or breakers. I preferred waiting 
to be picked up by some vessel. But it was decided that 
those who could swim might be floated ashore on pieces of 
vvreck or clinging to a plank ; so I told Thomas that if we saw 
land he must let me tie him to a plank, as he could swim. For 


the first time his feeling of independence revived. *'Oh, if I 
could just see the land, I will manage to get ashore!" I had 
to reason with him, and argue the case, before I could get his 
consent to be tied to a plank, if the occasion required it. The 
opinion was that the landing migth be in the night. I found 
two planks and some rope, and secured them for use. "Thou, 
God, seest me" was ever present to my mind, and all my hope 
and comfort was in Him. The clouds were gathering, and 
distant thunder was heard. The wind suddenly veered, driving 
us out seaward, and great drops of rain began to fall, when my 
mouth opened instinctively to receive them. Till that moment 
I was unconscious of thirst. When I took the swallow of wine 
in the morning I did not realize thirst ; but I did as others had 
done, without thought, and though I kept it and dropped for 
others, I never felt any inclination to taste it. The anxiety of 
mind triumphed over physical suffering and pain. It was only 
at night, when I had the boys leaning on me asleep, that my 
back forced me to feel that it might break. In the day they 
slept too, but my mind was too much diverted by the various 
occurrences and expectations excited by hope. Hope never 
forsook me but for an instant, as I felt a billow break over me, 
filling my eyes with water. As it receded hope revived. The 
rain poured all night, the wind increasing, and the darkness 
could almost be felt. Fortunately, we had no more thunder, 
and not a flash of lightning. We left the accustomed seat and 
sat in the water on the wreck, and back to back with Mauma. 
She was an African, and her voice was heard all night in 
prayer, or a low, monotonous tone, almost like chanting. 
Fearing she would exhaust herself, I ventured to remonstrate ; 
but in vain. She knew no other way, and prayed on 'till day. 
The boys were nestled close to me, but I don't think they 
slept. There was a fierce gale blowing in the morning, and 
though we could see, the sky was black as ink, and the rain 
continuing in torrents. I never before or since saw such a 
rain storm. 

It ceased to rain, and the billows began to rise, the sky 
still black. Mr. McRae said : ''Mr. Woart, will you not pray 


for US?" He replied: "I have not ceased to pray since I 
came upon this wreck !" There was a pause and I said : "Mr. 
Woart, will you not pray aloud, so that we can all join you?" 
He stood up, lifted up his eyes to Heaven, his form erect. 
He seemed no longer feeble. His full, round, musical voice 
commenced to pray for life — that God had implanted the love 
of life in all His creatures, and therefore it was not wrong 
to pray for its continuance — then for faith in Jesus, and perfect 
submission to the Divine Will, that all might be enabled to say : 
"Not my will, but Thine, .be done." I never heard a more 
eloquent prayer — never expect to see so sublime a spectacle! 
I have often v\^ished I could picture it to others as I recall it. 
An artist, who had spent years in Paris, described a picture 
in the Louvre to me that had impressed him as one of the 
finest. It was a shipwreck, and therefore a copy for exhibition 
would justify the labor, etc. The conversation about the 
picture was renewed on the wreck, and I wondered if it could 
be equal to that now daguerreotyped in my memory. 

The wind and waves continued. The sail-cloth covering 
the deck at the ends was loose, and the action of the water 
rolled it up continually, so that where the planks were joined 
and uncovered several pieces were broken off. For security 
we congregated in the middle of the wreck, and sat down in 
a circle, near enough to cling to each other as the waves passed 
over us. Some feared the wreck would be broken up. I 
feared we might drown upon it. The large cable, stretched 
from end to end, held a detached piece of the wreck, six or 
eight feet square. As the waves would advance, the piece, held 
by the rope, would be driven by the force of the billows over 
the wreck, and as it receded, would jerk the cable violently. 
It came nearest to me, and each repetition brought it nearer. 
I feared it might come near enough to strike me. Each person 
seemed now only occupied with themselves. I borrowed a 
pen-knife, and the owner was near me. He did not seem to 
see me sawing the separate strands of the rope in two, nor, 
when the last strand was sawed, how quickly the receding 
wave bore it away. I handed him the knife, and he received it 


unconsciously. Mr. Smith, becoming alarmed, ran to the Httle 
boat, and jumped in. Mr. Hutchinson had Corinne in his 
arms, and the cloak around them. Perceiving the panic, he 
ran too to the boat (one end of the cloak trailing) just as Mr. 
Smith jumped back. Mr. Hutchinson then, in turning to 
retrace his steps, slipped upon the end of his cloak and tripped. 
In trying to recover himself, his hold was loosened, and the 
wind tore the cloak and child from his grasp, and bore them 
to the billows. He returned to his place and bowed his head, 
a broken-hearted man. The child was nearly lifeless. I 
noticed, as he passed me, the neck could not sustain the head, 
and the whole form seemed limp. 

Mr. Woart could not lift his wife from the settee; but, 
afraid to have her left lest they should be washed off, he took 
the head and shoulders, and trailed her feet in the water, and 
placed her near us. She was now dying. I remember the 
peaceful' serenity of her face, and the intelligence of her eyes, 
as she turned them and looked at her husband and myself. The 
billows seemed to come from a great distance, gathering 
strength as they rolled onward. When they came near, we 
grabbed each other, and bowed our heads, as they passed over 
us. Mrs. Woart did not live long. The husband supported 
her head, and she expired without a groan or struggle. He, 
poor man, was now nearly exhausted, and as he dropped her 
head he clasped his hands across his knees, shutting his eyes, 
and said : ''My poor dear wife !" As a tremendous billow came, 
we bowed our heads, and as we raised them, saw it carry away 
the living and the dead — the husband and the wife. His hand 
was raised, but he was on his side, and could not resist the 
force, and he uttered no word. The violence of the storm 
abated as night approached. The heavy billows ceased, leaving 
the sea in great commotion. As the waves would dash and 
break, flashes of phosphorescent light would run along to meet 
another wave, and the sea was brilliant with this strange light. 
Mr. McRae and his friend became restless, moving about and 
talking to each other, imagined themselves in Florida. Dr. 
Ely (as I called him, but really I do not think it to be his name, 


as I do not find it in the list of passengers) sang the Doxology, 
'Traise God, from Whom All Blessings Flow !" Then he pro- 
posed, seeing the light, to make a visit, and then walked over- 
board. They immediately returned, and we hoped the ex- 
perience would prevent a recurrence, but they soon repeated 
the action and were not able to get back. Then five lives were 
gone from us to that life above, in a few hours. Mauma's 
voice in prayer alone broke the stillness of the night. The 
morning broke, cloudless and lovely — the waves now flowing 
peacefully — the wreck diminished — the people depressed and 
worse. Mr. Hutchinson, with his head down, seemingly indif- 
ferent to life itself. * * * Dr. Stewart now unable to sit up 
unsupported. Caroline sat so that he could lean on her shoulder 
mo^t of the time. Why he did not move to the cover, where 
he might have laid down, I do not know. I have no recollec- 
tion of seeing him move his seat, which v/as in the water during 
the whole time. He had lost his wife. It was she who was 
supporting Mrs. W^oart at Charleston. Dr. Stewart was a 
handsome man, with dark hair and eyes, tall in stature, and 
with a benevolent expression. 

Monday, as usual, saw sails at a distance, going from us. 
An object now engaged Mr. Smith's attention, and he called 
to us to notice it. It seemed only a point in the distance. 
He continued to watch it. It maintained the same distance or 
position from us. Therefore, he conceived the idea that it was 
a stationery ship, a light-ship, and he thought the distance 
could not exceed ten miles. The fact that the same relative 
distance was maintained ought to have convinced him, and us 
too, that it could not be a light-ship — that we were floating, 
it must be floating, too. But he did not see the point, nor did 
we at the time. Still we did not believe it to be a ship at all. 
Towards sundown he decided he would go and see what it was. 
Mr. Hutchinson begged him not to think of going, and so 
did I; but he got two pieces of plank from the lumber pile, 
nailed cross pieces, selected a piece of a paddle ( ?) tied into 
an iron stanchion, and launched his raft. He now entreated 
Mr. Hutchinson to untie or cut the string when he had got 


on the raft, Jput he, instead, tried to dissuade him from the 
attempt. He was sure he could bring us assistance. Seeing 
we had no influence, I turned to his wife and said: "Why 
do you not entreat your husband not to go?" ''Because it 
is no use, when he sets his mind on anything." He now 
talked so hopefully * of . his plan that Mr. Hutchinson 
loosed the raft, and I felt for the moment some sympathy in 
the project. When I spoke of the danger, he said : *'I lived 
near the coast when a boy, and have made little rafts and 
paddled out in the water often." ' He used the paddle, first 
on one side and then on the other, till he was lost to sight. 
Poor fellow ! He was never heard of afterwards ! 

This affair had diverted my attention from Thomas. He 
had been drowsy all day, and I once thought him asleep in 
my lap. As Charles and I sat again in the seat, now the only 
one, and without a back to support us, I was startled by a groan 
from Thomas. I called him. He did not reply. I leaned over, 
and pressed him too heavily. "You hurt me !" I looked at his 
hands, and the nails were blue. I was now alarmed. I chafed 
his hands, but the blood would not circulate. He was now 
unconscious. It did no good, and I was in despair. I knew 
he was dying, and my distress was great. He never spoke 
again. Charles was quietly seated by my side. He suddenly 
started to his feet, pointing to the water beyond us, crying out 
in great excitement : "See, Aunt Rebecca, Boatswain is drown- 
ing!" Boatswain was his dog, at home. He moved two or 
three steps, and fell. Mr. Hutchinson was sitting near us, and 
only Mrs. Smith between us. I called to him to pick Charles 
up, which he did, and seated him by me. This vision of his 
dog drowning was repeated, and each time I called for Mr. 
Hutchinson to pick him up, alarmed lest he should drown 
before he reached him. At last, Charles became totally un- 
conscious, but retained his sitting position, perfectly quiet. 
Thomas, dear little boy, began to writhe in the death struggle. 
I managed to keep him on my knees, but now his feet would 
twist off my lap, and fall in the water. I would gather them 
up, replace them, and soon they were in the water again. I 


cried and lamented, but neither of the boys heard me. Now 
and then a groan would escape him. That he was dying was 
now my sole thought. Charles was still, and I had no thought 
for him. It was the dying child now that occupied my atten- 
tion. How many times I replaced him in my lap would seem 
incredible. Each time it became more difficult. At last his 
stiffened limbs were in the water, and I had no longer the 
power to lift them up to my lap. I was almost horrified. My 
distress was unspeakable. I still had my senses, and I was not 
concerned for myself, but for the dying boy. Again I called 
frantically for Mr. Hutchinson for assistance. He always 
came to my relief. I still could hold him when placed in my 
lap; but now I grew so weak that the weight in my arms 
became an intolerable burden. I felt a strong desire to throw 
it down. The next groan would recall my senses, my affection, 
my sympathy, my remorse for my heartlessness which I be- 
wailed in lamentations. 

Thus the greater part of the night passed. The 
last remembrance was my calling to Mr. Hutchinson, 
to see if he was dead. I never knew how he responded 
to my call, for with it I became unconscious, and remained so 
till dawn, when I awoke in delirium, imagining myself at 
Montgomery, where I spent a day with some friends, previous 
to my leaving Savannah. I was horrified at the dead bodies I 
discovered. None of them I recognized. Charles was for- 
gotten. I turned to Mr. Hutchinson and Mrs. Smith, to know 
when the carriage would come to take us to Savannah. They 
answered : "Soon." I called them by the names of the friends 
who had taken me to Montgomery. For the first time I thought 
of my appearance. I saw my bare feet and night gown and 
torn dressing wrapper, and almost cried with shame, exclaim- 
ing: "How can I go to Savannah so? I am not dressed!" 
I tried to fold the calico skirt over my night gown, half crying 
because I could not accomplish the purpose, as several 
breadths were wanting, which had been torn off in squares to 
cover the heads of the children during the day — keeping them 
wet to prevent thirst, and to keep their heads cool. At night 


they would be lost, and my gown supplied others, till it was 
reduced to one width. How it looked! — had never been 
thought of until I was delirious. I would bewail my condition, 
until turning, I would again see the dead bodies, be stricken 
with terror, and cry out for the carriage. This continued until, 
exhausted, I relapsed To unconsciousness, from which I was 
awakened by Mrs. Smith, shaking me by the arm, saying: 
''Look there!" Pointing to an object. I saw a vessel, her 
sails spread and filled, her hull painted black, and a dazzling 
sun shining on her canvas. I exclaimed : *'Oh, how beauti- 
ful ! Oh, how beautiful ! ! Oh, how beautiful ! f!" And relapsed 
iijto unconsciousness. To me she was only a thing of beauty. 
It was the schooner "Henry Cameron," from Philadelphia, Pa., 
bound to Wilmington, Captain Eli Davis commander. All the 
living were taken on board. I can recall nothing that trans- 
pired, save the beauty of the ship, till late in the afternoon. I 
found myself on a locker in the cabin, a table in the middle, 
at which a gentleman sat, looking at me. I recognized him 
immediately, although I had not seen him for years. I said: 
"Mr. Greenwood, where are we?" He came to me in surprise 
that I should recognize him. He told me we were now going 
to Wilmington. I said: "Why not to Charleston?" "Why 
do you wish to go to Charleston?" he said. "Because my 
brother said he would go there, and I would like to be with 
him." I then asked for Charles. "He is in the berth beside 
you." I looked and saw him, still unconscious; but I was 
satisfied to know he was near. I then asked for Thomas. 
He said he "did not know." I then became anxious. I said 
there was a smaller boy — "What has become of him?" and as 
if in vision I saw a little form lying at my feet in the water on 
the wreck. I knew he was dead and left. I then inquired for 
Mr. and Mrs. D. Mr. Hutchinson and Mrs. Smith put their 
heads from berths opposite, and I knew them in their own 
characters and by their proper names. I was no longer 
delirious, and Mr. Greenwood asked me if I did not wish some 
water, which I thought delicious, and asked for more. He did 
not like to refuse and, afraid to give more, he left the cabin. 


Another gentleman came whom I did not know personally, but 
by character. He introduced himself— told me that Captain 
Pearson, the sailing master of the 'Tulaski," twenty-three (23) 
persons in all, were on the deck of the bow — that the Captain 
noticed, as they drifted, as did Mr. Smith, something that 
maintained its relative position till they lost sight of it at 
night. He was so impressed with the notion that it was another 
portion of the wreck with people on it, that he communicated 
what he had seen to Captain Davis, and begged him to look 
for us. He complied with the request, but was unsuccessful 
in his search. Captain Pearson again entreated him to look, 
and, after tacking about, put on his course. The importunate 
Captain solicited him the third time, and was successful in 
finding us, to the great satisfaction of all, but especially of the 
kind-hearted old Captain Pearson. My informant said Captain 
Davis knelt on his deck, and rendered thanks to God for the 
lives of so many. When I was lifted on board by two men, 
their hands under my arms, my feet trailed along the deck 
without an effort to step — totally unconscious. My wet gar- 
ments were taken off, woolen clothes put on me, and I was 
laid upon the locker, where I was lying. 

I never knew at what hour in the day we were 
rescued; but I remember the sun shone on the sails, 
coloring them white as snow to my eyes — a beautiful 
picture that I now can recall to memory in all its 
beauty ! Two little boats had been filled almost immediately 
after the explosion occurred. They put off to a distance, and 
waited till the steamer broke in pieces, and the machinery dis- 
appeared. Believing all was lost except themselves, they 
hurried to land, and reached the coast of North Carolina on 
Friday afternoon — one commanded by James Hamilton Coup- 
er, the other by Hibbert, Mate of the 'Tulaski." The report 
of the disaster reached Charleston and Wilmington on Satur- 
day and Sunday. 

The wreck of the "Pulaski" occasioned universal 
sorrow throughout the United States. Almost every 
section of the country was represented on that fatal boat, occa- 


sioning greater distress than ever before or since— coming 
before the telegraph had inured us to occurrences so common 
as to lessen at least the sympathy of people generally. Nothing 
of the six men that left us in the boat had been heard from till 
Tuesday, when a messenger reached Wilmington, stating that 
six men had landed on 4he beach forty (40) miles above, on 
Saturday. They now wanted conveyances to bring them to 
Wilmington. This news spread immediately among the in- 
habitants, so that at the appearance of the ''Henry Cameron" in 
the offing nearly the whole male ' population were assembled 
on the wharf to learn what tidings she brought from the sea. 
When so many sufferers were found aboard, the sympathies 
of the people were manifested in every possible way. Doors 
were thrown open to all, and universal kindness prevailed in 
the community. All wished to do something for us— even 
children desired to be of use to the sufferers. The vessel 
ceased to move, and we heard the tramp of many feet on deck. 
Two maids next appeared with band-boxes, in the cabin, with 
clothes for the ladies. Instantly I slided from the locker, with- 
out assist,ance, and stood on the floor unsupported, till my 
sailor suit was dropped, and the maid dressed me in those she 
brought. A cloak was thrown around me; Mrs. Smith was 
waited on at the same time, and the maids announced our 
readiness to be taken ashore. I asked where I was to be taken, 
and asked to have Charles taken to the same house. The 
gentlemen made a seat with their hands, and I sat thereon, and 
put my hands on their shoulders, and thus was conveyed to 
the carriage. Mrs. Smith came next, and the two gentlemen 
sat on the front seat, and I think they were physicians. But 
finding me standing and unsupported, and not knowing I had 
only an hour before awakened from delirium and stupor of 
many hours, I rode some distance unsupported, except, by the 
back of the carriage. We drove very slowly, and it seemed to 
me a long way. At one moment I could see the houses and 
gardens we were passing; then it was for minutes as black as 
darkness could be, and then houses would appear. At last we 
reached the house, and I was taken and brought up a flight of 


Steps to the second story. But it seemed to me I was being 
carried up several flights— the steps, so numerous did they 
appear to my distorted fancy ! It was now night ; the room 
was bright with hght. They laid me on a large bed. Never 
before had I experienced such a sensation. It was perfect 
rest and blissfulness. A number of ladies were present, and 
hovering around my bed. They seemed almost angelic. The 
room and all it contained seemed very elegant — and such 
kindness! It was like Heaven! Not a thought to mar the 
blissfulness of those moments. My eyes were nearly shut, as 
the lights were bright.' Dr. DeRosset called to a lady to 
have some arrow-root prepared quickly. She said : "Cold, or 
hot?" Before he replied, I said ''Cold, if you please." The 
company was startled to hear me speak. After all, I was not 
far wrong in supposing it was like Heaven; for it was the 
most Christian house that I ever entered. The doctor was an 
old man, with silver hair, kind face, gentle voice and manner. 
His attention, after feeling my pulse, was directed to my feet. 
They had been bruised by floating pieces of plank on the wreck. 
In some places, the skin was broken, and irritated by the salt 
water. They were now swollen to an unusual size, and almost 
purple in color. 

It may be surprising to some when I say I was 
almost wholly unconscious of the condition of my feet. 
Even when my feet were being dressed, I experienced no pain ; 
for the blissful repose of the body and limbs left no room for 
another sensation. The arrow-root was brought — the first 
food I had tasted after leaving Charleston. I cannot recall 
tasting food at sea. At last I remembered to inquire for 
Charles, and was told -he was in the next room, and was 
satisfied to know he was near. I was too far spent to feel 
anxiety. Afterwards I learned that the physicians watched 
him through the night, fearing he would die. He was better 
next morning, and on Thursday considered out of danger, but 
still in bed. That afternoon his father reached Wilmington. 
I will not attempt to describe our meeting. Afterwards I 
learned some particulars of his experience in the little boat 


and making land. The six men who left us to procure assist- 
ance saw land-that same afternoon. They made for the shore, 
the boat was upset in the breakers and each man had to swim 
for his life. My brother told me he would never have reached 
land had it not been for the buoyancy of the pillow tied around 
his waist. It was late wfien they reached the shore, where 
they remained, lying on the beach to rest for an hour. It was 
near an inlet, where there were small craft; but the captains 
said they could not go to sea unless wind and tide both suited. 
These both were adverse. His strength^ was so wasted that 
he had to go to bed; but he hired a man to ride express to 
\yilmington. About noon the man appeared before him. He 
was greatly shocked and inquired why he had betrayed his 
confidence. He said the captains advised him not to ride 
through the storm, endangering his life to no purpose ; that the 
wreck had been destroyed by the storm; that nothing so frail 
could have lived in such weather. The captains acknowledged 
the advice they had given, and convinced my brother. He even 
mourned us as dead, and his grief was increased by regret 
that he ha^ not shared our fate and died with us. He hired 
men to watch upon the beach to recover bodies, if floated 
ashore. He was sick in bed and with a painful cut upon his 
foot by broken glass upon the steamer deck. He had prayed 
for self and us; but now he feared his prayers had been an 
abomination to a holy God. Till the carriages came he had 
nothing to console him. He was assured of my safety and 
that of the two boys. He naturally concluded they were both 
his, and his spirits revived again to be again bereaved that 
Thomas had died upon the wreck. The other little boy besides 
Charles was the son of Major Twiggs, of Augusta, rescued 
from the piece of wreck first discovered — (Charles?) fortu- 
nately was considered out of danger, and out of bed, at the end 
of the week. He had had such devoted attention from physi- 
cians and nurses, and being naturally of a strong constitution, 
he quickly recovered. 

Two brothers and a brother-in-law came to my 
brother in his calamity. They persuaded Charles, and 



urged my brother, to let him go with them to Augusta. He 
gave a reluctant consent, and was miserable when Charles was 
gone. He feared some harm might befall him, now his only 
child. Bereaved of his wife and six children, and this anxiety 
added, seemed more than he could endure. With the most 
devoted attention from the doctor, his daughters, and their 
friends, I was unable to sit up in bed. The fever had gone, 
but I was myself a wreck. I prayed to go to Charleston, but 
he would not leave me. I then resolved to go, though im- 
portuned by the doctor and his family to remain longer. We 
went by steamer to Charleston, and found a compartment of 
a car fitted up with bedding and pillows for my accommoda- 
tion. The doctor sent a kind old servant with me to Charles- 
ton, and I was there met by a private servant, sent by my 
brother George. She was the nurse of his children, known as 
Aunt Hannah, one of the most devoted and affectionate I ever 
knew. She was waiting on the wharf when the boat arrived 
and it had scarcely stopped before she was in the cabin, and 
had me in her arms, embracing me in the most affectionate 
manner, bewailing, at the same time, my condition. At the 
depot I was met by my brother with his carriage, similarly 
fitted up as the car at Charleston, and thus I reached my home 
at Augusta. 

The captain's idea of the wreck was entirely wrong, 
as events proved. Her lightness was her safety. It 
was a frail thing to look at in a storm, but she offered no 
resistance to the waves ; nothing to strike against, as the billows 
came, the wreck would rise gradually and surmount the swell 
of the sea. Then only half of the wave passed over us, and 
by clinging together that v/as resisted, showing that some times 
there is strength in weakness. On the portion of the wreck 
with Capt. Pearson, the saihng master, were twenty-three 
men, and a boy ten years old. A gentleman from Mobile 
was killed by the falling of a mast. They had no food, no 
water, and no means to catch the rain as it fell. Capt. Davis 
Dubois was never seen after the explosion. On our portion 
rescued the twenty-two (22) men and the little boy. Captain 


of the wreck vft had twenty-three (23) persons — three (3) 
children, six (6) women, and fourteen (14) men. During the 
rain, bottles were held under a corner of a little sail and quickly 
filled, and then passed from hand to hand until we were 
satisfied to nausea. To the "drinking of salt water has been 
attributed delirium and the death of so many that perished. 
Four were lost overboard, four died on the wreck, one left on 
a raft and perished. Seven were rescued by Capt. Davis ; six 
went ashore for assistance. The two boats that left the 
'Tulaski" and carried news of the disaster reached the shore, 
one with twelve, the other with five persons. One under the 
control of Mr. J. H. Couper, of Georgia, contained twelve 
persons, all of whom reached the shore in safety ; the other in 
charge of Mr. Wills (should be Hibbert) contained eleven 
(11) persons, of whom five reached the shore, one, a scalded 
fireman, died in the boat and was thrown overboard before 
reaching the breakers, and five perished in the breakers. Judge 
Rochester, of New York, Mr. Baker, of Georgia, two negro 
women and, another scalded fireman, Lieutenant Thornton, 
U. S. A., and another gentleman, together reached the shore 
on a small piece of wreck. So far as I have ascertained there 
were 131 passengers — 54 saved in all*; yy lost. 



Members of the Georgia Historical Society, and other 
readers of the Quarterly, will doubtless be pleased to learn that 
Mr. Alexander R. Lawton, the Society's worthy President and 
Chairman of the Managing Committee of the Telfair Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, who has been a member of the Board of 
Directors of the American Federation of Arts for some time, 
was, at a meeting of that body, in May last, elected a Vice- 
President of the Federation. The official organ of the Federa- 
tion is the American Magazine of Art. 

Mr. George J. Baldwin, one of our active members for a 
long time, and for some years one of the Board of Curators, 
now residing in New York, has just given to our Library a 
copy (number 114 of a limited edition of 131 copies) of "The 
Alexander Letters," printed in costly style at his own expense. 
The letters were written by members of the Alexander family, 
ranging from the year 1787 to the year 1900, and contain 
matter of interest historical and otherwise, and the book is a 
valuable addition to the Library. 

During the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary 
of the crossing of the Atlantic by the steamship Savannah, 
copies of Pulaski's banner and the flag which floated at the 
mast of the boat on which Lafayette was entertained while on 
his visit to Savannah in 1825 were exhibited in the city. The 
copies v/ere painted by Mrs. E. P. Noyes, a talented member of 
the Georgia Historical Society, who has since presented them 
to the Society, and they are now displayed in a show-case in 
the Library. Mrs. Noyes is a descendant of General John 

^ editor's notes 97 

Another descendant of General Floyd, Mrs. R. F. O'Neale, 
of New York, sister of Hon. Wm. G. McAdoo, has presented 
to our Society the following articles of historical interest, and 
worthy of preservation : 

1. Epaulets of General John Floyd. 

2. Piece of wool from wheel of a caisson captured from 
the Federals in the first battle of Manassas. 

3. Tobacco pipe made from the last remains of the 

,4. Piece of a grape-shot picked up on battlefield of 
Waterloo by C. Floyd in 182 1. 

5. Old wooden match box of the kind first made. 

6. Piece of wood taken from the deck of the "Victoria" 
in 1805, by Captain Navin, 96th Regt. B. I. 

7. Piece of pottery and 4 Indian arrow-heads found in 
Okefinokee Swamp by General Charles Floyd, whose 
troops were the first to penetrate the Swamp. 
Woo4 from Melrose Abbey, August 2, 1806. 
Cap-plate, etc., of Garde Imperiale Grenadiers, Water- 
loo (3 pieces). 

Piece of tesselated pavement*of ancient Carthage. 
Piece of wood from house in which Columbus was 
born, Genoa. 

Piece of rock from St. Michael's Cave, Gibraltar. 
Two pieces of mosaic from Mosque of St. Sophia, 




Mr. J. Florance Minis, of the Board of Curators of the 
Georgia Historical Society, has presented to the Society a 
walking-cane which has an interesting history. The cane is 
made of a piece of live oak from the frigate "Constitution," 
and was owned and used by Commodore Josiah Tattnall who, 
at Pei Ho, used the now famous words "Blood is thicker than 
water." Mr. Minis received the cane as a gift from Captain 
John R. F. Tattnall, son of the Commodore. 









VOL. Ill No. 3 





Judge John Erskine's Test Oath Decision in 

THE Case Ex Parte William Law _ _ _ 101-130 

The Case of George McIntosh _____ 

________ _ - By The Editor 131-145 

Queries and Answers ________ 146 

Editor's Notes _ _ ________ 147-148 








VOL. Ill No. 3 


Printed for the Society by 

Savannah, Georgia 



Hrie Georgia Historical Quarterly 

Volume III SEPTEMBER. 1919 Number III 

Tne Decision of Judge JoKn Erskine 

In TKe Case Ex Parte William Law, Under 
The "Attorney's Test OatK Act" 

In the very beginning of the reconstruction period, after 
the War of Secession, among the measures adopted looking 
to the complete humiliation of the Southern people was a law 
requiring that all lawyers seeking to practice their profession 
in the United States Courts must first take an oath known as 
'The Attorney's Test Oath." 

At the May term, 1866, of the United States District 
Court for the Southern District of Georgia, Judge John Erks- 
kine presiding, the Honorable A¥illiam Law, perhaps at that 
time the oldest member of the bar in the State, applied to the 
Court for permission to practice, claiming that the law re- 
quiring an oath, which he could not conscientiously take, was 
unconstitutional. The decision of Judge Erksine, in favor of 
Judge Law, is here given as an important part of the history 
of that gloomy period. 

On the 14th day of May, 1885, at a meeting of the Sa- 
vannah bar, in the United States Court Room, when a por- 
trait of Judge Erskine (who had reached the age of seventy 
years, and was retiring from the bench) was presented to the 
Court, among the speakers was the late Honorable George A. 
Mercer, who referred to the decision in the case of Judge 
Law in the following words : 

"One of the earliest and most important questions which 
came before Judge Erskine for decision involved the right 
of lawyers to practice their profession without first taking 


an oath, which those of us who had been faithful to our 
State and the dictates of our conscience found it impossible 
to take. 

''Judge Erskine, in a learned and able opinion, held that 
the retrospective portions of the oath required to be taken 
by attorneys, under the Act of Congress generally known as 
the 'Attorney's Test Oath Act,' was an ex post facto law, 
and was also substantially, and by its inherent force, a bill of 
pains and penalties, having the character of a bill of attainder, 
except the death penalty; and, consequently, was repugnant 
to the Constitution of the United States prohibiting the pas- 
sage of such bills. 

"Had Judge Erksine made no other decision, the bar of 
Georgia became his lasting debtor for this." 


United States District Court 
Southern District of Georgia 

At Savannah, May Term, 1866. 

In the matter of the Oath to he taken by Attorneys and Coun- 
sellors of the National Courts, under the Act of Congress 
of January 24th, 1865. 

Ex parte, William Law, Petitioner. 

Erskine, J. William Law, Esquire, produced in Court 
satisfactory proof that in the year 1817, he was, by the Cir- 
cuit, and District Courts of the United States, for the District 
of Georgia, duly admitted to practice as an attorney, proctor, 
solicitor, advocate and counsellor at the bar of said Courts, 
respectively; that he has been since the year 1859 hitherto, 
attorney or proctor of record in the case of Finigan et al. vs. 
The Ship Parliament — a cause now depending on the Admi- 
ralty side of this Court ; that he has taken the oath of Amnesty ; 
that upon the promulgation by the President of the United 


States of the Proclamation of May 29, 1865, he found himself 
within its thirteenth exception ; that he applied to the President 
for pardon and amnesty under this Proclamation; and that 
he received a grant of pardon and^ amnesty, and accepted the 
same, and has filed in the office" of the Clerk of this Court 
an authenticated copy of said acceptance. 

Upon these proofs, Mr. Law asked to be allowed to 
appear and be heard in behalf of his clients in said cause, with- 
out bein^ first required to take and subscribe the oath pre- 
scribed by the Act of Congress, approved January 24, 1865. 
The petitioner was informed by the Court that this law of 
Congress was imperative, and could not be pretermitted. 
Thereupon he submitted to the Court, that the statute was 
repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, and re- 
quested permission to show cause against it. This was 
granted, and during the early part of this term the case was 
fully and ably argued by the Petitioner, propria persona, by 
Ex-Gov. Joseph E. Brown, of the Northern District, and 
Thomas E. Lloyd, Esquire, of Savannah. The reply on be- 
half of the Government by Henry S. Fitch, Esquire, United 
States Attorney, to the arguments of these learned counsel, 
was replete with originality and legal scholarship. 

Prefatory to entering upon the examination of the various 
[uestions regularly discussed, so much of the original Act of 
ingress of July 2, 1862, and its supplement of January 24, 
[1865, as is thought essential to an easier comprehending of 
the grave and important inquiries now before the Court, may 
)e cited. The original act is entitled "An act to prescribe 
m oath of office, and for other purposes." In enacts that, 
"Hereafter every person elected or appointed to any office of 
lonor or profit under the Government of the United States, 
iither in civil, military, or naval departments of the public 
service, excepting the President of the United States, shall, 
)efore entering upon the duties of such office, and before 
)eing entitled to any of the salary or other emoluments 
thereof, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: 

"I, A. B., do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I have never voluntarily 
borne arms against the United States since I have been a citizen thereof; 
that I have voluntarily given no aid, countenance, counsel, or encourage- 


ment to persons engaged in armed hostility thereto; that I have neither: 
sought nor acceptea, nor attempted to exercise tlie lunctions of any office 
whatever, under any authority or pretended autliority in hostility to the 
United States; that I have not yielded a voluntary support to any pre- 
tended government, authority, power, or constitution within the United 
States, nostile or inimical thereto. And I do further swear (or affirm) 
that, to the best of my knowledge and ability, I will support^ and defend 
the Constitution of the United States against ail enemies, foreign and 
domestic; that i will bear true faith and anegiance to the same; that I take 
this Obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of eva- 
sion, ana that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office 
on which I am about to enter, so help me God," 

And the supplementary Act provides: "That no person 
after the date of this Act shall be admitted to the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, or at any time after the 
fourth of March next, sh^H be admitted to the bar of any 
Circuit or District Court of the United States, or the Court of 
Claims, as an attorney or counsellor of such Court, or shall 
be allowed to appear and be heard in any such Court, by 
virtue of any previous admission, or any special power of 
attorney, unless he shall have first taken and subscribed the 
oath prescribed, in 'An act to prescribe an oath of office and 
for other purposes, approved July 2, 1862,' according to the 
form and in the manner in said act provided," etc. 

The point having been made, whether an attorney, or 
counsellor at law, as such, holds a public office or place, or is 
to be regarded as a mere officer of the court, — and there being 
a diversity of opinion among learned judges on this point, — it 
is proper that the views of this Court should be expressed. In 
Lord Coke's time, and prior thereto, an attorney — but not so a 
counsellor — was, it seems, considered a public officer; for he 
says : "That in an action of debt by an attorney for his fees, 
the defendant shall not wage his law, because he is compel- 
lable to be his attorney." Co. Litt. 295 a. Afterwards, however, 
Lord Holt (i Sal., 87) held, that he was not compellable to 
appear for any one, unless he takes his fee, or backs the 
warrant; and so the law has continued in England to this 
day. In the following cases : In the matter of Wood, Hopk. 
6; Seymour v. Ellison, 2 Cow., 13; Merritt v. Lambert, 10 
Paige, 352; Ray v. Birdseye, 5 Denio, 619; and Watts v. 
Whittemore, 22 Barb. 246, practitioners of the law are said 
to be public officers ; but in the first mentioned case only was 
the question up for decision. In the AdmWs of Byrne v. 


Adm'rs of Stewart, 3 Dess., 456; Leigh's case, i Mumf., 458; 
in the ^natter of the oaths to be taken by attorneys and counsel- 
lors, 20 Johns., 492 ; Richardson v. Brooklyn City and New- 
town R. R., 22 How., P. R. 368; and Cohen v. Wright, 22 Cal., 
293, they are held not to be publit officers. And it was re- 
marked by Platt^ J., in 20 Johns., 493: "As attorneys and 
counsellors they perform no pubhc duties on behalf of the 
government; they execute no public trust." 

Having collated and well considered these state authorities, 
I am of the opinion that the law is with the negative of the 
question. Nor do I think that Congress — and it is the inten- 
tion of the National Legislature, as found in the statute that 
guides this Court — considered them public officers. In article 
one section six, cl. two of the Constitution, it is declared, that 
•'no person holding any office under the United States shall be 
a member of either iiouse during his continuance in office." 
Has it ever been seriously questioned that practicing as an at- 
torney or counsellor in the Federal Courts is inconsistent with 
holding, at the same time, the office of Senator or Represen- 
tative in Congress? Neither was there any statutory prohi- 
bition to practicing in any of the United States Courts until 
the passage of the Act of Congress, approved March 3, 1863, 
and the inhibition is confined to the Court of Claims, 12 Stats. 
at Large, 765. See also. Amendment to Rule II of Supreme 
Court United States, 2 Wall vii. 

Two questions — each of importance in the investigation of 
this case — spring from the preceding conclusion: Whether 
this Court in admitting Mr. Law to its bar acted judicially, or 
ministerially? And whether, if his admission was a judicial 
act, it gave him a property in his profession or office of attor- 
ney and counsellor? 

The Constitution ordains that "the judicial power of the 
United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in 
such inferior Courts as Congress may from time to time ordain 
and establish." Art. iii, sect. i. Accordingly, at the first ses- 
sion of Congress, an Act was passed "to establish the judicial 
Courts of the United States." The additional courts estab- 
lished by it are the Circuit and District Courts ; and notwith- 


standing these Courts are denominated inferior Courts, they 
are not so considered in the technical use of that term. 4 Dall., 
11; 5 Cranch, 135; 8 How., 586. The District Courts of the 
United States, under their own proper powers, are Courts of 
law and admiralty. The distinctive grades in the legal pro- 
fession which prevail in England, and to a limited extent in 
some of the courts in this country, have no substantial recog- 
nition in the Circuit or District Courts of the United States; 
in these the offices of attorney, proctor, advocate and coun- 
sellor are combined in one person. The 35th section of the 
judiciary Act of 1789 declares "that in all the Courts of the 
United States, the parties may plead and manage their own 
causes personally, or by the assistance of such counsel or attor- 
neys at law, as by the rules of said Courts respectively, shall 
be permitted to manage and conduct causes therein." 

Directly bearing upon the first of these questions is the 
case of The Commonwealth ex rcL, etc., of Breckenridge v. 
The Judges of the Court of Common Pleas of Cumberland 
County, I S. & R., 187. A motion was made for a mandamus 
to be directed to the judges of that court, commanding them 
to proceed to the examination of the relator, and if found 
competent to admit him to practice in that court, as an attor- 
ney, etc. TiLGHMAN, C. J. said 'Tf it becomes a question 
whether the rules have been complied with, the court must 
decide. Can this be a ministerial act? or rather can anything 
be more decidedly judicial? The right of Mr. Breckenridge 
has been judicially decided ; and if he is left without remedy by 
appeal, he is but in the situation of many other persons who 
have important interests decided in the court of common pleas ; 
for many points of great importance are decided on motion, 
in which neither appeal nor writ of error lies." And on p. 195, 
Yeates, J., says *Tn the admission of an attorney the court 
acts judicially not ministerially." The mandamus was denied. 

The case of McLaughlin v. The District Court, 5 W. & S. 
272, was a motion for a rule to show cause why a mandamus 
should not issue to the district court, commanding it to restore 
the relator. Rogers, J., announcing the opinion of the court, 
says : "It is ruled in The Commonwealth ex rel., 8ic., v. The 


Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, i S. & R. 187, that 
the admission of an attorney by a Court of Common Pleas is a 
judicial and not a ministerial act, and for that reason not the 
subject of a mandamus. That case is an authority directly 
adverse to the present applicatioff; in principle there is no 
conceivable distinction between them. If the admission of 
an attorney to the bar be a judicial act, by parity of reason- 
ing his dismission must be judicial also." 

In the matter of the application of Henry Cooper, 8 Smith, 
67, the fijTst Head Note is in these words : "In the admission 
of attorneys and counsellors the supreme court acts judicially. 
The function is not of an executive character." Seldon^ J., in 
delivering the opinion of the court, referring to ex parte 
Secomhe, 19 How., 13 and to other cases, says: 'Tf the 
removal or suspension of an attorney be, as was held in these 
cases, a judicial act, it is difficult to see how the admission of 
an attorney is any the less so; especially when, as here, the 
court in the act of admission is required to pass, not only upon 
the sufficiency of the evidence of certain facts, but upon the 
constitutionality and validity of a statute, .and thus to exercise 
the highest judicial functions ever entrusted to a court." 

The case of Secomhe was briefly as fallows : The supreme 
court of the Territory of Minnesota was empowered by a Ter- 
ritorial statute to remove any attorney for wilful misconduct- 
Under this law Mr. Secombe was removed ; and the order for 
removal set forth the cause. He presented a petition to the 
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, praying a 
mandamus to the supreme court of the Territory, commanding 
it to vacate the order. The prayer was denied. And Chief 
Justice Taney, in giving the unanimous opinion of the Court, 
says: "The removal of the relator, therefore, for the cause 
above mentioned, was the act of the Court done in the exer- 
cise of a judicial discretion, which the law authorized and 
required it to exercise." And on page 15, he remarks: "The 
Court, it seems, were of opinion that no notice was necessary, 
and proceeded without; and, whether this decision was 
erroneous or not, yet it was made in the exercise of judicial 
authority, where the subject-matter was within their jurisdic- 


tion, and it cannot therefore be revised and annulled in this 
form of proceeding." See also ex parte Burr, g, Wheat., 529. 

The authorities, from which these quotations are taken, are 
in themselves sufficient and conclusive to show, not only that 
the admission of an attorney, or counsellor, but likewise his 
suspension, or disbarment, is a judicial act or judgment. The 
admission of an attorney, or counsellor, where no fraud has 
been practiced on the Court, gives him the office for life. This 
privilege, franchise, or right to practice in the Court, has an- 
nexed to it the condition that his character shall continue fair, 
and that he will not abuse his office by criminal or immoral 
conduct. As an attorney, or counsellor, in my judgment, does 
not hold a public office or place, there is no forfeiture for non- 
user: — for if he chooses to practice his profession, he may do 
so; if not, not : he may withdraw from the practice and resume 
it at pleasure ; he may be raised to the Bench, and return to 
the bar again — as was the petitioner himself, and where, from 
1829 to 1835, in our highest State judicial tribunal, he presided 
with great learning and honor. Vide, In the matter of Dor- 
menon, i Mar. 129. Carthew, 478. 

The second question is, whether the petitioner, by virtue of 
his admission to the bar of this Court, has a property in his 
profession or office? The case of The Admn'rs of Byrne v. 
The Adm'rs of Stewart arose on a statute which inhibited 
persons holding certain offices under the state from practicing 
in the courts. The chancellor, in his opinion, remarks : "But 
the objection of most weight is, that this act, as it affects the 
defendant, will deprive him of a right which may fairly be 
considered a species of property. It cannot be denied that 
a man's trade or profession is his property, and if any law 
should be passed avowedly for the purpose of restraining any 
member of the bar, who is not a public officer, from exercising 
his profession, I should declare such law void." In 20 Johns. 
R. 492, the court says, that attorneys and counsellors "exer- 
cise a privilege or franchise." And Ormond, J., in the case of 
Dorsey, supra, in speaking of the right to practice law, asks: 
"Can it be seriously contended that it is not a valuable right, 
and as deserving of protection as property?" 


In the matter of John Baxter, decided at the May Term 
1865, of the Circuit Court of the United States for the Eastern 
District of Tennesee, Trigg, J., in an able opinion, construing 
the Act of Congress of January 24, 1865, says: "For if he" 
(the attorney) "neglects or refuses to take the prescribed 
oath he is etiectually deprived of his office and the fees and 
emoluments theerof, as he could be by a forfeiture of the same 
upon a regular trial and conviction by due process of law, for 
the offences mentioned. These fees and emoluments," con- 
tinues the judge, "are as much the property of the attorney as 
any choses in action can, in law, be the property of any other 
citizen; and, being property, the law in question, to the ex- 
tent mentioned, punishes the attorney by a forfeiture of 
his property." Opinion of the Honorable Connally F. 
Trigg. Famph. p. 10. Memphis, Tenn., 1865. This case and 
Cohen v. Wright, are the only reported cases that I have seen, 
in which this question came regularly before a court. In 
Cohen v. Wright, the court, Crocker, J., delivering the opinion 
— in which Norton, J., specially concurred — say: "The right 
to practice law is -valuable to the possessor only. It cannot 
descend or be inherited, bought or sold, conveyed or trans- 
ferred, can be divested and destroyed by mere order of the 
court, is subject to forfeiture by mere loss of moral character 
on the part of the possessor, and cannot, therefore, in any 
proper sense be deemed 'property,' or amount to a 'contract' in 
the Constitutional meaning of those terms." But the court in 
approaching this conclusion, say: "If the right of the attor- 
ney to practice law is property, within the clear intent and 
meaning of the constitution, there is much force in the posi- 
tion that the statute by depriving him of the right, without a 
judicial investigation, such as is usual in cases of that kind, 
violates this provision. Still it is not so clear as to be beyond a 
doubt, for it can hardly be said that he is 'deprived' of any 
thing when the law leaves it open to him to resume his privi- 
leges at any time by taking the oath, a failure to which is his 
own fault." — In another part of this opinion this oath will be 
transcribed and referred to. 


Comparing the ruling of the United States Circuit Court, 
on this point, with that of the supreme court of CaHfornia, 
it will be seen that the views of these Courts are opposed: at 
least there is some diversity of opinion. The former Court 
shows that an illegal result follows, by reason of the Act of 
Congress depriving the attorney of his office. — In other words, 
if the attorney will not, or can not take the oath, the statute 
itself deprives him of the fees and emoluments becoming due 
to him while in possession of his office under the sanction of 
the Court. The latter Court — if my interpretation is not er- 
roneous — holds that no unlawful consequence follows, because 
the attorney has no property in his office, in the constitutional 
sense of that term. That an attorney, or counsellor, has a 
property in his fees and emoluments by the common, or statu- 
tory law, or by contract express or implied with his client, 
and legal modes of recovering the same, is well established. 
I Bal. Ab. Attorney (F.) 2 Or. on Ev. sec. 139: 14 Geo. 87. 

The first division of the last clause, of the fifth article of 
the Amendment to the Constitution of the United States or- 
dains that no person shall "be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property without due process of law." This declaration ex- 
hibits a summary of all the antecedent precautions contained in 
this article, and it places property in the same category with 
the more exalted blessings of life and liberty. Where property 
is possessed or owned by a person under existing laws, or 
where he has secured to him, by judicial authority (as in the 
case of an attorney or counsellor) the right or privilege to 
acquire and own property by his professional skill and industry 
— supposing this right or privilege, or future acquisition and 
ownership is, under this provision of the Constitution, prop- 
erty, (and, therefore, equally protected with property over 
which the owner has prehensible power), then he cannot be 
deprived of the property, nor the right, privilege, or franchise 
mentioned be extinguished, by the declaration of Congress, 
per se; and if he has forfeited either, the facts must be ascer- 
tained by due process of law, before the judicial tribunals of 
the country. Murray's Lessee et al. v. Hoboken Land and 
Improvement Company, 18 How. 272. 


Whether, when an attorney or counsellor is, by the Court 
regularly licensed and admitted to practice law, this bestows 
upon him a property in his profession or office, is a question 
so interwoven with nice distinctions, that it is far from being 
easily resolved ; but the present inclination of my mind is that 
it is not property, in the sense and import of that word or 
term as used in the Constitution; still, it is a right, privilege, 
or species of franchise under the immediate sanction and pro- 
tection of the Court. I do not, however, entertain the remotest 
doubt of* the power of Congress acting within the limits of its 
Constitutional authority, to prescribe by law who may be at- 
torneys or counsellors of the National Courts, their qualifica- 
tions, mode of admission, suspension and disbarment. 

Seldon, J., in Wynehamer v. The People. 3 Ker., 433, gives 
the following definition of property: ''Property is the right 
of any person to possess, use, enjoy and dispose of a thing. 
The term, although frequently applied to the thing itself, in 
strictness means only the rights in relation to it, {Bouviers 
Law Die; 1 Bla. Com., 138; Webster's Dic.y And, indeed, 
after a most careful examination of all the authorities within 
my reach, I have failed to discover a definition of property 
stripped of the attributes of enjoyment and alienation. Grofius 
— Book 2, ch. 6, sec. i, says: The exclusive right of using 
and transferring property follows as a natural consequence 
from the perception and admission of the right itself. 

The petitioner having brought into Court a charter of 
free pardon and amnesty granted to him by the President of 
the United States, and filed with the Clerk an authenti- 
cated copy of his acceptance of the same, urged that this act 
of Executive clemency relieves him from being required, 
before he can appear and be heard as an attorney or counsellor 
in this Court, to take and subscribe the oath prescribed by 
the Act of January 23, 1865, because, as he says, this pardon 
and amnesty has restored him to all the rights subject to for- 
feiture by reason of his having 'Voluntarily participated in 
the rebellion." The Constitution (Art. ii. sec. ii, cl. i), affir- 
matively vests in the President of the United States, the sole 
power to grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of 


impeachment. And the very nature and necessity of such an 
authority in ever}^ government, arises from the infirmaties 
incident to the administration of human justice. 

In ex parte Wells, i8 How., 307, Mr. Justice Wayne, in 
deUvering the opinion of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, makes use of the following language : "Without such 
a power of clemency, to be exercised by some departmient or 
functionary of a government, it would be most imperfect and 
deficient in its political morality, and in the attributes of deity, 
whose judgments are always tempered with mercy." Mr. 
Speed, Attorney-General of the United States, in his Opinion 
of May I, 1865, elucidates in a masterly manner, the Consti- 
tutional power of the President to grant pardon and amnesty. 
And in defining these terms, he says : ''A pardon is a remis- 
sion of guilt ; an amnesty is an act of oblivion or forgetf ulness. 
They are acts of sovereign mercy and grace, flowing from the 
appropriate organ of the Government. — There can be no par- 
don where there is no actual or imputed guilt. — The accept- 
ance of a pardon is the confession of guilt, or of the existence 
of a state of facts from which a judgment of guilt would 
follow." In a subsequent part of the Opinion he remarks: 
"After a pardon has been accepted it becomes a valid act, and 
the person receiving it is entitled to all its benefits." After- 
wards he says : ''Persons who have been constantly engaged 
in rebellion, should know distinctly what they are to do, 
when and how they are to do it, to free themselves from pun- 
ishment in whole or in part, or to re-instate themselves as be- 
fore the rebellion." In 12 Mod. R., 119, it is held that ''Where 
a crime is pardoned all the efifects and consequences thereof 
are also discharged." 

I will not venture to illustrate or expand these citations, 
or to discuss this subject at length, but will bring my remarks 
to a close in a very few words. The language of the Act is 
general and explicit ; and although it applies to a single order 
of persons only, it is gratuitous to say that it was the inten- 
tion of Congress to limit the oath to any particular individual 
or class of this order ; the plain words of the Act are, that it 
shall comprehend every attorney or counsellor upon his ad- 


mission to the bar of a National Court, or who had been 
admitted previous to the 4th of March, 1865. Yet the effect 
of the statute is, that he who has not been in rebelhon, can 
take the oath ; he who was — notwithstanding he has received 
pardon and amnesty — can not. Therefore, while this Act is 
of force, neither pardon nor amnesty avail the petitioner, so 
as to make him a ''new man." 4 Bla. Com. 402. 

Was this result — this impossibility — foreknown to Con- 
gress ? 

Is this statute of the character contemplated by Sir William 
Blackstone? ''But where," says that author, "some collateral 
matter arises out of the general words and happens to be un- 
reasonable, there the judges are, in decency, to conclude that 
this consequence was not foreseen by the parliament, and 
therefore, they are at liberty to expound the statute by equity, 
and only quoad hoc disregard it." i Com. 91. What is said by 
the Commentator relates to the British constitution; but 
whether such reason alone, for setting aside a statute, or any 
portion of it, would obtain in this country is very questionable. 
See Iredell, J., in Calder v. Bull, 3 Dall., 386; Cochran v. Van 
Surly, 20 Wend., 381 ; The City of Bridgeport v. The Housa- 
tonic Rail Road Company, 15 Conn. 475; Parker v. Common- 
wealth, 6 Barr, 507. But vide Ross' case, 2 Pick., 165 ; re- 
marks of Parker, C. J. 

Chancellor Kent, (i Com., 448,) says: "If there be no 
constitutional objections to a statute, it is with us as absolute 
and uncontrollable as laws flowing from the sovereign power 
under any other form of government." Here we have a 
written Constitution, forming the paramount and fundamental 
law of the nation, wherein is designated the power and duties 
of the National Legislature, as well as the other departments 
of the government; therefore, it must follow as a consequence, 
that none of the co-ordinate branches can infringe the power 
of any of the others — each division- — legislative, executive, and 
judicial, must remain confined within its own Constitutional 
limits. It was ingeniously argued by one of the learned coun- 
sel, ex-Gov. Joseph E. Brown, that this Act imposes a penalty 
which cannot be remitted, and inflicts a punishment beyond the 


reach of Executive clemency. Whether this statute really 
passes the Constitutional boundary, and is subversive of the 
pardoning power of the President, is a question of so nice and 
delicate a nature, that the solution of it would demand the 
most profound consideration ; but, as the case before the Court 
does not absolutely require this question to be resolved, it will 
not be attempted. See Story on the Constitution, sec. 1498. 

On the part of the petitioner it was contended that the Act 
of January 24, 1865 — (in which the oath of office of July 2, 
1862, may be, by relation, considered as embodied) — is in the 
nature of a bill of attainder. 

Bills of attainder are statutes enacted by the supreme legis- 
lative power, pro re nata, inflicting capital penalties, ex post 
facto, without conviction in the regular course of administra- 
tion through courts of justice. 

But it has been said, that the person or persons, to be 
affected must be named in the bill, otherwise it is not a statute 
of this character. Dr. Wooddeson in his Vinerian Lectures, 
13 Law, Lib. 510, lends a general substantiation to this posi- 
tion. He says : ''It has been usual in times of domestic re- 
bellion to pass acts of parliament inflicting the penalties of 
attainder on those by name, who had levied war against the 
king, and had fled from justice, provided they should not sur- 
render by a day prefixed." Acts of attainder were generally 
framed in accordance with the foregoing extract, but not al- 
ways so; for there are in the statute books, both of England 
and of Ireland, many statutes of attainder wherein whole 
classes of people, in bulk, were attainted, adjudged and con- 
victed of high treason, without being named or otherwise le- 
gally designated ; and — though it may be wholly useless to refer 
to the fact — without being called, arraigned, or tried. But a 
distant allusion alone to these bills of attainder, and which in 
several material respects, differ from those mentioned by 
Wooddeson, and other writers, is not sufficient to an under- 
standing of the grave question under immediate examination ; 
therefore, so much of such of them as may direct to a legiti- 
mate, legal conclusion, may not inaptly, I think, be transcribed. 
At a parliament held at Westminster, the statute of 26 Hen., 


viii., c 25, 3 Stats, of the Realm, 529, was passed, entitled ''An 
Act concerning the Attainder of Thomas Fittzgaralde, Erie of 
Gildare." It attaints and convicts the Earl of high treason, and 
deprives him of his estate, title, etc. Sec. II declares, "That 
all such persons which be or heretofore have been comforters, 
partakers, abetters, confederates, and adherents unto the said 
Erie in his said false and traitorous acts and purposes, shall, 
in likewise stand and be attainted, adjudged and convicted of 
high treason." By sec. Ill, it is provided, 'That the same at- 
attainder, judgment, and conviction against the said comfort- 
ers, partakers, abettors, confederates and adherents, shall be 
as strong and effectual in law against them, and every of them, 
as though they, and every of them, had be (sic) specially, sin- 
gularly and particularly named by their proper names and sur- 
names in this said act." Sec. IV enacts, that as well the said 
Earl, as other his said comforters, abettors, etc., "shall have 
and suffer execution of death for the same accordingly." Sec. 
VII., provides, that the attainder is not to be "hurtful or 
prejudicial," if they submit by a pre-signified day to the king 
or his lieutenant. 

Some two years subsequent to the making of the preceding 
law, the 28 Hen., viii, c 18, Id. 694, was passed. This statute 
is entitled, "An Act concerning the Attainder of Thomas 
Fittzgaralde, and of his V Uncles." Reciting the 26 Hen., viii, 
c 25, the act declares that, "The said Thomas, late Erie 
of Gyldare, by whatsoever name or names he be called; 
James Fittzgaralde, Knight; John Fittzgaralde; Richard 
[Fittzgaralde] ; Olyver Fittzgaralde; and Walter Fittzgaralde, 
be attained, adjudged and convicted of high treason ;"**** 
and that the said late Thomas shall lose his title, dignity and 
estate of Earl of Gyldare. Section II, as in the preceding 
act, attaints "all such persons which be or heretofore have 
been comforters, abettors, partakers, confederates or adhe- 
rents unto the said Thomas Fittzgaralde, late Erie," or unto his 
said uncles, and every of them. Section III. "And be it fur- 
ther enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the same attain- 
der, judgment, and conviction against the said comforters, 
abettors, partakers, confederates and adherents, shall be so 


Strong and effectual in law against them, and every of them, as 
though they and every of them, had been specially, singularly 
and particularly named by their proper names and surnames in 
[the] said act." Section IV. ''And be it further enacted by 
the authority aforesaid, that as well the said Thomas, late 
Erie, James Fittzgaralde, Knight; John Fittzgaralde ; Richard 
Fittzgaral'de ; Olyver Fittzgaralde; and Walter Fittzgaralde, 
now being in the Tower of London, for their said treason, and 
every of them, as the said comforters, abettors, partakers, 
confederates and adherents, and every of them, shall have 
cind suffer execution of death for the same accordingly," 
* * * * and shall forfeit their estates, etc. ''And that they, 
and every of them, for their said false and traitorous offenses, 
shall loose the benefit, liberation, and privilege of all sanctu- 
aries." Shortly after the passing of this attainder, the young 
Kildare and his five rebel uncles were hanged at Tyburn. 
Herbert's Life and Reign of Henry the Eighth.. P. 491. 
Ed. of 1682. 

In Bishop Burnet's History of the Reformation, i — Part 
2 — 243, ed. of 1825, is printed at length, Parliamentary Roll, 
Act 60, anno regni tricesimo seciindo, Henry 8, and his statute 
enacts, inter alia, that Thomas, late Earl of Essex, "shall be 
and stand by authority of this present parliament, attainted 
and convicted of heresy and high treason, and shall be ad- 
judged an abominable and detestable traitor, and shall have 
and suffer the pains of death." 

The 24th Eliz., ch., i Irish Stats, at Large, 391, attainted 
and convicted James Eustace, late Viscount Baltinglas, and 
his brothers, Edmund, Thomas, Walter, and Richard, of high 
treason ; and by sec. IL, prescribed as follows : "That as well 
the said James, and all others the said offenders and persons 
before named, as such others who by actual rebellion, and 
other traitorous practices have committed like abominable and 
detestable treason and rebellion, and have died and been slain 
in their said actual rebellion and treasons, or otherwise been, 
by martial law, executed for the same, and every of them, for 
said abominable and detestable treasons, by them and every 
of them, most abominably and traitorously committed, perpe- 




trated and done against your highness," etc., "shall be, by 
authority of this present parliament, convicted and attainted 
of high treason. And that as many of the said offenders and 
persons before named, as be yet in life, shall and may, at your 
highness' will and pleasure suffer '"'the pains of death as in 
cases of high treason," etc. Here the living and the dead 
alike were attainted and convicted. Many other acts might 
be cited, in which the dead were attainted. Let one (and 
it is the kst of the kind, I believe,) suffice: T2 Car., ii i, 
30, attainted the remains of the great Lord Protector Crom- 
well, and others, who had sat in judgment on Charles the First. 

The foregoing citations are amply sufficient to show (among 
other matters pertinent to this subject) that to constitute a 
statute of attainder, it was not necessary to name the persons 
accused, nor to call upon them to appear and defend before 

Other occasional acts of parliament of a kindred nature to 
bills of attainder — ^but which inflict a punishment milder than 
death — known as bills of pains and penalties, will be noticed 
Treason itself has, in some instances, been punished by these 
statutes, as in the case of Lord Monson, Sir Arthur Haselrig, 
and others, who had been members of th^ High Court of Jus- 
tice. 12 Car., ii c. ii, sees. 38 and 39. The 19 Car., ii., c. 10, 
adjudged the Earl of Clarendon a banished man for life, if he 
did not return to England within a certain period, and sur- 
render himself for trial. The 9 Geo., i, c. 18, 5 Stats, at 
Large, 477, ordered Bishop Atterbury to depart the realm on, 
or before, a fixed day; sentenced him to perpetual exile, and 
made it felony in him to return; and deprived him of all his 
offices, dignities, etc. This bill was passed, on what was, at the 
time, a bare supposition, that he was conspiring to bring in 
the Pretender. 

Of the nature of bills of pains and penalties, and also 
closely allied to more than one of the acts of attainder quoted, 
are those statutes which despoiled certain portions of the peo- 
ple, and in one memorable instance a whole community, in 
gross, of their civil rights, without denominating by name or 
other legal, special manner, the persons to be affected, or sum- 


moning them to appear and defend. The 22 Geo., iii., c. 31, 
disfranchised all the electors of Crickdale below a certain 
yearly rental. By the i and 2 Geo., iv., c. 47. 8 Stats. (U. K.) 
at Large, 358, the entire body of voters of Grampound were 
deprived of their electoral privileges. 

In England a distinction is taken between bills of attainder 
end bills of pains and penalties ; but when carefully noted and 
compared they will be found akin, and in close fellowship; 
and the following extract will prove the nearness of their 
identity. While the bill to inflict pains and penalties upon 
John Plunkett, was pending before the House of Lords, it was 
ordered by that House, that the opinion of the judges be asked, 
"whether if John Plunkett shall, after the passing of this bill, 
be indicted for the treasons of which he stands charged in this 
bill, he can plead this act in bar of such indictment?" And the 
judges, through the Chief Justice, answered : "That, if the 
said bill should pass into a law, he may plead the same in bar 
of such indictment." 16 State Trials, 365. Therefore, it would 
seem to follow, that, if the Act of Congress of January 24, 
1865, or any part of it, be in the nature of a bill of attainder, 
and as such would affect the petitioner, it cannot be deemed 
any the less so because he is not named in it. And like reason 
would hold good, if it be technically, or in the nature of a bill 
of pains and penalties. Duer on the Constitutional Jurispru- 
dence of the United States, Lect. xi. Mr. Justice Story says : 
"But in the sense of the Constitution, it seems, that bills of 
attainder include bills of pains and penalties ; for the Supreme 
Court have said 'A bill of attainder may affect the life of an 
individual, or confiscate his property, or may do both.' " Story 
on the Constitution, sec. 1338, citing, Fletche^' v. Peck, 6 
Cranch., 138, and Kent, Lect. xix. 

Whether the Act of Januay 24, 1865, is in the nature of a 
bill of attainder was a point in judgment In the case of John 
Gill Shorter, and other attorneys, for leave to practice in the 
Circuit and District Courts of the United States, for the Dis- 
trict of Alabama, without first complying with the requirements 
of said statute. And Busteed, J., in an opinion marked by 
precision and force, says: "Does it not in fact disfranchise 


the class of men known as lawyers, under the pain of not 
taking the oath it prescribes ? Is not this the logical and neces- 
sary consequence of their refusal? Does it not disfranchise 
them when it requires them to take the prescribed oath, before 
they can exercise their vocation? Is it not an assumption by 
the legislature of judicial magistracy? Is it not 'pronouncing 
upon the guilt of the party without any of the common forms 
and guards of trial ?' " Decision of the Honorable Richard 
BusTEED. Mobile Register and Advertiser, Dec. 17, 1865. 

Bestowing upon this particular question the utmost care 
and solicitude — and with unfeigned regret of my inability to 
discuss it in a manner answerable to its gravity — I cannot 
regard the retrospective part of this oath otherwise than as a 
bill of pains and penalties — possessing the charactertistic at- 
tributes of a bill of attainder, except the death penalty. In 
the arbitrary, technical sense it may not be so called; but 
when it is so plainly observable that by its own inherent force 
it effectuates the destruction of the rights of a large order of 
persons, and is substantially and in effect a bill of pains and 
penalties, I know no other term in our language adequate to 
express it. By operation of the legislative will alone, Mr. 
Law is already adjudged — adjudged witHout due process of 
law; and, although forthcoming, not called to trial, according 
to the general laws of the land; the statute affecting his per- 
son as directly and accurately, as though he weie namei in its 
body — disenabling him from appearing or being heard, as an 
attorney or counsellor, at the bar of this Court, and thereby 
depriving him of the right to acquire and own property, by 
his professional skill and labor. But if the conclusion at 
which I have arrived is erroneous, and the retroactive clauses 
of the oath do not contravene any portion of the Constitution 
of the United States, still he is encompassed by an impassible 
barrier during the remainder of his days, or until these sup- 
posed obnoxious clauses of the oath are modified or repealed 
by Congress. 

The following additional objections were presented: First, 
that the Act of Congress of January 24th, 1866, is a penal law. 
This may be disposed of at once. After a careful analysis 


of this statute, and perceiving, as I apprehended, the manner 
in which it necessarily affects the party now before this Court, 
it seems clear, on principle and on authority, that the several 
retrospective divisions of the oath are highly penal. The fol- 
lowing cases are referred to, in suppost of this expression: 
Leigh's case; Dorsey's case; In the matter of Shorter et al.; 
and In the matter of Baxter. Agreeing with these authorities, 
this question may be considered settled, so far as this Court 
is concerned, until such time as the Supreme Court of the 
United States shall have decided it otherwise. 

The second objection taken was, that the Act is in violation 
of so much of the ninth section of the first article of the Con- 
stitution as declares that no "ex post facto law shall be passed ;" 
and also that it contravenes that clause of the fifth section of 
the first article of the amendments to the Constitution, which 
prohibits any person from being compelled, in any criminal 
case, to be a witness against himself, or being deprived of life, 
liberty or property without due process of law. 

In the case of Leigh, supra. Mr. Leigh applied to the 
Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia for admission to its bar. 
But he was met by a statute of that State, requiring ''every 
person who shall be appointed to any office or place, civil or 
military, under the commonwealth, shall, in addition to the 
oath now prescribed, take the following oath," to wit : "That 
he hath not been engaged in a duel by sending or accepting a 
challenge to fight a duel, or by fighting a duel, or in any other 
manner in violation of the act, 'entitled an act to suppress 
duelling,' since the passage thereof ;" and further, that he will 
not be concerned directly or indirectly in such duel, during his 
continuance in office. Id. 485. The point for judgment in 
this case was, whether practitioners of the law were public 
officers? Tucker, J., was of opinion that they were. But 
Roane, J., and Fleming, C .J., decided otherwise; and Mr. 
Leigh was admitted without taking the additional oath. The 
majority of the court, in their opinions, animadverted upon 
the statute in very expressive terms. Roane, J., said: "It is 
unusually penal, if not tyrannical, in compelling a party to 
stipulate upon oath, by the 3d section, not only in relation to 


his past conduct, and present resolution, but also for the fu- 
ture state of his mind." And the Chief Justice — after remark- 
ing that it was an "oath unknown to the laws of the State, or 
of the United States" — adds: "I cannot but consider it a 
penal statute, and as such must give \t a strict interpretation. 

In the matter of John Dorsey, supra. On the seventh of 
January, 1826, the legislature of Alabama passed an act, com- 
manding all public officers, and attorneys and counsellors at 
law, before entering upon the duties of their offices or stations, 
to take the following oath, to wit : "I do solemnly swear that 
I have neither directly nor indirectly, given, accepted, or know- 
ingly carried a challenge in writing or otherwise, to any person 
or persons (being a citizen of this state) to fight in single com- 
bat, or otherwise, with any deadly weapon, either in, or out of 
the state, or aided or abetted in the same, since the first day 
of January, 1826 ;" and that he will not hereafter give, accept, 
or knowingly carry a challenge, etc. "And any attorney or 
counsellor at law, failing or refusing to take the said oath, 
shall not be permitted to practice, as such, in any court of 
this state." 

The validity of this Act came regularly before the court, 
and a majority of the court decided, the* retroactive portion 
of the oath, to be unconstitutional and void. Collier,, C. J., 
dissented. Goldthwaite, J., in delivering the opinion says : 
"I have given the subject the consideration demanded by its 
importance as a constitutional question, and am convinced 
that one part of the oath imposed by the general assembly, 
usually called the duelling act, is inhibited by the constitution. 
As the oath is not divisable, and is, in part, unwarranted hy 
the fundamental law, in my opinion, we ought not t^ require 
it to be administered." Ormond, J., says : "This is a highly 
penal law, it excludes, unless its terms are complied with, all 
persons from practicing as attorneys and counsellors at law 
in the courts of this state." On p. 380, he says : "The tenth 
section of the bills of rights, among other things, provides 
that no one 'shall be compelled to give evidence against liiui- 
self, nor shall he be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, 
but by due course of law.' After a patient and mature exami- 


nation of the matter, I am of opinion that the requisitions ot 
the expurgatory oath, exacted by this law, offends against thib 
portion of the bills of rights." 

The case of Cohen vs. Wright, supra, arose on an Act, 
passed April 25, 1863, by the legislature of California, entitled 
''An Act to exclude Traitors and Alien Enemies from the 
Courts of Justice in Civil Cases/' The 3d section of the Act 
reads: "No attorney at law shall be permitted to practice m 
any court in this state until he shall have taken, and filed in the 
office of the county clerk of the county in which the attorney 
shall reside, the oath prescribed in this act; and for every 
violation of the provisions of this section, the attorney so 
offending shall be considered guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
on conviction shall be fined in the sum of one thousand 
dollars." The following is the form of oath to be taken by 
plaintiffs, defendants and attorneys, to wit: "I [here insert 
the name of the plaintiff] do solemnly swear that I will support 
the Constitution of the United States, and the constitution of 
the state of CaHfornia; that I will bear true faith and alle- 
giance to the Government of the United States, any ordi- 
nance, resolution, or law of any state, or territory, or of any 
convention or legislature thereof, to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing; that I have not, since the [here insert the date of the 
passage of this act] knowingly aided, encouraged, counte- 
nanced, or assisted, nor will I hereafter, in any manner, aid, 
encourage, countenance or assist the so-called Confederate 
States, or any of them, in their rebellion against the lawful 
Government of the United States ; and this I do without any 
qualification or mental reservation whatsoever." The first 
and second clauses of the oath state, in plain terms, that the 
affiant will support the Constitution of the United States, and 
the constitution of the state of California. "The next clause," 
says Mr. Justice Crocker, in delivering the opinion of the 
court, "that the party has not, since the passage of the act, 
and will not aid, encourage, countenance or assist those now 
in rebellion against the United States, is a solemn declaration 
or pledge ; a declaration that the party has not committed since 
the passage of the law, and a pledge that he will not commit 


any treasonable act against the National Government. So far 
as it is a pledge of future good conduct, it is but expressing 
in another form, that he will support the Constitution, and 
bear true allegiance to the United States, and to that extent 
clearly is not opposed to this section" [Art ii, sec iii] ''of our 
state constitution. So far as it is a declaration of past con- 
duct, it seems to go beyond the strict letter of the constitutional 
oath, and we have therefore, had a doubt of its validity. It 
does, however, but carry out the object, design, and spirit of 
the constitutional oath; and as it is not an unreasonable re- 
quirement, being confined to acts since the passage of the 
law, and does not clearly violate the constitution, we are un- 
willing to declare it void on a mere doubt. 'The act," say the 
court, toward the close of this branch of the case, "is not 
retrospective, as it merely requires the party to swear that he 
has not committed any treasonable act since its passage. It 
does not relate to any act done before that time." 

In the matter of Baxter, supra, Trigg^ J., says: "Now 
assuming that Mr. Baxter has been guilty of some one or 
more of the acts enumerated in the prescribed oath, or rather 
in the law we are considering (for the oath, as before stated, 
must be considered as incorporated in the body of the act) the 
question then arises : — Does this law of Congress, render the 
act committed punishable in a manner in which it was not 
punishable when it was committed? Does it affect him, by 
way of punishment of the act, either in his person or his estate 
differently from what it would have done before the passage 
of the law, and at the time the act was committed? If it 
does, then under the authorities before cited, it is an ex post 
facto law, and, being repugnant to the Constitution, is void." 
And in the next paragraph the judge says: "But this law 
extends the punishment of the attorney, by virtually depriving 
him of his office in the Courts, and thereby forfeiting what- 
ever of the emoluments of his profession he may be entitled 
to upon contracts with his clients for services to be rendered, 
or which have been in part performed, and not yet completed. 
j(c * * * ^^^ ^^g effect of the law being thus penal in 
its consequences, and punishing the attorney for the acts 


mentioned in the oath, in a manner in which they were not 
punishable, when committed, then, tested by the principles 
laid down in the cases of Calder v. Bull and Fletcher v. Peck, 
I am constrained to declare that the act in question is opposed 
to the Constitution of the United States, is ex post facto in 
its operations, and therefore not a valid law." Pamph. lo. 

BusTEED, J., in Shorter et al., supra, declared the act to 
be "highly penal in its general scope and effect." The judge 
also determined it to be ex post facto; and gave the following 
cogent illustration in support of his decision, on this point: 
"One of the clauses in the Act of Congress of the 2nd of July, 
1862, and which is embraced in the oath required by the act 
of January 24, 1865, is as follows: "That I have neither 
sought, nor accepted, nor attempted to exercise the functions 
of any office whatever, under any authority, or pretended 
authority, in hostility to the United States.' This abjuration 
is not confined to any period. It covers the lifetime of the 
affirmant. Before the 24th of January, 1865, a British sub- 
ject could be admitted to all the rights of citizenship in the 
United States, by taking the oaths of naturalization. Without 
being naturalized, he might be admitted to the bar of this 
Court upon complying with the rules of the Court. But if, 
during the period of war between the United States and 
Great Britain, half a century ago, he had held office in the 
kingdom of which he was a native, and was then a subject, he 
could not comply with the requisitions of this statute, and 
could no longer exercise his privilege as a member of the 
bar of this Court. The right acquired by his naturalization, 
and by the rules and orders of the Court, would be annulled 
by a law ex post facto, and for an act innocent, or even praise- 
worthy, when it was done." 

It was likewise the opinion of the Court, that the statute 
compelled the party to be a witness against himself. "It is 
unworthy of the great question," observed the judge, "to say 
that a man is not obliged to put himself in the supposed 
dilemnna; that all that he has to do is not to attempt the 
practice of his profession in the National Courts, and he will 
not run the risk of testifying to his own guilt. This is the 


merest and the shallowest sophistry. If he keep silence, he is 
thereby deprived of a constitutional right; if he speak, he 
becomes a 'witness against himself.' Judgment of condemna- 
tion instantly follows the coerced acknowledgement of guilt, 
and an act of the legislature is thus made to take the place and 
exercise the functions of the judicial ofhce. Now, if Congress 
may bring about such a result to a man, is it not doing, by 
indirection, what it is expressly prohibited from doing 
directly ?" 

Concurring in the decision of the United States Circuit 
Court, in the case of Baxter, and that of the United States 
District Court, in Shorter et al., it might seem unnecessary to 
offer further or other argument on subjects which have, 
already, been so satisfactorily treated; but as the same ques- 
tions which arose before those Courts, were also discussed 
here, it is due to counsel that the views of this Court be 
signified: — little, however, can be added. 

In Fletcher v. Peck, 6 Cranch, 138, it was said by the 
Supreme Court of the United States that an ex post facto 
law is one which renders an act punishable in a manner in 
which it was not punishable when it was committed. "This 
definition," says Kent^ ''is distinguished for its comprehensive 
brevity and precision, and it extends to laws passed after 
the act, and affecting a person by way of punishment of that 
act, either in his person or estate." i Kent, 409. And the 
supreme judicial court of Massachusetts, in Ross' case, say: 
"Adding a new punishment, or increasing the old one for the 
same offence, would be ex post facto'' 2 Pick., 165. ''Ex post 
facto laws relate to penal and criminal proceedings." i Kent, 
409. Carefully observing the foregoing definitions, it may be 
said, that an ex post facto law is a retroactive penal or 
criminal law, and no other. 

The design and object of a law is to regulate conduct, to 
prescribe and fix a rule or guide for it; and therefore, a law 
attempting to regulate past conduct undoes itself, and involves 
an inconsistency and contradiction. By the attaching of a new 
or cumulative consequence to a past transaction, does not 
regulate it, for a by gone act is beyond the reach of regulation. 


Sir William Blackstone says, that all laws should be made 
"to commence in futuro, and be notitied before their commence- 
ment which is implied in the term 'prescribed.' " 

There are several clauses or divisions in the retrospective 
portion of the oath; the first is as follows: "I do solemnly 
swear (or afiirm) that I have never voluntarily borne arms 
against the United States since I have been a citizen hereof." 
If a citizen of the United States, or an alien, while he, or his 
family and effects, are under the protection of the government, 
has voluntarily borne arms against the nation — the United 
States — it is a levying of war against them; and this is 
treason, the heaviest and most atrocious offence known to the 
law; it is the sum of all crimes, for it is committed against 
the duty of allegiance. 

By observing the first clause it cannot but be noticed that, 
although it is couched in negative language, it nevertheless 
implies affirmatively that the party taking the oath may have 
borne arms against the United States within the period of 
which he has been a citizen. He does not swear positively 
that he has not borne arms against the United States since he 
has been a citizen thereof, but on the contrary, his oath is preg- 
nant with the admission that he has ; and so by implication he 
inculpates himself, and at the same moment exculpates him- 
self, by testifying that he did not commit it voluntarily; and 
thus, the facts and the law being interwoven, he swears to 
matter of law, or rather to a conclusion of law. 

It is a well settled rule, and knows no exception, that an 
act done from compulsion or necessity is not a crime ; but the 
degree of necessity that will excuse is often, however, a nice 
matter to decide. Respublica v. McCarthy, 2 DalL, 85, United 
States V. Vigol, Id. 346. i Russ. on Crimes, 664, 665 ; i Bishop 
on Criminal Law, sees. 441 to 448. Allison Crim. Law, 627, 
673; I Hume Crim. Law, 50, 51. The Argo, i Gall. 150, 157. 
The New York, 3 Wheat., 59. 

It is in evidence that the petitioner fell within the 13th ex- 
ception ©f the Proclamation of May 29th, 1865, and that he re- 
ceived and accepted a grant of pardon and amnesty from the 


President of the United States. This grant was inspected by 
the Court and declared to be a valid act, and that the recipient 
ought to have the full legal benefit of it. 

Now, if this pardon in addition to absolving the offence, 
also restores to him his confiscated property, not judicially 
condemned to the United States, by parity of principle, it 
likewise restores to him his property or right of property, in 
the fees and other emoluments accruing to him for professional 
services as an attorney, proctor, &c. 

Suppose a member of the bar were indicted for treason; 
because of his having levied war against the United States, 
and he brings into the Circuit Court before which he stands 
charged, a pardon for the offence, and he pleads it in bar, or 
by other proper mode presents it for judgment — on the reading 
of the indictment, or on arraignment, or during trial ; or after 
verdict, in arrest of judgment; or after ju<lginent, in bar of 
execution — and his plea or motion is allowed, and he goes 
without day, is not this the end ? By this are not all the effects 
and consequences of the crime discharged, and the party be- 
come a "new man?" 

But, notwithstanding the accused has the benefit of the 
pardon adjudged to him by the Court, yet he cannot be per- 
mitted to appear and be heard in any Federal Court, unles? 
he shall have first taken and subscribed an oath, (which oath 
is already quoted), the first clause of which is in substance, 
that he has never voluntarily borne arms against the Nation, 
since he has been a citizen thereof. In this clause, as is per- 
ceived, is inclosed the fact that he did not voluntarily commit 
the offense for which he stood indicted, or was arraigned, or 
tried, or adjudged, and which particular offense he himself in 
open Court, by his plea, confessed he had committed voluntar- 
ily. Surely the exacting of this oath is a punishment, for it 
effectually disenables all who have done any of the acts men- 
tioned in the oath, though they have received and accepted a 
full pardon and amnesty for the offenses. It is not a mere 
temporary suspension from the practice, but a disbarment — 
a perpetual exclusion from the National Courts. The Act pun- 
ishes the party in a manner in which he was not punishable 


when the act was committed, and in a manner not conform- 
able to the fundamental law of the land. The requirement of 
this oath brings its restrospective clauses directly within the 
ruling in Ross' case: ''Adding a new punishment," say the 
court, ''or increasing an old one for the same offense would 
be ex post facto/' 

In these remarks, I have touched upon the first clause only ; 
but on examination of the others, it will be found that the 
same peculiarities pervade them as are inherent in the first, 
and that hke results iiow from them. See the exposition of 
the third clause per Busteed, J., supra. 

It may be wholly foreign to notice the fact that if the 
party required to take the oath be a native citizen of the 
United States, every word of the retrospective part of the oath 
would affect every hour of his past life. 2 Kent, 258 note. 4 
Bla. Com., 23; Boyd v. Banta, Coxe, 266; i Russ. on Crimes, 
I to 10; I Bishop on Crim. Law, sec. 460, 461, 3d Ed. 

Applying the principles advanced in the case supposed to 
this of the petitioner, the same results will be obtained. 

Directing attention to the cases of Leigh and Dorsey, and 
Cohen v. Wright, it will be seen, that in Leigh's case the law 
only required the attorney to swear that he had not trans- 
gressed the statute "since the passage thereof." Notwith- 
standing this oath may on strict construction, be deemed pros- 
pective, yet it was censured in strong language by a majority 
of the court. 

In Dorsey' s case the oath to be taken was, not that the 
party had not violated the provisions of the statute since its 
enactment, but from a period prior thereto. As already 
observed, a majority of the court decided the retroactive por- 
tion of this oath to be unconstitutional and void. 

In Cohen v. Wright, the court expressed some doubt as to 
the validity of the oath (quoted in full in a former part of this 
opinion) "so far as it was a declaration of past conduct." 


But, it remarked: "The act is not retrospective as it merely 
requires the party to swear that he has not committed any 
treasonable act since its passage." And near the close of the 
opinion it was said: *'The law wafned him what the result 
would be, and although it may be severe, it is a consequence 
of his own voluntary violation of the fundamental rights of 

To require a person, under any circumstances, to take an 
oath of innocence of crime, even when he had warning by a 
pre-ordained law — and warning, it is said, is the end of pun- 
ishment — is a rigid exaction. Yet it was observed, and by an 
eminent court, in the case last cited, in speaking of the oath 
before it that "it seems to go beyond the strict letter of the 
constitutional oath," * * * j^, however, does but carry out 
the object, design and spirit of the constitutional oath ; and as 
it is not an unreasonable requirement, being confined to acts 
since the passage of the law, and does not clearly violate the 
constitution, we are unwilling to declare it void on a mere 

But the particular question now before this court is of still 
greater importance, because the oath of expurgation required 
by the Act of Congress, approved January 24, 1865, goes back 
and searches the conscience of the petitioner during the whole 
course of his life — retroacting upon him for a period little less 
than three-quarters of a century anterior to its passage by 
Congress. That the imposing of this oath (so far as the 
retrospective part of it is concerned) is virtually compulsory, 
and effectually punitive, cannot, in my judgment, be denied. 
It makes the party swear to a life long innocence, and to testify 
against himself, and herein it is an infraction of the funda- 
mental law of the land. 

And while preparing this opinion, I have not been unmind- 
ful of the magnitude — nay awfulness — of the responsibility 
which devolves upon a Court in pronouncing against even a 
part of a solemn Act of the Congress of the United States. 



Upon argument had on said motion of the petitioner, Mr. 
Law, and after full consideration of the matters of fact, and 
of law involved in the rule nisi, it is ordered and adjudged by 
the Court, that the Act of Congress, approved January twenty- 
fourth, eighteen hundred and sixty five, so far as it was 
intended to apply to this case, is repugnant to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Motion granted. 


The Case of George McIntosK 


Among the prominent families in Georgia that of Mcintosh 
holds a record equal, probably, to any in historical importance 
and interest. At its head we place, without fear of contra- 
diction, the name of General Lachlan Mcintosh, whose service 
to his country in the time of its struggle for independence 
should never be forgotten, and whose career has never been 
as highly appreciated as it deserves. We regret that no ade- 
quate biography of him has ever been written. His reputa- 
tion has suffered more than the circumstances justified in the 
matter of his duel with Button Gwinnett, by reason of the 
power exerted by the Gwinnett party immediately following 
the death of their leader. Great injustice to him was also 
caused by the letter attributed to William Glascock in the latter 
part of the year 1779, and that matter has never been explained 
so as to show the character of General Mcintosh in its proper 

The subject matter of this article was the occasion of great 
joy to General Mcintosh's mortal enemy, Button Gwinnett, 
who made much of a matter which would not otherwise have 
attained the notoriety it received. Gwinnett, at that time, was 
President of the Georgia Council, and, in the language of 
Chas. C. Jones (History of Georgia, vol. II pp. 279, 280) 
"gladly availed himself of the opportunity thus afforded to 
mortify General Lachlan Mcintosh and vent his wrath against 
him upon his brother." 

We have to go to original documents for information con- 
cerning George Mcintosh, as his name does not frequently 
occur in any of the histories recording events transpiring dur- 
ing the period in which he lived. It is true that he is men- 
tioned here and there ; but references to him are so brief that 
the general reader does not reach the conclusion that he de- 
serves more consideration than any ordinary man. 

George Mcintosh was a man of education, and his knowl- 
edge secured for him positions of honor and profit. He must 
have been well fitted for the work of surveying, as, in th^ 


year 1766 he was appointed by the General Assembly a com- 
missioner to lay out a road of importance in the southeast 
portion of the Province; was, in 1768, made the official sur- 
veyor for the Parish of Saint Andrew ; was, by the tax act of 
1770, granted the sum of ten pounds for surveying a place 
known as ''Butter Milk Bluff;" but, more important still, he 
was, in the last mentioned year, assigned by the Legislature 
as the special agent to lay out the town of Brunswick. In this 
connection it is interesting to have the words of DeBrahm 
who, on page 32 of the Wormsloe edition of his "History of 
the Province of Georgia," in a foot note, records the fact 
that "In 1 77 1 a Town was laid out on the said Spot, and called 
Brounswig, many are the Petitioners who have applied to the 
Governor in Council for Properties in this new Town — from 
its Situation extremely promising." 

In 1764 George Mcintosh was a member of the Commons 
Plouse of Assembly, and in the month of December he was 
granted leave of absence "during pleasure," but in October, 
1765, he was, by resolution, required to appear in his seat. 
Whether he was absent all that time we do not know. He 
was a representative in the same Assembly, from Saint An- 
drew's Parish both in 1768 and 1772. 

When the first Provincial Congress of Georgia, appointed 
to take into consideration matters of the greatest moment lead- 
ing to the final separation of the Colonies from Great Britain, 
met on the 4th of July, 1775, in Savannah, George Mcintosh 
was present as a representative from Saint Andrew's Parish. 
Archibald Bulloch was the President and George Walton was 
the Secretary of that Congress. He was a member of the 
Council of Safety and was present May 14th, 15th, i6th, 17th, 
June 8th, nth, i8th, 19th, 20th, 21st, Sept. 20th, Oct. 2d, 7th, 
loth, i8th, 2ist, 22d, and Nov. 23d and 25th, 1776. 

On the 22d of November, 1777, while Archibald Bulloch, 
President of Council, was absent and matters concerning the 
settlement of estates, at that time within the jurisdiction of 
that body, coming up for action, George Mcintosh was one 
of eight members who signed a paoer consenting to the ref- 
erence of those matters to the President, then confined to his 


home by sickness, which was probably his last attack, as he 
died during the month of February following. The consent 

was in the words: *'We, the subscribers, being 

of the Council, and members of the sai4 Court, have no objec- 
tions to the same being done before his Excellency the Presi- 
dent at his chambers (in consequence of his indisposition and 
inability to attend the Court) in case his Excellency shall 
think proper so to do." 

The story of the troubles of George Mcintosh begins with 
the dispute between Governor John Adam Treutlen and Wil- 
liam Henry Drayton, of South Carolina. In the year 1777, as 
is well known, a proposition was made to unite the States of 
South Carolina and Georgia, and Drayton was appointed one 
of the commissioners on the part of the former to make the 
proposition to Georgia. At that time Treutlen was the Gov- 
ernor of Georgia, having been elected over Button Gwinnett 
by a large majority. Feeling in Georgia ran high, in conse- 
quence of the proposed union, resulting in the proclamation of 
Treutlen, offering a reward of one hundred pounds for the 
capture of Drayton and others, who were charged with endeav- 
oring to poison the minds of the good people of this State 
against the Government thereof." To that proclamation Dray- 
ton made an angry reply in which he took occasion to charge 
Treutlen with being unjust towards George Mcintosh, "who," 
he said, 'T consider as an abused gentleman, arbitrarily ordered 
into a distant State, to be tried by those who have no juris- 
diction in such a case, and far out of the reach of a jury of 
his vicinage — circumstances of tyranny and total disregard to 
the most valuable rights of the people," &c. The charge of 
injustice against George Mcintosh grew out of a circumstance 
which will now be related. 

On the 8th day of January, 1777, Mcintosh was arrested 
by order of the President of the Council of Safety, and lodged 
in jail on a charge made In an intercepted letter of Governor 
Tonyn, of East Florida, to Lord George Germain. This action 
grew out of an affidavit filed with the Council of Safety Nov. 
23d, 1776, by Edward Davies, charging "that about the 25th 
day of October last, he was at St. Augustine, and that Mr, 


(Roger) Kelsall told him that the brig Beaufort, now lying in 
Ogeechee River, was expected daily at Mr. (William) Pan- 
ton's address. As the said brig belonged to the deponent and 
partners, he applied to Mr. Panton to know on what account 
she was to come away. Mr. Panton answered she was licensed 
by Governor Tonyn for St. Augustine, and requested of the 
deponent to know where he would receive said vessel, she 
being on monthly wages, but in case of capture a valuation was 
to be paid in a sum unknown to the deponent." The Council 
then instructed General Lachlan Mcintosh to ''take into his 
possession the sails belonging to the brig Beaufort, and pre- 
vent the said brig from proceeding on her voyage till further 
orders from this Board," It appears that Panton had stored 
at Sunbury a large quantity of goods, and had obtained per- 
mission of the Council of Safety to exchange them for rice, 
provided he would give bond with security that the goods 
would not be discharged' in any district over which England 
had jurisdiction. 

In the intercepted letter of Governor Tonyn the writer 
said, among other things, that Panton "had been greatly as- 
sisted by Mr. George Mcintosh who is compelled to a tacit 
acquiescence with the distempered times," and 'T am informed 
that his principles are a loyal attachment to the king and con- 
stitution. He would, my lord, be in a dangerous situation was 
this known." 

Sir James Wright, who had been arrested in his home by 
the ''Liberty Boys" under the leadership of John Habersham, 
made his escape and went to Halifax, and afterwards wrote a 
letter to Lord George Germain, on the 8th of October, 1777, 
quoting passages from a letter "from Mr. Wm. Brown, late 
acting Comptroller and Searcher at the Port of Savannah, 
in Georgia, a person whose veracity is unquestionable," these 
words: "Lachlan Mcintosh (the Rebel General in Georgia), 
is in confinement for killing Gwinnett — George Mcintosh (a 
great Rebel) being informed there was an intention to send 
him to the Northward to be tried for selling Provisions for the 
use of the Garrison at St. Augustine, has absconded, and a 
Party of Soldiers are living at free Quarters on his Planta- 


tion . The Carolinians taking the advantage of 

the disputes in Georgia, the Death of Gwinnett, and the dis- 
grace of the Mclntoshes, who aU violently opposed the former 
Attempt to unite Georgia to Carolina, mean to revive the mat- 
ter, and to send General Moultrie to- enforce it, if they can't 
otherwise accomplish it." 

In the year 1793 a suit in equity was brought against Gen- 
eral Lachian Mcintosh and others by John Mcintosh, son of 
George, to compel the former to render a true account of 
matters pertaining to the administration of George Mcintosh's 
estate. To the bill in equity General Mcintosh hied a lengthy 
reply which is herewith given mainly for the facts of history 
contained in it : 


f On the Equity side of the Superior Court. 

John Mcintosh, Complainant, by his next friends — 

William and Lachian, the elder. Esquires — 
The answer of Lachian Mcintosh, one of the 
defendants to the Bill of the Complainant. 
This defendant being required by the Bill of the Complain- 
ant to discover facts relative to the estate of the intestate George 
Mcintosh, the Complainant's father, long before he had taken 
any part in the administration of it, and being willing in order 
to do every possible justice, and render every satisfaction in 
his power to the Complainant, to go into a narrative of the 
transactions of the estate as far as he can recollect, prior to 
his taking part in the administration of it; at the same time 
saving and reserving to himself now and at all times hereafter 
all and all manner of benefit of advantage of exception to the 
many insufficiencies, uncertainties and other imperfections and 
defects in the Complainant's Bill contained, for answer thereto 
or to so much thereof as this defendant thinks is any ways 
material or necessary to answer, he answereth and saith: 
That after the peace of Aix La Chapelle the latter end of 
the year one thousand seven hundred and forty eight, every 
resource this then young Colony, now State of Georgia, had 
for its support being withdrawn, it became almost entirely 


depopulated; that among other emigrants this defendant left 
his parents and went to Charleston, South Carolina, where he 
carried his youngest brother, the late George Mcintosh, the 
father of the Complainant, who was at that time about eleven 
years of age, put him to a grammar school at this defendant's 
own expense, and after the said George had acquired such 
other accomplishments as wxre then taught at that place, this 
defendant bound the said George for four years to an Archi- 
tect and allowed him one hundred pounds Carolina currency 
a year during the term of his the said George's apprentice- 
ship for pocket money, purchased a negro boy for him to be 
brought up to the same business with himself, and to attend 
upon him, who is still alive, as this defendant believes, and the 
most valuable slave belonging to the Complainant being the 
chief manager of his estate : This defendant further answering 
saith that after the term of the said George's apprenticeship 
expired, this defendant brought him back to Georgia and got 
him appointed commissary of supplies for the Troops in 
garrison at Frederica, and other ports dependent thereon, in- 
structed him in geometry and surveying and furnished him 
with books for those purposes, in order that the said George 
might by those means acquire a more perfect knowledge of 
his own Country and have an opportunity of geting the most 
valuable lands at that early period for himself, as this defend- 
ant advised and directed him. And as the inclination of the 
said George soon after his return from Charleston led him to 
planting, this defendant was also his security in Charleston for 
the first parcel of Negroes the said George ever purchased, with 
Vv^hich and his own industry he acquired all the property he 
every possessed. Of all these advantages he made the best 
use and became one of the most thriving planters in this 
State, uniformly ascribing all his successes to this defendant's 
steady friendships to him, and always declaring and looking 
upon this defendant in the light of a father and tryed friend, 
rather than a brother; And this defendant further answering 
admits it to be true that the late George Mcintosh, brother 
to this defendant and father of the Complainant, did depart 
this life at or about the time mentioned in the Complainant's 


Bill of complaint, and that the said George died intes- 
tate and without a Will, to the best of this defendant's knowl- 
edge and belief; And this defendant admits it to be true that 
the Complainant is the only child of the said George Mcintosh 
now living, and that the said George ^as at the time of his 
death possessed of a considerable real estate in Lands amount- 
ing to the best of this defendant's knowledge to thirteen thou- 
sand and eighty acres consisting of forty five tracts situated in 
the different Counties of Liberty Glynn and Camden in this 
State, and also of a Lot of Land in Savannah. The Grants and 
Titles to which said Lands and Lot were on the third day of 
July in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety two 
delivered to the Complainant, by this defendant as by his receipt 
appears. And this defendant further answering admits it to be 
true that the said George at the time of his death was possessed 
of a considerable personal estate, consisting of negroes, and 
other things, but denies that there ever came to this defendant's 
hand and possession any more or other of the personal estate 
of the Intestate than the Negroes mentioned in the Inventory 
herewith exhibited and appraised at three thousand seven hun- 
dred and sixty two pounds on the ninth and eleventh of August 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty four, and on the seven- 
teenth day of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
six, and seventeen pieces of silver consisting of spoons and 
other old plate which was neglected to be put in the appraise- 
ment and is kept as a memorial for the Complainant of his 
Parents whom he can hardly remember: And this defendant 
further answering saith that he was at Augusta when he first 
heard of the death of the Intestate, that he immediately came 
down, but did not arrive until some days after his funeral, that 
the short time this defendant stayed at the habitation of the 
Intestate, he principally inquired and examined into his papers, 
which were scattered about and huddled into unlocked broken 
trunks, but found none of any consequence except the Grant 
and Titles for the land before mentioned, which were all put 
carefully into a small portmanteau trunk and secured by the 
defendant's wife and family, in a pursuit by the enemy of 
seven or eight hundred miles, while he this defendant was a 


prisoner in Charleston, being captured at the siege of that 
City, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty : And this defendant further answering saith that about 
the time he came down from Augusta after his brother's death 
he engaged a Waggoner to carry to Charleston to the care of 
McPhilip Minis, smce deceased, a parcel of Indigo belonging to 
the Intestate which Indigo he never saw nor does he know the 
quantity but sent it there that it might be secured out of the 
reach of the enemy and has since been informed and believes 
it was afterwards delivered to the order of Sir George Hous- 
toun; all the personal estate besides of every description was 
in the hurry of the retreat from the common enemy left in the 
care of the overseer on the Intestate's plantation at Sapelo 
river. And this defendant further answering denies that he 
did immediately after the death of the said George apply for 
the administration of his estate to the Superior Court of this 
County, but admits it to be true that sometime in the year 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, after the evacu- 
ation of Savannah by the British forces at the solicitation of 
the late Sir Patrick and the present Sir George Houstoun, he 
this defendant agreed to join them together with James Hous- 
toun in the administration of the estate of the Intestate George, 
provided they would give this defendant no trouble in the ad- 
ministration of it, in pursuance of which solicitation an assent 
of this defendant's application was made and letters of Admin- 
istration this defendant believes were granted to them; accord- 
mgly, on or about the thirtieth day of October one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty three, but this defendant denies that 
he ever qualified or acted under those letters. And this de- 
fendant further answering admits that true it is that some time 
after the said Letters were granted, if granted at all, to wit 
about the tenth day of December in the year last aforesaid 
William Mcintosh, the elder, a brother of this defendant and 
a co-defendant to the Bill of the Complainant petitioned the 
Chief Justice of this State praying for a revocation of the 
letters granted to the said Sir Patrick, George and James Hous- 
toun and this defendant, and that the administration of the 
estate and effects of the said Intestate might be granted to him 


the said William as eldest brother of the Intestate, and to such 
others as by law or open consent might be entitled to the same, 
that the Chief Justice on considering the said petition granted 
the prayer thereof, and thereupon adjudged, that the adminis- 
tration of the Estate & effects of the said Intestate of right 
belonged to the said William, the petitioner, whereupon he the 
said William without the knowledge or consent of this defend- 
ant had his, this defendant's, name joined with the said Wil- 
liam's in the Judge's order for the Letters, but this defendant 
having shortly before that period returned to this State after 
an absence of near five years, on being exchanged for General 
O'Hara, his family then in Virginia and his affairs much de- 
ranged by the War which required all his attention, in his ad- 
vanced stage of life, refused to qualify or have anything to do 
with the said estate for a considerable time, however on seeing 
the estate of his said brother George much neglected and wasted, 
and being impressed with the necessity of his joining the said 
William in the Administration of it in order to save it as 
far as possible for the Complainant, the only child and repre- 
sentative of the Intestate, this defendant did on the twenty 
fourth day of May one thousand seven hundred and eighty 
four qualify with the other defendant to this Bill and take 
upon himself jointly with him the administration of the said 
estate. And this defendant further answering denies that he 
has acted as an administrator ever since the letters were 
granted, because this defendant says that he never got posses- 
s-on of the Negroes of the said estate till about the first day 
of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty five. And 
this defendant further answering saith, that his only motive 
in joining in the administration was to protect the estate from 
waste and ruin, himself under the most embarrassing circum- 
stances, incredibly poor after a long and necessary absence 
from his country, plundered of almost everything he possessed 
and not a farthing of money belonging to the estate on hand 
or any present means of making any, all the movable effects 
belonging to the estate having been sold together with twenty- 
two of the best negroes by the late administrators Sir Patrick 
and George Houstoun under the usurpation — nothing to pur- 


chase tools, clothes, provisions, or any other necessary for set- 
tling the Negroes without selling some of them, neither could 
credit be obtained, even if the means of settling them had been 
in the power of this defendant, the whole Country around was 
harassed by a banditti accustomed to plunder and rob, inso- 
much that there really was no safety for any movable prop- 
erty twenty miles distant from Savannah, and in addition to 
all this an Indian War shortly after broke out which nearly 
depopulated the whole Country south of Chatham County, 
under all those circumstances which this defendant believes 
would have terrified almost any other person than this defen- 
dant and the other from undertaking so arduous a task, they 
notwithstanding determined, old and inactive as they were, to 
persevere although no other means in their power were left 
than to hire out the Negroes to the highest bidder from year 
to year, which was also attended with many inconveniences 
and much trouble and risk, as the state about that period 
abounded with paper emissions of various kinds which served 
as a medium for cash in dealings amongst the Citizens, these 
circumstances coupled with the tediousness of legal proceed- 
ings induced people to give exorbitant prices for every article 
offered for sale notwithstanding which this and his co-defend- 
ant under all these embarrassments had no alternative left but 
to make the trial, not supposing the Claimant whom they had 
so essentially served would endeavor to take advantage of any 
little inadvertencies or irregularities which they might have 
fallen into under such circumstances, and in such times. And 
this defendant further answering saith that some time after 
he qualified as an Administrator John Houstoun Esquire an 
uncle of the Complainant instituted an Action against this 
defendant and the said William his brother as Administrators 
of the Intestate in the name of Miss Ann Stewart and recov- 
ered an account of three hundred and twenty two pounds 
seventeen shillings and three pence with interest thereon, and 
that the present Sir George Houstoun, another uncle to the 
Complainant, after engaging Samuel Stirk, William Stephens, 
and John Houstoun Esquires had three writs served on these 
defendants on the same day as administrators of the said estate 


for about two thousand pounds sterling with interest charged 
on that sum to the day of bringing the Actions, which nearly 
doubled the original debt and at that time in this defendant's 
opinion would have swallowed up the whole estate if sold 
for cash, at length after much expence which this defendant 
at that time could but illy afford and frequent attendance on 
Court the fate of these Actions was by order of Court left to 
arbitration and instead of allowing the said Sir George the 
sums of money he demanded it was awarded that he should 
pay the defendants seventy eight pounds eight shillings and 
nine pence and return a young Negro fellow the said Sir 
George detained and since sold for one hundred pounds, as 
this defendant believes and also pay them three hundred and 
seventeen pounds three shillings and five pence with interest 
from the first day of January one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty one as surviving administrator of the said George Mc- 
intosh under the British usurpation, and that the said Sir 
George should also use the utmost of his endeavors to recover 
ninety two pounds sterling due by his brother-in-law George 
Kincade for negro hire during the said British administration 
of the estate which this defendant believes to be still due as 
by the award will appear. And this defendant further answer- 
ing admits it to be true that he together with his co-defendant 
did on the tw^enty third day of December one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty four, at Great Ogeechee where the negroes 
of the said Intestate's estate then were in possession of William 
Mcintosh the younger, son of this defendant, to whom they had 
been hired for that year by Sir Patrick and George Houstoun, 
set up and exposed to sale in pursuance of public notice given 
all the taskable hands of the Intestate consisting of twenty eight 
in number, from the first of January one thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty-five till the first of January one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty six, as by the said notice will appear, when 
to this defendant's surprise they were knocked off at the enor- 
mous rate of twenty pounds for each taskable hand to this 
defendant's son William, which he this defendant much disap- 
proved of as the said William was a near relation of the Com- 
plainant and had given so extravagant a price for the negroes 


that he could never expect to pay their hire by their labor, 
but the said WilUam persisted m his purchase; and this de- 
fendant further answering admits that the same negroes that 
were hired to the said William for the year one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty hve after being duly advertised in 
the Gazette of the twenty third day of December of that year 
to be disposed of for the year one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty SIX at Savannah, tne conditions of which were that the 
purchaser should give bond and warranty of Attorney to con- 
fess judgment thereon within twelve months for the lure of 
the INegroes that year, as by a copy of the advertisement will 
appear which this defendant thought might probably prevent 
his said son William from getting them a second year were 
knocked off at the enormous price of nineteen pounds twelve 
shilling and six pence for each taskable hand to Richard Leake, 
who immediately signed the conditions of sale in the name and 
on behalf of the said William Mcintosh who was not present 
at the sale, this circumstance so much displeased this defend- 
ant that he hardly spoke to the said William his son for sev- 
eral years. The auctioneer after the sale according to the 
conditions thereof had the negroes appraised made out the 
Bond and warrant of attorney and presented them to the said 
William but could not prevail on him to execute them, who still 
had the negroes in possession ; thus the Auctioneer was put off 
from day to day as this defendant was informed and believes, 
by the purchaser until that year was too far spent to advertise 
and sell them over again; and this defendant further answer- 
ing saith that he repeatedly pressed the said William his son 
for a fulfilment of his agreement for the year one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty five which he never fully completed 
as well as for the payment of his bond for the hire of the 
Negroes for the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty 
four, and that he the said William frequently promised to dis- 
charge the greatest part if not the whole of the hire for the 
year one thousand seven hundred and eighty four and one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty five, when his crop should 
be beaten out, which he said was delayed in order to get his 



land in order provided he was not sued for the same, otherwise 
he would keep the estate out of the money three four or five 
years if possible. 

This defendant thus awkwardly and delicately situated by 
the imprudence and obstinacy of his said son William was de- 
termined to act against him with more decision than against 
any other person in a like situation, and accordingly having 
received no rice or other payment agreeably to promise from 
his son William he put the bond for the year one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty four and agreement for the year one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty five into the hands of 
James Jackson, Esquire, Attorney at Law, on the twenty sixth 
day of August one thousand seven hundred and eighty six to 
be immediately sued, Mr. Jackson was then the defendant's 
only counsel in all the transactions of the estate and advised 
this defendant to defer bringing the suits against the said 
William till the circulation of the paper medium ceased, as 
there were persons watching this defendant's conduct who 
would not hesitate saying that he sued his son William in 
order to favor him and to afford a pretence of paying the 
debt in paper money which was much depreciated and con- 
tinued to be a legal tender till the guardians of the Complain- 
ant received the whole of the property of the Intestate and 
the sole direction of it out of the hands of this and the other 
defendant. This defendant further answering saith that in 
order to avoid the evils and inconveniences of the years one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty five and one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty six and finding that nothing could 
be made out of the negroes by hiring them, he with the other 
defendants to the Bill ventured for the year one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty seven to place them on the plantation of 
the Intestate situate on the Sapelo river, although the Indians 
were still troublesome but without tools, seed rice, necessaries 
of any kind or money of their own or of the estate's in this 
unavoidable dilemma they were obliged to send two of the 
negroes to Savannah to be sold, but as no more than twenty 
five pounds was offered for each they were brought back 
again and a wench called Polly who was the wife of a fellow 


belonging to Lachlan Mcintosh the younger was purchased 
by him for fifty six pounds to be paid in corn, rough rice 
and seed potatoes which necessity obliged the defendants to 
accept without having time to advertise her according to law, 
whereby the rest of the Negroes were relieved, otherwise they 
must have been sent adrift for a subsistence and all prospects 
of a crop given up, the necessary delay occasioned by these cir- 
cumstances with the bad order of the land laying waste for 
many years, without the necessary buildings and other accom- 
modations required on a rice plantation reduced this year's 
crop to eighty barrels of rice with necessary provisions. And 
this defendant further answering admits that in the beginning 
of the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty eight there 
was a fine prospect of a crop but that early in that year the 
Indians began to kill and plunder slaves and other property all 
around the neighborhood of the plantation, which necessarily 
obliged the defendants to be at the expence of keeping a guard 
of white men constantly over the negroes rather than lose so 
promising a crop, and for the further security of the slaves 
which was still a greater object with the defendants than the 
crop itself they purchased a large Pettiagua boat to carry ofif 
all the negroes at once to the Island in case of any dangerous 
alarm which so frequently happened, that the crop this year 
netted only forty eight barrels which barely paid the heavy 
expence attending the culture of it. And this Defendant 
further answering saith that the year one thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty nine was attended with nearly the same ex- 
pence and trouble with the Indians, yet the crop netted ninety 
eight barrels of rice and plenty of provisions, seed rice and 
seed potatoes, as by the account hereto annexed and exhibited 
to the honorable Court will very clearly and regularly appear, 
all of which were in the beginning of the year one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety delivered to the Complainant's 
Guardians together with all the slaves mentioned in the in- 
ventory, except a Wench Polly sold for provisions as before is 
mentioned and a fellow called Billy who after being adver- 
tised according to Law was sold to Patrick Crookshanks for 
fifty seven pounds, who gave his note payable in days 


from the date thereof, which was put in Suit and Judgment 
obtained thereon which this defendant says is now of force ; 
the reason for selHng this Negro were because he was an idle 
fellow and a runaway and has since^as this defendant has been 
informed and believes shot in the woods. And this defendant 
further answering saith that the debts due and demands in 
favor of and against the estate of the Intestate as far as they 
have come within his knowledge will appear by the accounts 
hereto annexed and exhibited to this honorable Court and which 
he prays, together with the other accounts attached to them, 
may be considered as part of his answer to the Complainant's 
Bill. And this defendant denies all and all manner of combi- 
nation and confederacy wherewith he stands charged in and by 
the said Bill of Complaint. Without that, that there is any 
other matter or thing material or necessary for this defendant 
to make answer unto, and not herein and hereby well and suf- 
ficiently answered unto, confessed or avoided, traversed or 
denied, is true. All which matters and things this defendant 
is ready to aver and prove, as this Honorable Court shall direct 
and award, and hereby prays to be hence dismissed with his 
reasonable cost and charges in this behalf most wrongfully 

sustained . 

Matt. McAllister, Solicitor 
for Deft L. McI. 
loth Sept. 1793 — 

Lachn. Mcintosh. 
Sworn to this nth Sept. 

1793, before J. Houstoun. 


Queries and Answers 

Inquirer. — Is there anywhere to be found an account of 
the successful use of the cotton gin, invented by EHas Whit- 
ney, immediately after its invention? 

At this time we cannot throw further light on this subject 
than the information contained in the following advertisement, 
published in the Georgia Gazette of Thursday, March 6, 1794. 
Phineas Miller, the advertiser, married the widow of General 


The subscriber will engage to gin, in a manner 
equal to picking by hand, any quantity of the green 
seed cotton, on the following terms, viz., for every 
five pounds delivered him in the seed he will return 
one pound of clean cotton fitted for market. 

For the encouragement of cotton planters he will 
also mention that ginning machines to clean the green 
seed cotton on the above terms will actually be erected 
in different parts of the country before the harvest 
of the ensuing crop. 

Mulberry Grove, near Savannah, March i, 1794. 


Editor's Notes 

The Georgia Historical Society is nearing the completion 
of its first century. Founded in i839,*it is now well in its 
eighty-first year. Some facts in its past history may well be 
told here at this time. 

The first person to suggest its founding was Israel Keech 
Tefift, who was its first Corresponding Secretary, an office held 
by him for twenty-three years, from June 4th, 1839, to June 
30th, 1862, when he died. He was officially out of office for 
a short period of two months (Dec. 12, 1853, to Feb. 13, 1854), 
when he had arranged to go abroad for a long stay, but his 
plans failed, and at the next annual meeting, after resigning 
his office, he was re-elected. During that short time the office 
was filled by his friend, Mr. A. A. Smets, another original 

The long friendship between Messrs. Smets and Tef^t was 
broken by the death of both, a very short time apart, the 
former dying May 9th, 1862, and the latter one month and 
twenty-one days later, June 30, as stated above. 

Mr. Smets was Treasurer of the Society from February 
12, 1855, to the time of his death, seven years and nearly 
three months. 

Mr. Smets lived and died on the northeast corner of Bull 
and Jones Streets, in Savannah, while Mr. Tefft lived and 
died on the Southwest corner of these streets. 


There is at this time only one member of the Society 
Hving who has been connected with it continuously from the 
year 1866; while there are only fourteen persons now living 
who joined before 1867, but resigned their membership. One 
of these, after an absence of many years, returned, and is 
again a member. 

A fact well worthy of record is that the Society did not 
cease its activities during the War of Secession, but held its 
meetings regularly. 










VOL. Ill No. 4 




Biographical Sketch of James Habersham - - - 

-------- -By Wm. Bacon Stevens 151-168 

Two Georgia Patriots: Abraham Baldwin and 

James Jackson ----------- 169-176 

Queries and Answers ---------- lyy 

Editor's Notes ------------ 178-185 

Index ---------------- 186 







VOL. Ill No. 4 


Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 



Tlie Georgia Historical Quarterl}? 

Volnmelll DECEMBER, 1919 NumterlV 

A SketcK of tKe Life of James Habersham 

President of His Majesty's Council 

In tKe Province of Georgia 


William Bacon Stevens, the writer of the following paper, was 
born in the State of Maine, moved to Savannah, Georgia in 1837, and 
in 1839 he and his associates, Israel Keech Tefft and Dr. Richard 
Dennis Arnold, founded the Georgia Historical Society, and he was 
elected its first Recording Secretary and Historiographer. It was his 
intention to write a history of Georgia, and all the material pos- 
sessed by the Society was placed at his disposal forf that purpose. 
The work was completed during his residence in Georgia, 
and published in two volumes. Dr. Stevens left this State 
in 1848, went to Philadelphia, and became a Bishop in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. He died June 11, 1887, and some years 
afterwards many papers, collected by him in the preparation of 
his history, and done up in a large bundle addressed to the Georgia 
Historical Society, were sent to the Library. Among the papers 
was found the following, in his writing, unfinished, and probably 
begun by him with the intention of making it a part of a volum;inous 
life of Mr. Habersham. On the other hand, the sketch may have been 
completed and the missing isheets afterwards lost; and it is not at 
all improbable that the paper was read at some meeting of the 
Georgia Historical Society. We give it as it came to us, adding to 
it, briefly, some further facts, in the life of that good man, James 
Habersham, bringing it down to the time of his death.— EDITOR. 

James Habersham was born at Beverly,, in Yorkshire, 
England, at the close of the year 1712. His parentage was re- 
spectable, and his early education rather superior to that usu- 
ally given to sons in moderate circumstances in provincial 
towns. He made some progress in Latin Classics; and his 
naturally strong mind would have enabled him to rise to an 
eminent station as a scholar, had he not early turned his atten- 
tion to mercantile affairs under the direction of his uncle, John 
Habersham, a merchant of considerable eminence in London, 


With this gentleman he remained several years, and his pros- 
pects were daily ripening into a desirable maturity when his 
views of life suddenly changed and new plans usurped the 
place of his long cherished designs. In 1736 Rev. George 
Whitefield went to London and though his youthful appearance 
as he preached the first time in Bishopgate church caused many 
to mock, his earnest eloquence and ardent zeal soon brought 
him into conspicuous view and those who were at one time dis- 
posed to revile the almost juvenile herald of the Cross were 
soon brought to feel the truth of what he uttered and conform to 
his religious teachings. 

Mr. Habersham was early brought under his influence, and 
the following year on the announcement of Whitefield's inten- 
tion of going to Georgia determined to go with him and cast his 
lot among the, same people where his spiritual friend had de- 
termined to labour. His uncle and other friends opposed his 
views, but his resolution was fixed, and in the latter part of 
December, 1737, he and his brother embarked on board the 
transport ship Whitaker, Captain Whiting, with Whitefield 
who styles Habersham "his dear fellow traveller." It was 
nearly a month, however, before the ship got fairly at sea as 
they were detained by head winds at Margate and Deal, and 
January had nearly passed before a favouring breeze called the 
two friends on board and forever separated Habersham from 
his relatives in England. The vessel was bound to Gibraltar to 
take in soldiers for Oglethorpe's regiment, and stretching down 
the Bay of Biscay they arrived at Gibraltar in about three weeks 
and there refreshed themselves preparatory to their longer 
voyage across the Atlantic. Having filled up the complement 
of men under Col. Pat Cochran and Capt. Mackay, they di- 
rected their course toward the setting sun, and day by day for 
weary weeks and months they saw him sink behind the horizon 
to which they steered without the wished for haven presenting 
itself to their longing vision. Soon after leaving Gibraltar a 
'sickness broke out among the crew and passengers, and though 
only two or three died nearly all were prostrated by its violence 
and felt the severity of its attack. Fearful storms also were 


superadded to the invasion oWisease, and the wind and waves 
in terrible majesty threatened their vessel with destruction and 
themselves with death, but from all these dangers they were 
preserved, the disease was arrested, the tempests were hushed 
and the green land for which their eyes had longed and their 
hearts desired greeted their delighted vision. It was on Friday, 
5th day of May, 1738, that the ship arrived at Tybee, and on 
the evening of Sunday the 7th, Messrs. Habersham and White- 
field reached Savannah where they were warmly welcomed by 
Mr. Delamotte, one of the companions of the Wesleys, and 
who had occasionally officiated in the services of the church. 
Mr. Habersham did not embark for Georgia as an adventurer, 
to repair a broken fortune, or retrieve a sullied name, for in 
becoming the companion of Whitefield he sacrificed the con- 
siderations of wealth and the comforts of an abundant home. 
Writing in January, 1738-39, to his brother-in-law, Christopher 
Bagwith, Esq., of Whitby, Yorkshire, he says "you may per- 
haps blame me for this adventure and wonder at my folly in 
leaving England where I was so well and genteelly provided for. 
I will not pretend to give you any reasons to justify my conduct 
in this great change because I believe as they did not proceed 
from any outward cause but were entirely and only known to 
God and my own soul, will not, nay cannot, give you that 
satisfaction and appear in that Hght they did to me, especially as 
the advantages I proposed to myself were not of this world, for 
I was told when I left England that if I went to Georgia I must 
renounce all and trust only in God and follow Christ through 
many tribulations and trials ; though I thank God I have found 
it otherwise, I have enough and to spare of this world's goods 
and as the Apostle says, 'having food and raiment, I am content 
and rejoice with exceeding joy that I left my native country'." 
And the same sentiments are expressed in a letter to his uncle, 
written a month later. 

A warm convert to the views of Mr. Whitefield, and ardently 
longing to give to his zeal a suitable and efficient direction, he 
had cast the world with its emoluments of wealth and honor 
behind him, and was ready to devote himself to every duty 



which he thought would glorify his divine Master and do good 
to man. Whatever may be thought of the religious views of 
Habersham we must concede to him a pure and elevated philan- 
thropy and admire his noble purpose of dedicating himself to 
the moral and intellectual condition of the colony. 

That no time might be lost in carrying into immediate effect 
the scheme originally devised by Oglethorpe and Charles Wes- 
ley of erecting an Orphan House on the plan adopted by the 
venerable Prof. Francke, at Halle, it was determined by Haber- 
sham and Whitefield that the former should at once open a 
school, gather children eligible to such an institution and get 
them into a regular course of tuition and discipline, while the 
latter proceeded on a tour for the collection of funds wherewith 
to effectuate his plan. With characteristic ardour Mr. Haber- 
sham immediately gathered around him a little band of 
''precious lambs," as he affectionately termed them, and in this 
truly honorable employment the teaching of the young, and 
officiating in the absence of Whitefield in the public services of 
the church, he passed the few first years of his sojourn in Geor- 
gia. How he regarded his efforts will be evident from his own 
word : "When I was in England," he says, writing to a friend 
in London under date 14th January, 1739, "my proud heart 
abhorred the idea of keeping a school, and I have sometimes 
tho't that I would rather choose to take up with the most 
mean and servile employment than a schoolmaster's. Alas ! this 
proceeded from rank pride and the want of a sound judgment to 
discern what was really good. I looked upon schoolmasters as 
a set of men that made gain the sole end of teaching and that 
made education to consist only in outward accomplishments to 
enable men to go through their wtirldly business with greater 
facility and ease. This was the highest and best notion I had 
entertained of them, but I am now thoroughly convinced that I 
very much undervalued them, for they certainly are or may be 
.capable of doing more towards the advancement of religion and 
consequently the public good, than any men I knew of except 
the clergy." That this is the true view of such an avocation 
let the efforts which have been recently made, a century after 


this paragraph was written, l)y lyceums, by teachers' conven- 
tions, and by normal schools testify. Teachers, even more 
than clergymen, are stationed at the head spring of society, 
and according to the directions which they give to the youth- 
ful mind and the influences which they bring to bear upon its 
formation will be the destiny of manhood and age of domestic, 
social, civil and religious character. The sentiments of Mr. 
Habersham upon the subject of education were exceedingly 
wise and judicious, and prove him to have been a man of 
vigorous intellect, of sound judgment, and of a discerning mind. 
''Education," he writes, "is indeed come to a very low ebb and 
in many places the very intention of it is so perverted that in- 
stead of its becoming one of the greatest blessings, as God de- 
signed it, it is made to have the effect of a curse, because the 
v^hole of education is laid out upon forming the outward man, 
making it appear to have all virtues, while the mind lies starv- 
ing and has the reality of one virtue. Thus, children are taught 
to be hypocrites as soon as they can speak, and this grows 
up with them and fastens rich images of false virtue so strongly 
upon their minds that they will at least im!pose upon themselves 
and think that humility which may be rank pride, and that 
honesty, which may be down right knavery." At the time of the 
arrival of Habersham, and for a few years subsequent, the 
situation of the colony was peculiarly distressing. Not only 
were the inhabitants at war with the Spaniards at Florida and 
constantly alarmed by rumours of invasions and defeat, not 
only were they menaced with Indian eruptions instigated by the 
French at Appalachee and Mobile, but the strife and discord of 
party spirit were eating out the very vitals of the settlement, 
and fast reducing it to a state of atrophy and ruin arranged 
under two great heads, the friends and the foes of the Trustees, 
the people carried on their intestine feud with an acrimony 
and bitterness which respected neither rank nor character. 
The magistrates were arrayed against each other, the sanctity 
of the church was prostituted to a miserable partisanship, men, 
women and children were suborned to certify either to the 
benefit or the calamities of the colony. The violent denuncia- 


tions against Oglethorpe were reiterated in his own ears, the 
plans of the Trustees were assailed by a hundred tongues, the 
powers of the magistrates set at nought and misrule bordering 
on anarchy paralyzed the efforts of friend and added pungency 
to the vituperations of enemies. Amidst these distressing 
turmoils Mr. Habersham quietly pursued his duties, prudently 
avoiding the disputations around him and never suffering him- 
self to be entangled by the toils which both parties had spread 
to ensnare him. In this he exhibited both his wisdom and his 
strength, not that he was influenced by the fear of either, but 
that he rose superior to both. The condition of the colony 
engaged his most anxious thoughts, and while he conceded to 
the Trustees the most laudable motives, he saw the futility of 
their schemes and endeavored to remedy evils by judiciously 
pointing out their existence. 

His letters upon the subject of colonial disputes were well 
and forcibly written, and evince great clearness of conception, 
and understanding of the principles of government and an 
intimate acquaintance with the actual condition of the province. 
Nerved by the approbation of a good conscience he wrote with 
a freedom and boldness which, while it startled, commanded 
respect, and while it probed the wound showed that it was 
done by one who could prescribe the balm of healing. His 
independent course drew upon him the disapprobation of both 
parties and the schoolmaster, as he is tauntingly called by 
Stevens, was often the theme of invective and reproach. 
Amidst all this he quietly pursued his course with unwavering 
diligence and lived down the calumnies of his enemies by his 
consistent and upright life. Having procured from the Trus- 
tees a grant for eight hundred acres of land which Habersham 
describes as situated upon the salts in the midst of the settle- 
ment, about nine miles from towti, "the best place I have seen 
for the Orphan House," he proceeded at once to collect material 
and erect a dwelling. 

It was the original intention of Whitefield before he left 
England to take in only 20 orphan children, but finding on hir 



arrival in Savannah so many objects of charity he enlarged his 
* design so as to comprehend all the necessitous children around 

Such was the energy used by Habersham, notwithstanding 
all the disadvantages of the colony and the place, that on the 
3rd November, 1741, in about a year after the selection of his 
site, he was enabled to remove the children to the house which 
he named Bethesda, believing that it would prove what its name 
indicated, a House of Mercy. At this time in addition to the 
care of 20 or 30 children he superintended an equal number 
of workmen in the erection of the building, occupying as yet 
the outhouses only, the main dwelling having been retarded 
in consequence of the capture by the Spaniards of a sloop loaded 
with bricks and other material for Bethesda. 

He also at this time planned and directed the making of the 
first road cut in the colony extending from the Orphan House 
to Savannah,* and in addition to all these labours maintained 
a voluminous correspondence with a great variety of individuals 
in America and England, and of every grade from His 
Majesty's Governors and the Bishops' commissary to the Re- 
ligious Society of Soldiers at Gibraltar and the prisoner in the 
Ipghouse. These labours proved too onerous for his frame 
already wasted by a distressing disease and he was several 
times laid aside by its violent recurrences. For years he 
was the victim of frequent and intense physical suffering which 
the heat of summer was sure to increase, though the return 
of winter brought a temporary alleviation and repose. Indeed he 
was several times tempted to return to England or emigrate to 
the north as the only hope of obtaining permanent benefit, but 
having laboured thus long he was anxious to remain and gather 
in the ripening harvest which he saw growing up around him, 
the first fruit of his self-sacrificing devotion. These frequent 
indispositions were not without their salutary effect, for while 
he felt with Archbishop Leighton that "this poor life is all 
along nothing but a linked chain of many sorrows and many 


This is a mistake. The roads to Darien and Augusta were both laid 
out before this, and it is probable that other short roads, running to 
various plantations, were in actual use before the founding of Bethesda. 


deaths," he also experienced the .truth of the forcible simile of 
Watts that "Physical infirmities, like breaks in a wall, let in the 
light of divine truth into the imprisoned soul and make it long 
for its release." Such was emphatically its effect upon him- 
self. His piety based on the theological views of Whitefield's 
was like Whitefield subject to extreme mutations oftener in a 
transition than a quiescent state. But whether contending with 
Giant Despair in Doubting Castle or standing with the Shep- 
herds on the Delectable Mountains, he was the same scrupulous, 
conscientious and upright man. With him religion occupied 
no secondary place and though his christian rectitude so diverse 
from the devious course of those around him exposed him to 
much malice and opposition, he firmly and unmoved endured 
every reproach and compelled respect where violence had been 
threatened. Bethesda speedily prospered under the wise ad- 
ministration of Habersham. The number of children increased, 
the artisans employed were faithful in their work, the build- 
ings reared by the hand of Charity in a colony of charity daily 
grew into shape and beauty, the spirit of the institution was 
gradually developing and its benefits were becoming sensibly 
apparent. Having satisfactorily arranged the affairs of the 
Orphan House he turned his thoughts to the formation of his 
own domestic establishment and at the close of 1740 was united 
by Rev. Mr. Whitefield to Miss Mary Bolton, daughter of 
Robert and Ann Bolton, of Philadelphia. He was by Mr. 
Whitefield esteemed too young for the charge he must neces- 
sarily assume, but Mr. Habersham said "that was no objection 
with me as I well knew her pious prudent behavior exceeded 
those of twice her years," and in his communication to her 
parents announcing their marriage, he fervently writes : "I bless 
God from my heart for bringing us together. My love to her 
increases daily and the more I know her the more I love her 
and the more reason I have to be thankful." The influence of 
this union was highly beneficial, it broke up those austere habits 
which were gradually fastening upon him ; it gave more sym- 
metry and proportion to his religious character and gathered 


around a heart wounded and sore from the rude conflicts of 
opposition the kindly influences of home and the chastened 
pleasure of the domestic circle. 

In Mrs. Habersham was beautifully patterned forth the 
christian wife and mother. Her whole life was a blessing 
to her husband, and her character a bright example to her 
children. Often did Habersham speak of her with enthusiastic 
admiration and throughout the long and troublous years of 
their existence she made his home a Goshen of affection, and 
v/as herself the attractive centre of its happy circle. 

But the quiet of Bethesda was not long undisturbed. In 
the malicious persecution to which the religious opinions of 
Habersham rendered him obnoxious, the magistrartes, though 
they dared not make a direct assault upon his character, en- 
deavored to harass him and entoil him in some indiscretion 
which would expose him to legal measures by threatening to 
place the Orphan House under their supervision, and taking 
in their own hands its entire control. To effect their object, 
false representations were widely circulated. The Trustees 
were told that the manager of Bethesda was opposed to their 
scheme of silk culture, which greatly incensed that honorable 
body, and Parliament was assured that it was but a Methodist 
school for the training up of children ''on Methodist principles." 
The magistrates claimed the right to appoint and to remove 
from the institution at pleasure, to direct its internal policy 
and to apprentice the children at a suitable age to those whom 
they should choose to be the masters of them. This Mr. Haber- 
sham resisted ; the dispute engendered much acrimony and fully 
developed the malign views of the Bailiffs who determined to 
thwart if they could not crush an institution, the influence of 
which was an ever torturing rebuke to their unjust proceedings. 
Oglethorpe, the Trustees, and Parliament, misguided in their 
information, leaned for a time toward the measures of the 
magistrates, but after a careful survey of the whole subject 
they recovered a proper tone of feeling, censured the assistant 
and indicated and confirmed the course of Habersham. The 
prejudice of Oglethorpe, now dissipated, were supplanted by a 


pleasing personal and epistolary intercourse in which Haber- 
sham beautifully blended the courtesies of the gentleman with 
the candor of the christian, and while he conceded to him that 
respect which was justly his due he scorned to flatter his pride 
or lend himself to a servile and fawning sycophancy. The dis- 
tinguished founder of Georgia received from the pen of Haber- 
sham many lessons which, had he duly practiced, would have 
elevated the colony from its depression and made it the joy 
and the praise of its numerous benefactors. 

Under date of Bethesda, ist August, '41, he thus writes to 
Oglethorpe and saw the justice and felt the value of his calm 
but judicious remonstrance. He understood the temper and 
spirit in which they were written and saw in them neither the 
promptings of jealousy nor the petty bickerings of revengful 
malice. The truly great mind rises above the angry paroxysms 
which assail the weak more fully at the expense of his error and 
instead of expending his feelings in useless irritation sets him- 
self at once to the work of reformation. 

To err is human, but to profit by ''the faithful wound of a 
friend" is one of the highest ends of human wisdom. Haber- 
sham saw that many of the plans of Oglethorpe were futile, that 
others were of a doubtful tendency and some absolutely ruinous, 
with a knowledge of Oglethorpe's character then remarkably 
clear and accurate and with a high estimation of his worth. 
Habersham felt that he more nobly did his duty by a plain 
statement of truths, however unpalatable, than by artfully de- 
ceiving where deception was ruin. 

In December, '41, the house contained 23 English, 10 Scotch, 
4 Dutch, 5 French, 7 American, 27 English orphans, 16 boys and 
and 26 girls. All objects of charity except 3. The general 
condition of the establishment may be inferred from extracts 
of Habersham's Letters to Gov. Belcher of Mass., and Hugh 
Bryan of South Carolina. 

The threatened invasion of the Spaniards in 1742 created 
much excitement and alarm at the Orphan House. Situated 
on the frontier of the Savannah settlement at a distance from 
any fort, with no means of self defense, it was peculiarly ex- 


posed, and its inhabitants underwent many and painful trials 
on the occasion. In a letter to Whitefield Habersham details 
their situation. 

After his return to Bethesda he renews his correspondence 
with Oglethorpe. A; change was now to take place in the situa- 
tion of Mr. Habersham by which his more immediate connection 
with the Orphan House ceased, though his interest in it re- 
mained firm and undeviating. To this change he had long 
been urged, but repeatedly declined until the necessities of the 
place seemed so great that he was at last induced to form a 
partnership with Mr. Francis Harris and established in 1744, 
under the firm of H. & H., the first commercial house in Savan- 
nah.* For the first few years their trade was mostly with the 
Northern colonies where their credit was good and their mer- 
cantile reputation high. Success prompted more extensive 
operations, and in 1747 they established a correspondence in 
London and began the system of direct importation. The 
principal exports at that time were pitch, tar, rice and peltry, 
and they hoped by furnishing an early and accessible medium 
of conveyance to encourage the growth of indigo, and, by adding 
that to the list of staple products, turn towards America a large 
portion of the 200,000 pounds which England annually paid 
France for that article. 

The difficulties consequent on the establishment of such an 
enterprise were neither few nor trivial. From the produce of 
the colony but little could be expected. 

Agriculture was greatly neglected. Negroes were not al- 
lowed for the carrying on of large plantations and that which 
was raised was not even sufficient for their own consumption, 
being entirely supplied with several necessary articles of food 
from Carolina. The Indian trade was unsettled and fluctuat- 
ing, owing to the fact that the furs brought to Savannah had to 
be shipped to Charleston at an expense of 7-6 stg. per hundred 

*Ki'otwithstanding this stat'ement, whicH has been often repeated, tho 
Georgia Colonial Records show that the mercantile establishment of 
Minis & Salomons existed in Savannah as far back as December 29, 1736, 
and that the firm name was changed to Abraham Minis & Company in 
1740, . 


where they were subject to a custom house duty of i shilHng 
per skin, making a total of expense of nearly 30 shillings per 

The object, then, of Habersham was: 

1st. By opening commercial intercourse with other places, 
to excite greater attention to agriculture, so that the staple 
products of the colony might be raised in sufficient quantities 
for exportation. 

2nd. To draw towards Savannah the trade and produce of 
the lower part of Carolina contiguous to Georgia. 

3rd. To prevent the onerous charges incident to the Indian 
trade by clearing hides and furs directly from Savannah ; and 
lastly by inducing ships to visit the place, to call around them 
the various artizans requisite for a sea port and drawing from 
the necessary expenses of the vessels a large revenue for the 
improvement of the colony. 

The views of Mr. Habersham upon these topics are elab- 
orately given in a letter to Mr. Bolzius. 

While thus joyful in the exercise of his vocation with a soul 
growing in grace and enlarging under the rich experience of 
heavenly goodness he was called to suffer a severe affliction in 
the loss of his brother, who had settled at Frederica. 

To this brother a few^ months before occurred one of those 
incidents which transpire in nearly every newly settled colony 
and which excite the sympathy and unite the efforts of friend 
and foes in the great cause of humanity. On Thursday the 3rd 
of August, 1738, he accompanied Rev. Mr. Whitefield on his 
way to Frederica as far as Vernon river, and returning thence 
he missed his way, and finding some difficulty with one of his 
horses, left one tied to a tree near a swamp and reached home 
after much labor next morning, though the distance to Vernon 
river was only 10 miles. The continuation of the story I give 
in the words of Col. Stephens as recorded at the time in his 
journal, Vol. i, page 258. 

''Wednesday, August 9, 1738. A trading boat, bound for 
Charles-Town, from New Windsor, arrived, by whom came one 
of our principal licensed traders who reported that the Creek 


Indians among whom he Hved were in a very good disposi- 
tion and hearty towards us. An accident happened which it 
was feared might prove of fatal consequence. Upon Mr. 
Whitefield's going for Frederica, he rode as far as Vernon 
river, taking Mr. Habersham, the schoolmaster's brother, with 
him, with intent that he should bring the horses back, while he 
himself proceeded by water, but the young man, missing his 
way home, and getting into a swamp through which he could 
not get his horse that he had to follow, he left hinU tied to a 
tree, and with difficulty got home in the morning, after much 
wandering and fatigue. A day or two after he took two people 
of the town out with him to try if he could get the horse which 
he left tied ; but whereabout it was he could not tell, which oc- 
casioned them to ramble far and wide from each other, till at 
length they could not tell how to meet again ; and the towns- 
men at length returned home again, hoping to find Mr. Haber- 
sham there also. But nobody hearing anything of himi yet, 
since he and his companions parted yesterday in the forenoon, 
his friends, with reason, began to be alarmed, and all good 
people wished to give what assistance they could. Night was 
coming on, and Mr. Causton being not in town Mr. Parker 
and I thought it advisable in such an emergency to get some 
damaged powder out of the stores, and ordered a gun to be 
fired now and then at a small distance of time (once in an hour 
or less) so that if happily he was within hearing it might be a 
guide to him what course to take. Then we sent to get two or 
three Indians ready against morning, and several active men 
with horses engaged to be ready very early, by whose joint 
endeavors we hoped some good would come of it ; which was all 
could be done instantly, the sky being very dark. 

"Thursday, lo. The horsemien went out several ways to- 
wards those parts where the man had lost himself, and con- 
tinued their search all day, firing pistols, and calling frequently 
on each other ; but returned in the evening without success, and 
the Indians who went out with them continued abroad all night, 
endeavoring to find some track of him ; but our hopes began to 
fail of making any good discovery . 


"Friday, ii. The young man who was about given 

over as lost was at last happily found again, wherein Provi- 
dence seemed in a particular manner to show itself. One of 
the inhabitants of Hampstead, who, among others, had been 
seeking him two days in vain had so strong an impression made 
on him in the night that he could not rest ; wherefore, going 
out again this morning, in a short time, upon firing his pistol, 
he heard the poor man make a faint answer, and then he soon 
came up with him. He had been three days bewildered in a 
swamp which was on this side of Vernon river, the largest in 
all the country, and in many places impassable, but was now 
got within a small distance of Hampstead, which was more 
than he knew, and being quite spent he was laid down, expect- 
ing never to have risen again, when he heard this honest man's 
gun, who carried him to his home, gave him milk and what he 
had, and then came and acquainted his friends with it, who went 
and brought him joyfully to town." 

The death of this young man afterwards who was a sincere 
christian "all affability, love and humility," as his brother terms 
him, was a severe blow to Mr. Habersham who was now left 
in America without one single tie of consanguinity to bind him 
to its shores. But while he mourned his loss he rejoiced in his 
brother's gain, believing from the evidence of his life that he 
had exchanged earth for the blessedness of Heaven. 

Here ends the Stevens manuscript. The subsequent career 
of Mr. James Habersham will now be briefly related, in order 
to have all the important events in his life brought together 
in an unbroken account. 

A fact worthy of mention as showing the honorable char- 
acter of Mr. Habersham is told in connection with his quah- 
fications as a man of business. In response to an appeal from 
the Rev. Mr. Bolzius, the Salzburger minister at Ebenezer, for 
information on the subject of agriculture and commerce, Mr. 
Habersham consented to write a letter expressing his views, 
with the understanding that, as in doing so he would have some- 
thing to say concerning a number of men of influence in Geor- 
gia and advert to the plans of the Trustees, without having the 


consent of those interested, the contents of the communication 
*be considered confidential. Urged to modify his conditions he 
agreed to let Mr. Bolzius furnish a copy of the letter to a 
friend in Germany, and that friend sent a copy to the Trustees, 
which act, of course, caused Mr. Habersham to believe that dis- 
pleasure, at least, would be expressed by that body ; but, to his 
surprise, his knowledge was recognized, and his ability so 
clearly shown that his appointment as Assistant to the Presi- 
dent of the Province of Georgia quickly came. 

Shortly after, in 1750, he and Pickering Robinson were made 
commissioners to look after the matter of the culture of silk 
in the colony, in a renewed effort! to make it, as at first in- 
tended, one of the chief industries. 

The next step in his promotion was his appointment, while 
John Reynolds was Governor, in 1754, as Secretary of the 
Province and a Councillor; and in 1767 he Was advanced to the 
office of President of the Upper House of the General Assembly. 

The highest position reached by Mr. Habersham was that of 
Acting Governor of the Province of Georgia which he attained 
in 1769, when Sir James Wright, the Governor, went to Eng- 
land on leave of absence. By the term of the commission is- 
sued to Governor Wright it was declared that "upon the death, 
or absence, of the Governor, the eldest Councillor whose name 
is first placed in his Majesty's instructions shall take upon him 
the administration of the Government," and Wright named 
Habersham as the man, asserting that he was "a. gentlentan of 
property, and no Liberty Boy." He received the appointment, 
and his conduct during the time he was at the head of the 
government gave satisfaction to those above him in the mother 
country. Realizing the responsibility resting upon him, he 
thus addressed the Assembly on the 29th of April : *T am very 
sensible of the high and important post committed to me, which 
calls for the utmost of my best abilities to discharge, so as to ap- 
prove myself to our most gracious Sovereign, by promoting the 
true interest and prosperiay of his good subjects in this Province, 
to effect which you may depend on my most sincere and un- 
wearied endeavors. My long residence in this Province, and 


the strong attachment I must have for its welfare from motives 
obvious to you must make it extremely grateful to me to be in 
the least instrumental in furthering its growing prosperity." 

As showing his regard for certain rights of the colonies, 
while holding a deep feeling of loyalty for the mother country, 
the following passage is taken from a letter he wrote to the 
Earl of Hillsborough on American affairs. He admits the 
right of Parliament in some respects, but seems to doubt the 
propriety of asserting those rights to the fullest extent, and 
asks ''whether it would not be expedient to make some altera- 
tion in the Cpnstitution relative to America." 

From' this period he had the same troubles which later on 
devolved on Sir James Wright when the latter returned to 
Georgia from England. It is not possible here to give in detail 
the account of his disagreement with the American party in the 
Legislature on the question of the election of a Speaker and 
the right of the representatives of the King to negative the 
vote of the Assembly. When the Assembly met their choice 
of a Speaker was Dr. Noble Wymberley Jones, a man who 
was outspoken in his opinion of the unjust dealings of England 
with the colonies. For that reason Mr. Habersham informed 
the two gentlemen of the Assembly sent to notify him of their 
choice that he would not recognize the appointee, and instructed 
them to choose another. Dr. Jones was again elected, and 
again Mr. Habersham negatived him. The next day Mr. 
Habersham went to the Council Chamber, fully intending to 
dissolve the Assembly, unless his demand for a different 
Speaker should be complied with ; but he was informed that, in 
the meanwhile, Mr. Archibald Bulloch had been elected, the 
message, however, not apprising him of the fact that Dr. Jones 
had been a third time chosen but had, under the circumstances, 
declined. Having approved of the choice of Bulloch without 
knowing the full particulars, on hearing of the persistent action 
of the Assembly up to the refusal of Dr. Jones, Habersham in- 
formed that body that he would not approve of Mr. Bulloch's 


election until the record of the third choice of Jones had been 
expunged from the minutes, and the result was that he dis- 
solved the Assembly. 

In the year 1775, when South Carolina resolved to hold no 
intercourse with Georgia because the latter declined to become 
a member of the American Association and to take part in the 
proceedings of the Continental Congress, Mr. Habersham thus 
expressed his views to a friend in London : 

"Savannah, Ga., April 17, 1775. 

"The fiery patriots in Charleston have stopped all dealings 
with us, and will not suffer any goods to be landed there from 
Great Britain, and I suppose the Northern Provinces Will follow 
the example. 

"The people on this continent are generally almost in a state 
of madness and desperation ; and should not conciliatory meas- 
ures take place on your side, I know not what may be the con- 
sequence. I fear an open rebellion against the Parent State, and 
consequently among ourselves. 

"Some of the inflammatory resolutions and measures taken 
and published in the Northern colonies, I think, too plainly 
portend this. 

"However, I do most sincerely upon every occasion declare 
that I would not choose to live here longer than we are in a 
state of proper subordination to, and under Great Britain; 
although I cannot altogether approve of the step she has lately 
taken, and do most cordially wish that a permanent line of 
government was drawn and pursued by the mother country 
and her children, and may God give your Senators wisdom to 
do it, and heal the breach, otherwise I cannot think of the event 
but with horror and grief — father against son, and son against 
father, and the nearest relatives and friends combating with 
each other ! I may, perhaps, say with truth, cutting each other's 
throats. Dreadful to think of, much more to experience." 

At the time the foregoing was written it is probable that the 
writer of those words was aware of the weakness of his physi- 
cal system. It would seem, from all the references to his 


health in the documents available, that he was not a robust or 
strongly built man. He went Nprth for the benefit of his health 
in the summer of that year, 1775, and Sir James Wright wlrote 
to the Earl of Dartmouth, July 10, "Mr. Habersham is gone to 
Philadelphia for the recovery of his health," and on the ist of 
November he announced his death to the same person in these 
words : ''Ten days ago I had an account of the death of Mr. 
Habersham, one of his Majesty's Council and Secretary of this 
Province." Mr. Habersham's death occurred August 28, 1775, 
at New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Two Georgia Patriots: AbraKam Balclv\7in 
and James Jackson 


From the National Intelligencer 
Mr. BaUv^in 

Our last number announced the death of Abraham Baldwin, 
Senator from Georgia. The annals of our country have rarely 
been adorned with a character more venerable or a life more 
useful than his. War brings its animation, and creates its own 
heroes ; it often rears them up to fame with as little assistance 
from native genius as from study, or from moral and political 

It is in times of peace that an illutrioous name is hardest 
eafned, and most difficult to be secured, especially among en- 
lightened republicans, When an equality of rank and right leaves 
nothing to the caprice of chance ; where every action is weighed 
in its proper balance, and every man compared not only with 
his neighbor but with himself ; his motives being tested by the 
uniformity of his measures. 

Mr. Baldwin was born in Connecticut in November, 1754, 
and received his education very early at the University at New 
Haven. He was one of the best classical and mathematical 
scholars of the age in which he has lived. He was employed as 
one of the professors in this college during the greater part of the 
American war, at the close of which he began the practice of law, 
and went to establish himself in the State of Georgia. He ar- 
rived at Savannah in the beginning of 1784 ; he was immediately 
admitted a counsellor at the Georgia bar, and in three months 
afterwards he was elected as member of the State Legislature. 
During the first session of that body after his election he per- 
formed a service for the people of the State, for which their 
posterity will bless his memory. Indeed, if he had done nothing 


for them since, this action alone would have immortalized him 
there. He originated the plan of the University of Georgia, 
drew up the charter and with infinite labor and patience, in 
vanquishing all sorts of prejudices and removing every ob- 
struction, he persuaded the Assembly to adopt it. This instru- 
ment endowed the University with forty thousand acres of ex- 
cellent land, required it to establish one central seat for the 
higher branches of education, and a secondary college in every 
county in the State ; all dependent on the principal seminary. 

These lands were the uncultivated ; the State itself was new. 
It is only within the last six years that the rents of the 
University lands have enabled the trustees to erect the buildings 
and organize the institution; and it is already in a flourishing 
condition. Its principal seat is at Athens, on the Oconee river. 
It is now under the direction of Josiah Meigs, its first Presi- 
dent; a man equally eminent for mathematical and chemical 
science, and legal and classical erudition. 

John Milledge, late Governor of the State, and now Senator 
in Congress, early associated his labors with those of his friend 
Baldwin in bringing forward this establishment, and we under- 
stand that the present trustees have erected, within the walls 
of the first college, a marble n:^onument to Baldwin, as founder 
of the institution, and to Milledge, his associate. 

This is not the only instance in which w'e find their names 
connected by monumental acts of public authority. Milledge- 
ville is the shire town of Baldwin county, and is now declared 
the seat of State government. 

Mr. Baldwin had not been two years in Georgia when he 
was elected member of Congress. This was in 1785, to take his 
seat in 1786. From that time till the day of his death he was, 
without a moment's intermission, a member of Congress from 
that State, either as delegate under the old Constitution, until 
the year 1789, representative under the new until the year 1799, 
and Senator from that time till his death. And the term for 
which he was last elected had still four years to run from the 
4th of March, 1807, the day of his decease. 


There has probably been no other instance of such a long 
and uninterrupted series of confidence and service among the 
members of the American Congress. And, what is more re- 
markable, on the first day that he was confined to his house, in 
his last illness, he told his friends that during his twenty-two 
years of public service, that day, according to his best recollec- 
tion, was the first that he had been absent from his public 

Mr. Baldwin was a member of the Convention that framed 
the present Constitution of the United States. This he always 
considered as the greatest service that he ever performed for 
his country, and his estimate is doubtless just. He was an 
active member of that most illustrious and meritorious body. 
Their deliberations were in secret ; but we have good authority 
for saying that some of the essential clauses of the invaluable, 
and we hope everlasting compact, which they presented to their 
country, owe their origin and insertion to Abraham Baldwin. 

His manner of conducting business is too well known to 
his fellow laborers, and to the great mass of his contemporaries, 
to require any illustration in this hasty biographical sketch. He 
may have wanted ambition to make himself brilliant, but he 
never wanted industry to render himself useful. His oratory 
was simple, forcible, convincing. His maxim of never assert- 
ing anything but what he believed to be true could not fail to be 
useful in carrying conviction to others. Patient of contradic- 
tion, and intolerant to the wildest opinions, he could be as in- 
dulgent to the errors of judgment in other men as if he had 
stood the most in need of such indulgence for himself. 

During the violent agitation of parties which have disturbed 
the repose of public men in this country for the last ten years, 
he has always been mjoderate, but firm ; relaxing nothing in his 
republican principles, but retaining all possible charity for his 
former friends who may have abandoned theirs. He has lived 
without reproach, and has probably died without an enemy. 

The state of society would be rendered much better than it 
is if the private lives of virtuous men could be as well known 
as their public lives, that they might be kept clearly in view as 


objects of imitation. We are creatures of habit, and our habits 
are formed as much by repeating after others as after ourselves. 
Men, therefore, mistake a plain moral principle when they sup- 
pose it meritorious to conceal their good actions from the eye 
of the world. On the contrary, it is a part of their duty to let 
such actions be known, that they may extend their benefits for 
a sort of reproduction, and be multiplied by imitation. 

Mr. Baldwin's private life was full of beneficent and chari- 
table deeds which he was too studious to conceal from public 
notice. Having never been married, he had no family of his 
own, and his constant habits of economy and temperance left 
him the means of assisting many young men in their education 
and their establishment in business. It would, perhaps, be im- 
proper for us to mention particular cases beyond his father's 
family, but in that there was an ample field for his benevolence. 
Six orphans, his half brothers and sisters, were left to his 
care, by their father's death, in the year 1787, and the estate 
that was to support them proved insolvent. He paid the 
debts of the estate, quit-claimed his porportion to these children, 
and educated all, in a great measure, at his own expense. The 
five, out of the six, who are still living are well established in 
life, and owe everything to his paternal affection. 

His last illness was so short, and his death so unexpected, 
that none of his relatives, except his brother-in-law, were able 
to be present at his funeral. But it seemed as if the public in 
general were his near relatives. 

We have rarely witnessed more general and genuine marks 
of respect at the loss of any of the great benefactors of our 
country, particularly among the members from Georgia. In 
that State his loss will be most deeply felt, though it must be 
very sensibly perceived in the councils of the nation. 

Though his funeral was two days after Congress dissolved, 
many members stayed expressly to attend it. The procession 
was five miles, from Capitol-Hill to Rock-Creek Church, formed 
by the Vice-President of the United States, a number of the 
Senators and Representatives and the heads of departments. 
Chief mourners, Joel Barlow, brother-in-law of the deceased; 


Governor Milledge, his colleague of the Senate, and Mr. Early, 
Representative from Georgia. His remains were deposited by 
the side of his old friend, Gen. Jackson, his colleague, whom 
he had followed to the grave just one year before. The two 
chaplains of Congress attended, and the funeral service was 
performed by Mr. Sayre. 

A reprint from the Republican and Savannah Evening 
Ledger, Saturday, March 28th, 1807. 



From the Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser, 
Wednesday, April 9, 1806. 


Died, at the City of Washington, on the 19th of March last, 
in the 59th year of his age, the Honorable James Jackson, a 
Senator from this State in the Senate of the United States, and 
Major General of the First Division of the Militia of Georgia. 

On this event, a message from the Senate to the House of 
Representatives announced the death of this highly esteemed 
citizen. A committee of arrangements was formed for his 
interment, which took place with all the ceremonials and 
respect due to the rank and character of the deceased; both 
Houses having unanimously agreed in the Words of the resolu- 
tion of the House of Representatives, to wear mourning for 
one month *4n testimony of their respect for the memory 
of that distinguished patriot." 

This expression of the will of the National Representatives 
is at once an eulogy on the occasion ; and evidence of the high 
opinion entertained of the virtues and talents of the deceased. 
What more can be said than to reiterate "that a distinguished 
patriot is no more." 

Some few biographical sketches miay be satisfactory. Gen- 
eral Jackson was a native of Devonshire in England, and came 
over to this State at an early period of his life. Following the 
bent of his genius, he engaged immediately in the study of law, 
in the pursuit of which he continued until the year 1775, when 
the seeds of the American Revolution in this State first burst 
forth. Among the foremost of our young citizens who stepped 
forward in support of the American cause, we find him a 
private in the Volunteer Light Infantry Comipany of Savannah, 
opposing in that early stage the invaders in 1776 of the rights 
of "his adopted country. Having acquired by his decision and 


courage the confidence of his associates, his promotion to the 
command of the company soon followed, together with an ap- 
pointment to an office in civil affairs of the State. These marks 
of the confidence of his country, added to the natural ardency 
of his temper, made him press forward with incessant and 
persevering exertion, in defense of the State, during the most 
gloomy period of American affairs, and we trace him in various 
and repeated conflicts with the enemy, both in this State and 
in South Carolina, particularly in the defeat of Col. Campbell 
on Ogeechee, and on many other occasions whilst he com- 
manded the State Legion in this State and in the battles of 
Blackstocks and the Cowpens, in South Carolina, where he 
acted as Brigade Major, and where the American arms were 
crowned with brilliant success. 

To rescue his country from the possession of the enemy, 
by whom it was at that period almost totally overrun, he was 
appointed by the Legislature, then convened at Augusta, to the 
command of a legion of horse and infantry, denominated the 
Georgia Legion, and which he organized with promptitude. In 
this duty of enterprise and exposure he is deservedly estimated 
as an officer of courage and merit, and in the vigilant discharge 
of which he continued until the evacuation of Savannah, in 
1782. A general peace soon following, he devoted himself to 
his profession, in which he was successful, able and upright. 
On the organization of the State Militia, he was appointed to 
the command of the Chatham Regiment, afterwards a Brig- 
adier of the State, and ultimately the Major General of the 
First Division. 

Equally zealous for political as for civil rights, he was re- 
peatedly elected a representative in the State and National Legis- 
latures, and called to the Senate of the Union, in all which 
capacities he was uniformly active and zealous in support of 
the rights of the people. A period arriving when his services 
were required at home, he resigned his seat in the Senate, and 
upon an urgent and important occasion appeared again with un- 
common applause in the State Legislature and convention — the 
intrepid asserter of measures that tended to restore those rights 


which the corruption and venality of the times had wantonly 
trampled upon. Having with the support and assistance of his 
equally independent friends succeeded in the suppression of the 
most injurious proceedings, he was elected to fill the executive 
chair of the State, the important duties of which, as Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief, he discharged with firmness, in- 
tegrity and general satisfaction. A vacancy happening in the 
Senate of the United States, General Jackson was a second time 
called to that dignified station, in which ofiice, and at his post, 
he died. True to his principles, he was in every station a 
zealous advocate of pure representative government; viewing 
with a jealous and vigilant eye the rights of elections, and de- 
testing those baneful speculations, on public property, so de- 
structive to the rights and morals of the people. He was warm 
in his friendships, affectionate in his family, and industrious 
in all his pursuits. Scrupulously exact in the discharge of his 
public functions, every private consideration was waived when 
in competition with what he deemed his duty ; holding it sacred 
that where he promised he ought to perform. From this long 
train of services, then, from the general confidence placed in 
him ; the uniform integrity and ability which characterized his 
career, we cannot but deplore the ''death of this distinguished 

An affectionate wife, with four sons, brothers and relatives 
by whom the General was greatly beloved, will sensibly feel 
his loss. 


Queries and Ans^\?er5 

R.E.B. — Is it true that General Oglethorpe was offered the 
command of the British army at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tionary War, and that he declined the honor because he was 
unwilling to fight the people of a colony of which he was the 
founder ? 

This story, which is doubtless untrue, was told by Hugh 
McCall in his History of Georgia, vol. i, page 325, and by 
George Bancroft, in his History of the United States, vol. 3, 
page 166. McCall gave as his authority for the statement 'The 
Annual Register," and Dr. T. M. Harris, referring to the 
subject in his ''Biographical Memorials of James Oglethorpe," 
says: "After careful searching, I do not find the statement 
* * *. I mUst doubt, however, that an official offer was 
made to him, as he was too old to engage in such service ; and 
deem the statement not sufficiently authenticated to be relied 
on. — 

B. H. W. — Can you tell me how Colonel's Island, in Liberty 
County, got its name? 

The name of this island was originally Bermuda Island, 
supposed to have been so called because of the luxurant growth 
of the Bermuda grass on it. We do not know when the present 
name was bestowed upon it, but we are of the opinion that it 
w^as about 1748, as, on the 22d of September of that year, the 
Court of President and Assistants allotted to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Alexander Heron, of Oglethorpe's Regiment, a tract 
of 500 acres in the colony, and he settled on Bermuda Island. 
It is the belief of some persons that it was called by the name of 
Colonel because it is well known that at various periods set- 
tlers bearing that title occupied land there. As many of the 
references are to "The Colonel's Island," it is reasonable to 
infer that it got its name from the fact that Colonel Heron was 
the first of that rank to settle on it. Indeed, the following item 
of information apparently fixes the matter : 

In the Georgia Gazette of Saturday, December 7, 1797, 
John Jones, Sheriff of Liberty County, advertised land for 
sale "on Heron's Island, now know as Coloners Island." 


Editor's Notes 

Just a century ago that delightful collection of literary 
productions known as 'The Sketch Book," containing such 
never-dying popular compositions as "The Legend of Sleepy 
Hollow," and *'Rip Van Winkle," written by Washington 
Irving, using the name ''Geoffrey Crayon," was first published, 
and made its author famous. Twenty years after, shortly 
following the founding of the Georgia Historical Society, Mr. 
Irving was elected an honorary member of the new organiza- 
tion. That he was well pleased with the Society's action we are 
certain, having the assurance of that distinguished man in the 
following characteristic letter, written to Mr. Tefft, the Society's 
Corresponding Secretary : 

''Greenburgh, July 2ist, 1839. 
"Dear Sir: 

'T have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 9th 
instant, informing me of my being elected an honorary member 
of the Georgia Historical Society. 

'T beg you to express to the Society the grateful sense I 
entertain of this very flattering mark of their esteem. 

"With best wishes for the prosperity of your institution, I 
remain, dear sir, 

"Very respectfully 

"Your ob't serv't, 


Another very popular American author was, at the same 
time, elected one of the Society's honorary members. This was 
the novelist and historian, James Fenimore Cooper. 

Miss Mary E. Phillips, in her volume, "James Fenimore 
Cooper," published in 1913, wrote (page 281) : "On July 8, 
of this year (1839), Cooper was made a member of the Geor- 
gia Historical Society, and the following autumn 'Mercedes of 
Castile' came from the press." 


In acknowledging the honor conferred upon him, Mr. 
Cooper wrote this letter to Mr. Tefft : 

*'Otsego Hall, 

"CooperstowH, July 29, 1839. 

"Your communication, containing the information that the 
Georgia Historical Society has done me the honor to elect me a 
member, has just reached me. 

"I beg you to acquaint the Society with the high sense I 
entertain of its compliment, and with my acceptance of the 
distinction, together with my grateful acknowledgments. 

"As I ascribe the honor to my own recent little attempt in 
history,* I shall ask the favor of the Society, as soon as a 
second and corrected edition of the work appears, to place a 
copy of it in its library. 

"Will you permit me also to thank you for the trouble you 
have taken in this matter, and believe me to be, sir, 

"Your obliged servant, 

At the December meeting of the Georgia Historical Society, 
in the year 1899, Mr. Horace J. Smith, of London, presented 
a photograph of a document relating to the founding of the 
Colony of Georgia. As the proceedings in the matter of its 
presentation will doubtless be of interest to our readers, we 
make place for the same here : 

Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 14, 1899. 
William Harden, Esq., 

Librarian of Historical Society of State of Georgia, 
Savannah, Ga. 

Dear Sir : — About eleven months ago my father, Horace J. 
Smith, sent me the matter which I hereby send to you by ex- 
press. In some way this matter has been lost for eleven months, 

^ *"History of the United States Navy," 



and diligent search had failed to reveal it until yesterday. I take 
pleasure in forwarding it to you and shall be glad to have you 
acknowledge to Mr. Smith its receipt, even after so long a time. 
Trusting the matter may be of interest to you, I am, re- 
spectfully yours, 


Ivy Lodge, Ivy Bank, 

GermantoWn, School Road, 

Philadelphia, Moseley, ' 

U. S. A. B'ham. 

44 Grosvenor Road, 
Westminster Embankment, 

London, Dec. 3, 1898. 

Dear Sir: — I send you herewith a photograph of a ''War- 
rant," issued by the "Trustees for establishing the Colony of 
Georgia," to the vestry of St. Margaret, Westminster, to collect 
money for the purpose of sending "poor people to be settled and 
established in the Southern frontiers of South Carolina." The 
original was found by my friend, J. E. Smith, Esq., clerk of 
the now united parishes of St. Margaret and St. John, among 
the muniments of the vestry. By his kind permission, William 
H. Brand, Esq. (who describes himself as only an amateur, but 
whose work as you will see is as -excellent as that of a profes- 
sional) has taken a copy for me to send to you. 

I am sure you will appreciate the courtesy of these gentle- 
men ; the one who rescued and the other who provided a copy 
of this interesting historical relic. Oglethorpe, while in Parlia- 
ment, visited a friend in prison for debt, and found him loaded 
with chains. This so affected Oglethorpe that by his efforts 
such persons and others were sent out as a military colony to 
act as a buffer between the Indians and South Carolina — a 
colony named for Carolus, King of England. 

No other colony after this one, taking its name from its 
founder, George II, was christened after a British monarch. 
We have no "Guillielma" to commemorate William IV; nor 
"Victoria" on our list of States ; for after the Revolution, we 


were self-contained and adopted Indian names for our terri- 
tories, except that we wished to honor "Washington" with one, 
and accepted "Louisiana" from the French. 

I shall be pleased to be able to advise Mr. Smith and Mr. 
Brand of the safe arrival of this historical souvenir, and to 
serve you further in any historical researches, if so advised. 

Very respectfully, 

To Wm. Harden, Esq., Librarian of the Historical Society of 
the State of Georgia, Savannah. 

Extract from a book issued as a Special report of the 
Westminster vestry entitled "From Pre-Reformation Times to 
the Present Day." 

"The benevolence of Westminster might indeed, almost be 
said to be world-wide. At least one of the flourishing States 
of America is indebted to the Parish for material help at its 

loth May, 1733. It having been requested by the trustees 
for establishing a colony in Georgia for the minister, church- 
wardens and principal inhabitants of this parish to take sub- 
scriptions and to gather and to collect money for the said 

It is agreed that this vestry will give them assistance therein 
provided the said corporation do furnish them with proper 

A warrant under the seal of the State was received by the 
vestry in the following year, appointing the church wardens, 
and other parish officers, treasurers for the raising of funds. 
This warrant mounted on crimson silk, with its curious seal in 
clay, bearing a design of a silk worm on a mulberry leaf, was 
brought to light at the Town Hall a few years ago, and suitably 
framed for preservation." 

List of vestrymen present at the meeting of the vestry, held 
on the loth May, 1733 : 

Rev. Rich. Widmore, John Grainger, Esq., Nathl. Black- 
erlly, Mr. Matthias Sayer, William Lowndes, Esq., Mark Fre- 
ker, Esq., Mr. John Atkinson, William Ireland, Esq., Richard 


Farwell, Esq., Mr. John Alford, Capt. Samuel Tufuell, John 
Dives, Esq., Mr. John WilHams, Mr. Richard Nurse, Alex. 
Chocke, Esq., Mr. Wm. Skelton, John Lawton, Esq., Mr. James 


MR. THOS. NO WELL, Churchwardens. 

The Vestry of St. Margaret and St. John, Westminster. 
Vestry Offices, Town Hall, 

Westminster, S. W. 
Horace J. Smith, Esq. 20th, October, 1898. 

44 Grosvenor Road, S. W. 

Dear Sir: — Your inquiry relating to the warrant for the 
State of Georgia, with special reference to its bearing the same 
date as the resolution of the vestry, is quite reasonable, and, 
at the same time, capable of an easy answer. The meetings of 
the vestry were held at the time under review, as early as 8 
o'clock in the morning, in the vestry room adjoining the church. 
The office of the trustees of the funds, in Old Palace yard, was 
quite close to the vestry room, so that there would be no dif- 
ficulty in the resolution of the vestry being conveyed to them, 
and in the warrant being agreed upon and made out by the trus- 
tees on the same day. The fact that the receipt of the warrant 
is not recorded until ''the following year," as shown in the 
record you have copied, is probably due to its having been 
handed in, at the close of their task, by those who had under- 
taken the collection. The amount collected does not appear to 
have passed through the church warden's accounts, for there 
is no entry relating to it in the year 1733, or either of the next 
two following years. 

I enclose a list of the nam^s of the vestrymen present when 
the collection was undertaken, in case it may be useful here- 
after for comparison with the records of the trustees. 

The warrant was clearly not a "brief" in the same sense as 
other licenses resorted to for collections at the time. No men- 
tion is made of it in the register of briefs laid in St. Margaret's 
parish, nor does Mr. Bewes, in his comprehensive volume on 


"Briefs," refer to it in any way. Such documents were printed 
and entered at the Court of Chancery, whereas the Georgia 
warrant is an original document in manuscript, under the seal 
of the trustees, and bears no indorsement of the entry. 

I am, dear sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed.) J. E. SMITH, 

Vestry Clerk. 


WHEREAS his Majesty hath been graciously Pleased to 
take into Consideration that many of his poor Subjects, and 
many Forreigners, who are willing to become his Subjects, are 
reduced to great necessities, and would gladly be settled in the 
British Provinces in America, where, by Cultivating the Lands 
at present Waste and desolate, they might not only gain a 
comfortable subsistence for themselves and Families, but also 
strengthen his Majesty's Colonies, and increase the Trade 
Navigation and Wealth of these Realms. AND WHEREAS, 
his Majesty hath declared it highly becoming his Crowti and 
Royal Dignity to Extend his Fatherly Compassion even to the 
meanest and most unfortunate of his People, and to relieve 
the wants of his above mentioned poor Subjects, and that it will 
be highly conducive for the Accomplishing these ends, that a 
regular Colony of the said poor People be settled and estab- 
lished in the Southern Frontiers of South Carolina. AND 
WHEREAS his Majesty for the more orderly Carrying on 
the said good Purposes HA,TH by his Royal Charter bearing 
date the Ninth Day of June in the Year or Our Lord 1732 
constituted a Body Politick and Corporate by the Name of THE 
GEORGIA IN AMERICA and hath granted unto the said 
TRUSTEES and their Successors for ever, certain Lands and 
Territories in South Carolina IN TRUST for Establishing the 
said Colony, and hath erected the same into an Independent 
Province by the name of GEORGIA. NOW KNOW YE 
that We the said Trustees being well assured of the Integrity 
and Humanity of the Minister Church Wardens and Gentle- 


men of the VESTRY of the Parish of Saint Margaret West- 
minster and that they greatly desire the success and accomplish- 
ment of so Excellent a Work HAVE, by vertue of the Powers 
granted to Us by the said Charter at a Meeting of the said Cor- 
poration convened and assembled for that purpose, authorized 
and appointed and by these Presents DO for the Consideration 
aforesaid authorise and appoint the said Minister Church 
Wardens and Gentlemen of the Vestry of the Parish of Saint 
Margaret Westminster or any two or more of them: to take 
Subscriptions and to gather and collect such Moneys as shall 
be by any Person or Persons contributed for the Purposes 
aforesaid and to transmit with all convenient Speed to us the 
said TRUSTEES, at our office in Old Palace Yard Westminster 
the Moneys so collected together with the names of the Per- 
sons and sums which each one shall contribute or subscribe, 
and in case any of the Contributors shall desire their Names 
to be Concealed then the Sums by them given respectively, that 
we the said TRUSTEES may be enabled from time to time 
to publish perfect Accounts of such Benefactions. GIVEN 
under our common Seal this TENTH DAY OF MAY 1733. 

In making the presentation, in behalf of the donor, Mr. 
William Harden, the Society's Librarian, took advantage of the 
occasion to make the following remarks : 

''But the interest of our society in this Church of St. Mar- 
garet is not confined to the incident of this evening, as I will 
now show. 

"It may not be known to many of our members that the 
remains of Sir Walter Raleigh, with the exception of the head, 
v>'hich it is said was given to his wife at the time of his execu- 
tion, and kept by her until her death, are buried in that church. 
The proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, at 
the June meeting, 1880, show that a suggestion had been made 
by the Rev. F. W. Farrar, then canon of Westminster and 
rector of St. Margaret's Church, now Dean of Canterbury, 'that 
a window in memory of Raleigh would be an appropriate 
tribute from Americans, in whose history his name occupies 
so prominent a place. A letter from Canon Farrar was read, 


and a subscription paper, started by American residents in 
London, exhibited. The project excited considerable interest 
among the members present, and the president was requested 
to bring the matter to the attention of other historical societies. 
The subscription paper was committed to the treasurer for the 
gift of individual members.' 

'The suggestion that the interest of other historical societies 
be invoked in this matter met with encouragement, and the pro- 
ceedings of our Georgia Society show that at the December 
meeting, of the same year, 'the chairman read a letter from Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop of Massachusetts concerning the placing of 
an American memorial window in St. Margaret's Church, at West- 
minster, London, in honor of Sir Walter Raleigh, and favoring 
strongly the scheme. Upon motion of Gen Lawton, this society 
subscribed £20 to this object.' The amount required for the 
purpose was readily subscribed, and the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society, through which body the collections were made, sent 
to Canon Farrar £315. Mr. Winthrop, its president, partici- 
pated in the cremonies incident to the unveiling of the window, 
and thus spoke of it in a letter to his vice-president. Dr. George 
E. Ellis, dated at Paris, May 17, 1882 : 'Last Sunday morning 
1 had a great treat at St. Margaret's, London, where the win- 
dow in memiory of Sir Walter Raleigh, which our society, at 
my suggestion, led off in subscribing for, was unveiled. A 
beautiful window it is, the large west window of the old ParHa- 
mentary Church, with full length figures of Queen Elizabeth, 
Raleigh and Sir Humphrey Gilbert. Lowell wrote the inscrip- 
tion for it, in verse. The sermon by Canon Farrar was ad- 
mirable ; full of kind feeling to America, and every way worthy 
of the window, of Raleigh, and of himself." 

The inscription reads thus : 
"The New World's sons, from England's breasts we drew 
Such milk as bids remember whence we came ; 

Proud of her past wherefrom our present grew. 
This Window we inscribe With Raleigh's name." 








Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 





Aaron Manley, steamboat 53 

Alabama, Confederate 

Cruiser 2y, 52 

Alexander Family Letters 96 

Ammen, Daniel 24 

Anderson, Arthur P 62 

Anse, Jos. 65 

Appalachee 4 

Ash, Thos. 64 

Ashmore, Otis 29, 30, ZZ, 34 

Atlanta, Ga. 6 

Atlanta, Confederate States 

Steamer 12 

Atlantic Coast Line System — 56 
"Attorney's Test Oath 

Act" 100-130 

Augusta & Sav'h R. R. Co.— 56 

Augusta, Road to 157 

Babcock 24 

Bagwith, Christopher 153 

Baker 95 

Baldwin, Abraham 169-173 

Baldwin, Geo. J 0.6 

Ball, H. S 64, 74 

Barclay, A. A. E. W 19 

Barlow, Joel 172 

Barrett, J. 21 

Beaufort, vessel 25 

Bennett 65 

Benning, Henry L 3-10 

Bethesda Orphan Home_i54 et seq 

Bird, L 64 

Bloodworth, F. D 29 

Bogue, John 51 

Bolton, Mary 158 

Bolzius, Jno. Martin -162, 164 

Bon Homme Richard, ship 51 

Bowles, Thos. H 31 

Bowles, Mrs. Thos. H 31 

Brown, R. 64, 82 

Browwnesville 6 

Brunswick, Ga. 132 

Buist, Daniel 65 

Bulloch, Archibald 132, 166 

Bulloch, A. S 51 

Bulloch, James S 51 

Burgen, W. L. M 22 

Burk, Chas. W 21, 22 

Burns, A. 64 

Burton, Theodore E 54 

Caldwell 19 

Cameron, S. A 65 

Carnes, W. W 20 

Carr, Paddy 7 

Carter, H. W 64 

Central of Ga. Ry. Co 56 

Central R. Rd. & Banking 
Co. 55, 56 

Central R. Rd. & Canal C0.-55, 57 

Champion 21 

Charleston, steamboat 50 

Charlton, Dr. T. J ZZ 

Chattahoochee 4, 5 

Cherokees 4 

Clark 65 

Clermont, steamboat 49, 51 

Clifton, C. W 65 

Cochrane, Col. Patrick 152 

Colonel's Island 177 

Colquitt, Peyton H 8, 9 

Columbia, frigate 25 

Columbus, Ga., and Gen'l 

Benning 3-10 

Congress, frigate 25, 26 

Cooper, A. H 8 

Cooper, J. Fenimore 178-179 

Cooper, Gen'l S 21 

Coosas 4 

Cotton Gins, first made 146 

Couper, Jas. Hamilton — 63 et seq 

Cowetah, or Coweta 3, 4, 5 

Coy 65 

Crafts, E. 64 

Creek Confederation 4 

Creeks, Lower 4 

Crookshanks, Pat'k 144 

Crosby 21 

Gumming, John 64 

Cunningham, T. M., Jr ZZ 

Curacoa, steamer 47 

Cussetahs, or Cussetas 4 

Dahlgren, Admiral J. A 22, 23 

Dallas, Moses 19, 21 

Darien Road IS7 

Davis, E. D 20 

Davis, G. S 64, 90, 95 

Davis, Jefferson 26 

DeBrahm, J. G. W 132 

Delamotte, Chas. 153 

DeRenne, W. W 30, ZZ 

DeRosset, Dr. 92 

DeVotie, Peter 8 

Dowaie, T. 65 

Drayton, Wm. H 133 

Drayton 65 

DuBois, Capt. Davis 63 et seq 

Dunham, W. A 64 

Dunning, S. C 51 




DuPont, Admiral Stephen i6 

Eddings 64 

Editor's Notes Z7, 96, I47, 178 

Eldridge, H. 64 

Elizabeth, Queen of England__i85 

Ellis, Charles 2,2> 

ElHs, Dr. Geo. E 185 

Erskine, Judge John, Decision 

of 100-130 

Evans, Lawton B 44 

Evans, Misses 64 

Fabian 19 

Fannin, A. B 51 

Farrar, Canon F. W 184, 185 

Flint River 5 

Floyd, Gen'l John 96, 97 

Ford, T. B 13 

Fosdick, B. W 64 

Foster, Gen'l J. G 22, 23 

Foster, W. W 64 

Eraser, Mrs. 64 

Freeman, R. W 65 

Freeman 19 

Fulton, Robert 49, 5i 

Gamble, Thos. 47, 50 

Georgia, Confederate States 

steamer 13, 14, 15 

Georgia Historical 

Society 28-34, 147, 185 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey 175 

Gillett, W. S 51 

Girard 6 

Goetchius, H. R. article 

by 3-10, 30, 33 

Colder 19 

Goode, Wm. D 13 

Gordon, Wm. W 2>2>, 55 

Gordon, Mrs. Wm. W 40 

Gray 19 

Great Western, ship 48 

Green, Dr. Sam'l A 29 

Greenwood, B. L 65 

Griffiths, Jno. Willis 51 

Groves, Chas. F 28, 30, Z2>, 34 

Guerry, Dupont 30, 33 

Gwinnett, Button 131, 133 

Habersham, James 151-168 

Habersham, Joseph 50, 51 

Habersham, R. & J Si 

Hamilton, A. 64 

Hammersley, Lewis R 25 

Harden, M. F 34 

Harden, Mrs. M. F. _ 34 

Harden, Wm., Editor and 

Librarian 11-27 

29, 34, 131-145, 175, 181, 184 

Harley 21 

Harris, Francis 161 

Harris, Henry 8 

Harris, Peter 8 

Haslett, John 51 

Hatch, Gen'l Jno. P 22 

Heald 65 

Heath, J. B 63 et seq 

Henry, J. P 51 

Herman, steamship 48 

Heron, Col. Alexander 177 

Hibbert 95 

Hicks, Tom. 8 

Hitchittees 4 

Hodson, C. 64 

Home, steamer 65 

Houstoun, Sir George 138 

Houstoun, James 138 

Houstoun, John 140 

Houstoun, Sir Patrick 138 

Howard, Chas. 51 

Howard, Samuel 51 

Hubbard 64, 79, 80, 81 

Hughes, A. K 15, 16 

Hunter, Wm. Wallace 13 et seq 

Huntington, Geo. 64 et seq 

Hutchinson, Robert 64 et seq 

Independence, vessel 25 

Independent Presbyterian 
Church, Savannah, Ga._38-4i, 45 

Innis, E. W 65 

Irving, Washington 178 

Isaacs, Robert 51 

Jackson, James — 143, I73, 174-176 

James, E. W 65 

Jasper, Serg't Wm 61 

J ohn Randolph, steamer 45-60 

Jones, Jno. Paul 51 

Jones, C. Lucian 12 

Jones, Ass't Surg 19 

Jones, Lymus 8 

Jones, Noble W 166 

Jones, Gen'l Sam 21 

Jones, W. R 21 

Kearsarge, U. S. Ship 27 

Keith, S. 65 

Kelsall, Roger 134 

Kennington, Wm. W 22 

King, Alex. C 23 

King, T. 21 

Kollock, Dr. Henry 38-41 




Kollock, Dr, P. M. 39 

Lafayette, Marquis 96 

Laird, John 52 

Lamar, Gazaway B 52, 64 et seq 

Lamar, Miss Rebecca (Mrs. 

Hugh McLeod), article by-63-95 

Law, Wm., case of 100-130 

Lawton, Gen'l Alexander 

Robert 185 

Lawton, Alexander 

Rudolf 28, 30, 32, ss 

Lawton, Alexander Rudolf, 

address by 45-6o, 96 

Lee, Admiral S. P 24 

Lengworth, J. 64 

Levy, Benj. H 33 

Livermore, Samuel 64 

Lotin, Pat. 21 

Lovejoy, A. 64 

Low & Co., Andrew 51 

Lowell, Jas. Russell — 185 

McAdoo, W. G 97 

McAllister, Matthew I45 

McDonald, A. — — 2 

Mcintosh, George, case of-131-145 

Mcintosh, John I35-I45 

Mcintosh, Gen'l Lachlan__i34-I45 

Mcintosh, Peter 24 

Mcintosh, Wm. I35-I45 

Mackall, W. W 28, 30, 33 

Mackay, Hugh 152 

Mackay, Mrs. Wm 64 et seq 

McKean, Wm. W 16 

McKenna, J. P 51 

McLaws, Lafayette 14, 18 

McLeod, Hugh 63 

McLeod, Mrs. Hugh 63-95 

McRae, Farquhar 64, 83, 85 

Mahan, A. T 15 

Mallory, S. R 12 et seq 

Massachusetts Hist'l Society_-i84 

Meigs, Josiah 170 

Melchers, Gari 31 

Meldrim, P. W 62 

Merrimac, ram 25 

Merritt 64 

Michael 65 

Milledge, John 170 

Miller, Phineas 146 

Miller, Sirman 64 

Minis, Abraham 161 

Minis, Isaac 51 

Minis, J. Florance 29, 33, 97 

Minis, Philip ._ 138 


Minor, midshipman 19, 21 

Mitchell, J. K 21 

Mitchell, Robt. 51 

Mongin, Abram L 28, 32 

Monroe, James 38, 47 

Murphy, E. J 21 

Murray, Rev. S. S 64 

Muscogees 4 

Nightingale, Mrs. P. M 64 

Noyes, Mrs. E. P 96, 97 

Ocmulgee River 5 

Oconee, Confederate States 

steamer 12, 13 

Oconee River 4 

Oglethorpe, James E 

3, 4, 154 et seq, 177, 180 

O'Hara, Gen'l Chas 139 

O'Neale, Mrs. R. F 97 

Oscoochees, or Oscayoochees 4 

Ossabaw Sound, Ga 11-27 

Oswitchee, or Oswichee 4 

Panton, Wm. 134 

Parker, W. H 25, 26 

Parkman, Samuel B 64, 67, 81 

Parsons, E. D 21 

Parsons, Capt. 65, 90 

Pelot, Thos. P 11-27 

Pendergrast, A. I7etseq 

Perry, J. _ 20 

Phoenix City 6 

Phoenix, steamboat 49 

Pierson, W. H 22 

Pooler, R. W 64 

Pott, Gideon 51 

Preble, Geo. H 47 

Price, Jos. 19, 20, 21 

Pulaski, steamer, loss of 63,95 

Pulaski's Banner 96 

Queries and Answers__35, 146, 177 

Rainbow, ship 51 

Raleigh, Sir Walter 184, 185 

Resolute, Confederate States 

steamer 13 

Rhodes, Tom. 8 

Rice, J. R. 21 

Robertson, Wm. 64 

Robinnson, Pickering 165 

Rochester, Wm. B 65 

Rogers, Ernest E., address 

by 61, 62 

Rogers, Capt. Moses 

35, 37, 49-60, 62 

Rogers, Stevens 47, 62 

Rose Hill 6 



Rostler 19 

Royal William, steamer 47 

Rutherford, A. S 7 

Rutledge, T. P. 64, 65 

Saint Margaret's Church, 

London 179-185 

Savannah in 1819, &c 45-60 

Savannah, Confederate States 

Steamer 12, 13 

Savannah River __ 4 

Savannah, Steamship 

35-37, 38, 45-60 

Savannah Theatre 45 

Scarbrough, Wm. 47 et seq, 62 

Scharf, J. Thos 15 

Seabrook, R. 65 

Seminoles 4 

Semmes, Paul V 8, 9 

Seymour 19, 21 

Shippen, Med. Director 26 

Sirius, ship 48 

Smets, A. A 147 

Smith, A. L 180 

Smith, B. F 64 et seq 

Smith, Horace J 179 et seq 

Smith, Lieut. Jos 26, 27 

Smith, J. E 180 

Smith, N. 64etseq 

Smith & Dimon 51 

Southwestern R. R. Co 56, 57 

Speakman, John 51 

Stansfield, A. 64 

Stapleton, James 21 

Steedman, Chas, 16 

Stephens, Wm. 140, 162 

Stephenson, George 55 

Stevens, Wm. Bacon, article 

by 151-168 

Stewart, Miss Ann 140 

Stewart, Wm. A 64, 74, 86 

Stirk, Samuel 140 

Stoddard, H. M 14 

Stone, E. E 22 

Swift, W. C N 65 

Tappan, C. B 65 

Tattnall, J. R. F _— - 97 

Tattnall, Commodore Josiah__ 

12, 13, 27, 97 

Tefft, Israel Keech___i47, 178, 179 
Telfair Academy of Arts & 

Sciences 28, 30-32 

Theatre, Savannah 45 

Thomas 19 

Thornton, Lieut. 65, 95 

Thronateeska River 5 

Trassier 65 

Trimble 19 

Twiggs, G. L 65, 93 

Twiggs, J. D 65 

Uchees 4 

University of Georgia 169, 170 

Urquhart, Dr. Jno. A 7 

Wagner, Mrs. Jno 64 

Walker, Robert D 65 

Ward, C. 64 

Washington, steamship 48 

Water-Witch, steamer, capture 

of 11-27 

Watkins, J. E 47 

Wayne, Henry C 38-41 

Webb, W. A 12 

Welles, Gideon 16, 22 

West, Lewis 22 

Wesley, Jno. and Chas 153, 154 

Wetumpicees 4 

Whaley, T. 65 

White, Rev. George 63 

Whitefield, Geo. 152 et seq 

Whitney, Eli 146 

Wilkins, Dr. P. H 64 

Williams, A. 21 

Williamson, W. W 33 

Willink, H. F., Jr 14 

Wills - 95 

Wilson, Geo. 132 

Wilson, Gen'l James 10 

Wilson, Mrs. Walter S 29 

Winslow, Francis 15 

Winthrop, Robt. C 185 

Woart, Rev. J. I. L 64 et seq 

Wright, Sir James 161 

Wynnton 6 

Yamacraw Bluff 3 

Yates, Samuel 51 



MAR b 1932 

Allen County Public Libraty 






VOL. IV— No. 1 

MARCH, 1920 



Oglethorpe's Treaty With the Lower Creek In- 
dians. _____________ 3-16 

Eulogy on Dr. Noble W. Jones ______ 

_________ ^3/ Dr. John Grimes 17-Z^ 

Queries and Answers _________ 33-34 

Editors Notes ___________ 35-36-375 







VOL. IV— No. 

MARCH, 1920 

Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 



Hrte Georgia Historical Quarterl}? 

Volume IV MARCH, 1920 Number I 

Ogletkorpe's Treaty? ^^?ith tke Lower Creek Indians. 

With the determination to do all in his power to bring 
about a realization of the hope expressed by him in his address 
to the colonists on their first landing at Savannah, "that 
through your good example the settlement of Georgia may 
prove a blessing and not a curse to the native inhabitants," 
Oglethorpe quickly sought to make a treaty with the Indians 
which would be helpful to both parties to the contract, and, 
with the aid of the good old Mico of the Yamacraws, Tomo- 
chichi, the first treaty of the kind in Georgia was made bear- 
ing full evidence of fairness and purpose of mutual support, 
and it should ever be held in memory as one of the chief 
factors in the successful achievement of the objects aimed 
at in the establishment of the Colony of Georgia. 

Among the papers in the possession of the Georgia His- 
torical Society is the document herewith presented. The 
Treaty itself has been printed in several works relating to the 
history of Georgia, generally in an abbreviated form, but 
sometimes in an almost complete state ; but the following copy, 
carrying with it affidavits as to its being from the official 
records, makes certain the fact of its accuracy and complete- 

Coming in the form in which it appears, it necessarily pos- 
sesses more interest than is attached to the copies in other 
publications, and it is still more interesting by reason of the 
use of the name of the Right Honorable Stephen Janssen, 
M. P., Lord Mayor of London, who was one of the Trustees 
for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, appointed 
in 1749. The paper is a copy made from a transcript which 
some one had evidently procured for the purpose of perfect 
accuracy in duplicating the original Treaty, as shown by the 


accompanying affidavits ; but who that person was cannot now 
be ascertained, nor can we discover the reason for the procuring 
of the copy which bears the marks of having been written 
many years back. — EDITOR. 



j British \ 
"j Crown I 

To All to Whom these presents shall come : I Stephen 
Theodore Janssen Lord Mayor of the City of London In pursu- 
ance of an act of Parhament made and passed in the fifth year 
of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King George the Second 
Entitled an Act for the more easy recovery of Debts in His 
Majesty's Plantations and Colonies in America, Do hereby 
Certify that on the day of the Date hereof personally came 
and appeared before me Thomas Marriott, the Deponent named 
in the Affidavit hereunto annexed, being a person well known 
and worthy of good credit and by solemn Oath which the said 
Deponent took before me upon the Holy Evangelist of Al- 
mighty God, Did solemnly and sincerely declare, testify and 
depose to be true, the several matters and things mentioned 
and contained in the said affidavit annexed — 

In Faith and Testimony where- 
of, L the said Lord Mayor, have 
caused the seal of the Office of 
Mayoralty of the said City of Lon- 

( o TV T ) don to be hereunto put and affixed 

\ Seal of the Mayor f , , ^ . , , 

> and the Treaty mentioned and re- 

) ferred to in and by the said affi- 
davit to be hereunto also annexed. 
Dated in London the twenty- 
fourth day of April in the year of 
our Lord, 1755. 

OF London. 


\ British / \ British / 

i Crown T J Crown f 

Thomas Marriott, of Lisle Street, in the Parish of Saint 
Anne in the County of Middlesex, Esquire, and late one of 
the Magistrates of the Town and County of Frederica, in the 
Colony of Georgia, maketh Oath and saith that in August, 
one thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine, He, this de- 
ponent, was in the Creek Indian Country along with Lieuten- 
ant General James Oglethorpe, and personally present at the 
General Assembled Estates of the said Creek Nation at the 
Coweta and Cussita Towns when the Annexed Treaty was 
concluded, ratified, and confirmed between the said General 
Oglethorpe as commissioner for the trustees for establishing 
the Colony of Georgia in America, in behalf of the crown of 
Great Britain and the said Assembled States then represent- 
ing the whole Creek Nation, in the presence of a sworn In- 
terpreter and the several persons whose names are subscribed 
thereto, and this deponent doth further declare that the said 
Treaty is of this deponent's own hand writing and that he 
did see the said James Oglethorpe sign and seal and deliver 
the same as his own proper act and Deed in behalf of the 
Crown of Great Britain and that he this deponent signed 
his name as an evidence thereunto. 


Sworn the 24th day of April, 1755, ) 
at the Mansion House in London, be- > 
fofe me. j 

Stephen Theod. Janssen, Mayor. 

Proceedings of the Assembled Estates of all 
< Seal. [ the Lower Creek Nation on Saturday, the Eleventh 
' Day of August, Anno Domini 1739. 

By Powers from His most sacred Majesty, George the 
Second, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France 


and Ireland, etc., General James Oglethorpe, being appointed 
Commissioner was present in behalf of His Majesty, and 
opened the assembly by a Speech. There was also present 
at the said assembly of Estates, the Mico or Chief King of 
the Coweta Town Chickely Ninia Mico of the said Town, 
Malachi Mico Son of Bum* late Emperour of the Creek 
Nation, and the Chiefs and Warriors of the Coweta Town, and 
the Mico or King of the Cussitas and Sckisheligo Mico next to 
the King of the Cussitas ; Iskeigo third Chief man of the Cus- 
sitas and the other Chief Men and Warriors of the said Town. 
And also Ockachapko one of the Chief Men of the Town of 
Palachuchuclas ; Kelath, Chief War Captain and other Chief 
Men and Warriours, being Deputys sent with full Power to 
conclude all things for the said Town ; Sawmawme Mico of the 
Ufawles with several other chief Men and Warriours, being 
Deputys sent with full powers to conclude all things for said 
Town ; Melaclchelio, War Captain of the Echetees with several 
other Chief Men and Warriors, being Deputys sent with full 
Power to conclude all things for the said Town ; Neathaclo, 
Chief Man of the Ousichees, with several other Chief Men and 
Warriours, being Deputys sent with full Power to conclude all 
things for the said Town ; Occullavech, Chief Man of the Che- 
haws, with several other Chief Men and Warriours being 
Deputys sent with full Powers to conclude all things for the 
said Town ; Hewanawge Thalecko, Chief Man of the Oakmulge 
with several other Chief Men and Warriours being Deputys 
sent with full Powers to conclude all things for the said Town. 
The Mico or King of the Occonys with several Chief Men and 
Warriours having full Powers to conclude all things for the 
said Town ; Necthachle, second Chief Man of the Swagles with 
several other Chief Men and Warriours, being Deputys sent 
with full Powers to conclude all things for the said Town. 

The whole Estates Declared by a general consent without 
one Negative that they adhered in their ancient Love to the 
King of Great Britain and to their agreemients made in the year 

^Spelled Breen in some copies, where also other Indian names 
have a spelling differing from that here given. 



1733, with the Trustees for EstabHshing the Colony of Geor- 
gia in America, a counter part of which agreement was then 
deUvered to each Town and the Deputys of the several Towns 
produced the same. The said Estates further declared that all 
the Dominions, Territories and Lands from the River Savan- 
nah to the River Saint John's and all the Islands between the 
said Rivers and from the River St. John's to the Bay of Ap- 
palache within which is all the Appalache old Fields, and from 
the said Bay of Appalache to the Mountains doth by ancient 
right belong to the Creek Nation who have maintained Pos- 
session of the said Right against all opposers by War and can 
show the heaps of Bones of their Enemies slain by them in de- 
fense of the said Lands. And they further declare that the 
said Creek Nation hath for ages had the Protection of the 
Kings and Queens of England and have gone to War by Com- 
missions from the Governors appointed by the said Kings and 
Queens of England and that the Spaniards nor no other Nation 
have a right to any of the said Lands, and that they will not 
suffer them or any other Persons (Excepting the Trustees for 
Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America) to settle upon 
the said Lands, AND they do acknowledge the Grant they have 
already made to the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of 
Georgia in America all the Lands upon the Savannah River as 
far as the Ogeechee & all the Lands along the Sea-Coast as far 
as the River St. John's and as high as the tyde flows and all 
the Islands as far as the said River Particularly the Islands of 
Frederica, Cumberland and Amelia to which they have given 
the names of his Majesty King George's Family out of grati- 
tude to him. But they Declare that they did and do reserve 
to the Creek Nation the Lands from Pipe Maker's Bluff to Sa- 
vannah and the Islands of Saint Catherines, Ossebaw, and 
Sapelo; and they further declare that all the said Lands are 
held by the Creek Nation as Tenants in Common — 

The said commissioner doth Declare that the English shall 
not enlarge or take any other Lands except those granted as 
above by the Creek Nation to the Trustees and doth promise 
and covenant that he will punish any Person that shall intrude 


upon the Lands which the Creek Nation hath reserved as 
above. GIVEN under my hand and Seal at the Coweta Town 
this twenty first day of August Anno Domini 1739. 


By James Oglethorpe, Esq., General &. Commander in Chief of 
all His Majesty's Forces in South Carolina & Georgia, Etc. 

To all His Majesty's Subjects to whom these Presents shall 
come, Greeting. 

Know Ye that you are not to take up or Settle any Lands 
beyond the above Limits settled by me with the Creek Nation, 
at their Estates held on Saturday, Eleventh Day of August, 
Anno Domini, 1739, as you shall at your peril answer. Given 
under my hand and seal at the Cusseta Town, this twenty-first 
day of August, Anno Domini 1739. 


This is true and authentic. 

Made in the square at the Cov/eta Town and in the square 
at the Cussita Town and translated by a sworn interpreter in 
the presence of the within mentioned Indians and under men- 
tioned Britons, and by me. 

Mr. Robert McPherson, brother 

Lieutenant George \ of Thomas McPherson of Da- 

DuNBAR. I hade. 

Ensign John Leman. J Mr. John Mackintosh, son of 

Adjutant Hugh Mac-I John Mackintosh of Holmes. 

KAY. f Mr. James Mackqueer, son of 

Adjutant Hugh Mac-I James Mackqueer of Cors- 

KAY. / brough. 

Eneas Mackintosh! Mr. Keneth Bailie, son to John 

Esq., Brother to thet Bailie of Balbrobart. 

Laird of Mackintosh. 1 Mr. John Mackintosh. 

John Cuthbert, Esq. f Mr. John Cuthbert. 

of Drackers. / of the County of Inverness- 
North Britain. 


Secretary's office. 
Which I do certify, Recorded in Book 2 fo. 424. 
THOMAS MARRIOTT Examined per William Pinckney. 

Pro. Deputy Sect. 

Be it Remembered By All Manner of People to Whom This 
Written Paper Shall Come; By whom it shall be seen; or 
to whom it shall be made known, as long as the Sun shall 
shine or the ivaters run in the Rivers. 

That, we the general Assembled Estates composed of the 
Miccos or Kings, Chieftains, Captains, Warriors, Beloved Men 
and Deputys of the Upper and Lower Creek Nations, having a 
rightful and natural power according to the Laws and Customs 
of our Fore Fathers (to which we have always strictly ad- 
hered) finally to conclude all things, regarding the said Na- 
tions in behalf of ourselves, subjects, and Vassals; being sol- 
emnly met together in Council according to the ancient manner 
and form of our Nation Do hereby Ratify, allow, confirm, and 
hold firm and valid to all intents and purposes the Deed of 
sale or conveyance or by what ever other name that instrument 
of writing may be called; made by Malatchi Opeya Micco 
Rightful and Natural Prince of the said Nations of the Islands 
upon the Sea Coast commonly known by the names of Coulee- 
gee or Saint Catharine's Islands, Housoppy or Ossebaw Is- 
lands, and the Islands of Sapelo bounded towards the sun 
rising by the sea towards the sun setting by certain Rivers the 
names of which we do not know, dividing the said Islands 
from the main Continent and North and South by certain In- 
letts from the sea unto our Beloved man Thomas Bosom- 
worth and our Sister Mary his wife, their heirs or assigns for- 
ever, according to the true intent and meanings of the said writ- 
ten paper therein more particularly specified to which reference 
may be had. 

In confirmation of these presents we the said Assembled 
Estates for us our heirs subjects and vassals do declare that we 



will w-arrant and forever defend the said Title to the said 
Thomas Bosomworth and Mary his wife, their Heirs, Execu- 
tors, administrators against the Claim or Claims of any person 
or persons Indian or Indians whatever. 

In witness whereof we the said Assembled Estates have 
hereunto set our hands and seals at our General Council in the 
Coweta Square This Second Day of the month called August 
by the English in the year of our Lord 1750 and in the 24th 
year of the Reign of the Great King George. 

Sealed and Delivered 
in the presence of : 

George Galphin 

Adam Bosomworth 

William Linden 

Joseph Pierce 


Malatchiopega X Mico Comd'ing 
King Cowetas. 

IsTABAY Eachey X Warrior King 
of Cussitas. 

Yockengey X King of Hichetti 
^ Aliommathly X King of Dara- 

Incleehumbey X King of Tuckba- 

Elachegegey X King of Che- 

Imtlapugey X King of Wasse- 


By all People to whom These Pres- 
ents shall come be seen or be 
made known. 

Be it Remembered that on the 29th day of September, 
1750 Before me Samuel Marcer one of the Bailiffs for the 
Town and County of Savanah in the Colony of Georgia, Per- 
sonally appeared Adam Bosomworth and Joseph Piercy, sub- 
scribing witnesses to the within Instrument of writing, who 
being severally duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty 


God do declare that they were personally persent when the 
within written instrument was explained and interpreted at 
the General Assembly of the Creek Nations in the Coweta 
Square held the second day of August, 1750, and that they saw 
the Miccos or Kings of the several Towns within mentioned 
sign, seal, and as their act and deed deliver the within written 
paper in behalf of themselves, Captains, Warriors beloved 
men and deputies of the said Creek Nations with the general 
consent and approbation of the whole Assembled Estates with- 
out one Negative, unto the within named Mary Bosomworth, in 
behalf of herself and Thomas Bosomworth her husband, for 
the uses and purposes within mentioned. And the said Adam 
Bosomworth and Joseph Piercey do further declare that they 
saw George Galphin & William Linden sign their names as sub- 
scribing Witnesses to the within Instrument of writing. And 
lastly Joseph Piercey doth for himself likewise further declare 
that he perfectly understands the Creek Indian Language, that 
he has at sundry times been interpreter to the said Indians at 
Public Meetings both during the command of Major William 
Horton and Lieutenant Col. Alexander Heron, and that the 
within written Paper is the true intent and meaning of the 
Declaration made when he was personally present by the Gen- 
eral Assembled Estates of the Creek Nations in the Coweta 
Square the day and date above mentioned, without one Nega- 

Sworn the 29th day of 
September, 1750, be- 
fore me 

Samuel Marcer I The within written deed recorded in 
Secretary's office [ my office. 
Recorded in Book 2, / C^^^s. Watson, 

Fo. 428. Exammed [ Recorder. 



Pro. Dept. Secty. 


The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in Amer- 
ica to the Chief Men of the Nation of the Lower Creeks 
send Greetings — ■ 

IVhereas the Great King George the Second, King of 
Great Britain, did by his Letters Patent under the Great Seal 
of Great Britain bearing date the ninth day of June in the 
fifth year of his Reign Constitute and appoint a Body PoHtick 
and Corporate by the Name of The Trustees for EstabHshing 
the Colony of Georgia in America; and Whereas, The said 
Trustees have received from the Beloved Mr. James Oglethorpe 
of West Brook Place in the County of Surry, Esqr., one of the 
Common Council of the said Trustees, a copy of certain Ar- 
ticles of Friendship and Commerce between the said Trustees 
and the said Chief Men which is in the words following (that 
is to say) Articles of Friendship and Commerce between the 
Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America 
and the Chief Men of the Nation of the Lower Creeks. 

First. The Trustees bearing in their Hearts great Love 
and Friendship to you the said Head Men of the Lower Creek 
Nation do engage to let their people carry up into your Towns 
all kinds of Goods fitting to trade in the said Towns at the 
Rates and prices settled and agreed upon before you the said 
Head Men and annexed to this Treaty of Trade and Friend- 

Secondly. The Trustees do by these Articles promise to see 
Restitution done to any People of your Towns by the People 
they shall send among you upon proof made to the Beloved 
Man they shall at any time send among you that they who 
have either committed Murder, Robbery, or have beat or 
wounded any of your People or any ways injured them in 
their Crops by their Horses or any other ways whatever and 
upon such proof the said people shall be tried and punished 
according to the English Law. 

TJiirdly. The Trustees when they find the Hearts of you 
the said Head Men and your people are not good to the peo- 
ple they shall send among you or that you or your People do 
not mind this Paper, they will withdraw the English favor 


from the Town so offending. And that you and your people 
may have this chain of Friendship in your minds and Hnked to 
your hearts they have made fast their Seal to this Treaty. 

Fourthly. We the Head Men of the Coweta and Cussita 
Towns in behalf of all the Lower Creek Nation being firmly 
persuaded that He who lives in Heaven and is the occasion of 
all good things has moved the hearts of the Trustees to send 
their Beloved men among us, for the good of our wives and 
children, and to instruct us and them in what is straight, do 
therefore declare that we are glad that their People are come 
here, and though this Land belongs to us, the Lower Creeks, yet 
we that we may be instructed by them do consent and agree that 
they shall make use of and possess all those Lands which our 
Nation hath not occasion for to use, and we make over unto 
them their Successors and Assigns all such Lands & Territories 
as we shall have no occasion to use, Provided always that they 
upon settling every New Town shall set out for the use of our- 
selves and the People of our Nation such Lands as shall be 
agreed upon between their Beloved men and the head men of 
our Nation and that those Lands shall remain to us forever. 

Fifthly. We the Head Men do promise for ourselves and 
the People of our Towns that the Traders for the English 
which shall settle among us shall not be robbed or molested 
in their Trade in our Nation ; and that if it should so happen 
that any of our People should be mad and either kill, wound, 
beat, or rob any of the English Traders or their People, then 
we the said Head Men of the Towns aforesaid do engage to 
have justice done to the English and for that purpose to deliver 
up any of our People who shall be guilty of the crimes afore- 
said to be tryed by the English Laws or by the laws of our Na- 
tion as the Beloved Man of the Trustees shall think fit ; and we 
further promise not to suffer any of the People of our said 
Towns to come into the limits of the English Settlements with- 
out leave from the English Beloved Man, and that we will not 
molest any of the EngHsh Traders passing to or from any Na- 
tion of Indians in Friendship with the English. 


Sixthly, and we the Head Men, for ourselves and People 
do promise to apprehend and secure any Negro or other slave 
which shall runaway from any of the English Settlements to 
our Nation and to carry them either to this Town or Savannah 
or Pallachuckla Garrison and there deliver him up to the 
Commander of such Garrison and to be paid by him four 
Blankets or two Guns or the value thereof in other goods, pro- 
vided such runaway Negro or other slave shall be taken by us 
or any of our People on the further side of Ocony River, and 
in case such Negro or runaway Slave shall be taken on the 
hither side of the said River and delivered to the Commander 
as aforesaid, then we understand the pay to be one Gun or the 
value thereof ; and in case we or our people should kill any 
such slave for resistance or running away from us in appre- 
hending him then we are to be paid one Blanket for his head by 
any Trader we shall carry such slave's head unto. 

Lastly. We promise with straight Hearts and Love to our 
Brothers, the English, to give no encouragement to any other 
white people but themselves to settle among us, and that we 
will not have any correspondence with the Spaniards or French, 
and to show that we, both for the good of ourselves, our wives 
and children, do firmly promise to keep the Talk in our hearts 
as long as the sun shall shine or the waters run in the Rivers. 
We have each of us set the marks of our Famihes. 

Schedule of Prices of Goods agreed on Annexed — 

Two yards Strouds, Five Buckskins. 

One yard Plains, One Buckskin, one pound and three quar- 
ters or Doeskin as wearable. 

One White Blanket, Five Buckskins or ten Doeskins. 

One Blue Duffle Blanket, three Buckskins or Six Doeskins. 

A gun, ten Buckskins, or twenty Doeskins. 

A pistol, five Buckskins or ten Doeskins. 

A gun lock, four Buckskins or eight Doeskins. 

Two measures of Powder, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

Sixty Bullets, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

A white shirt, two Buckskins or four Doeskins. 

A knife, one Doeskin. 


Eighteen Flints, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

Three yards of Cadiz, one Doeskin. 

Three yards of Gartering, one Doeskin. 

A Hoe, two Buckskins or four Doeskins. 

A falHng axe, two Buckskins or four Doeskins. 

A large Hatchet, answerable, three Doeskins. 

A small Hatchet, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

A brass kettle, per pound, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

Two yards of Brass wire, a Doeskin. 

A Looking glass, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

A hat, two Buckskins or four Doeskins. 

A Leathern Belt, one Buckskin or two Doeskins. 

One Dozen Buttons, one Doeskin. 

And Whereas, The said Trustees are greatly desirous to 
maintain and preserve an inviolable Peace, Friendship and 
commerce between the said Head Men of the Lower Creek 
Nation of the Creeks and the People the said Trustees have 
sent and shall send to inhabit and settle in the Province of 
Georgia aforesaid tq endure to the world's end : 


That we, the said Trustees for Establishing the Colony of 
Georgia in America do by these presents ratify and Confirm 
the said Articles of Friendship and Commerce between the 
Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America 
and the Chief men of the Nation of the Lower Creeks all and 
every the articles of agreements therein contained, and also the 
rates and prices of Goods above mentioned, settled and agreed 
upon before the said Head Men and annexed to the said Treaty 
of Trade and Friendship. 

In Witness whereof the Common Council of the said Trus- 
tee for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have 
to these presents made fast the common Seal of Corporation 
of the said Trustees the eighteenth day of October in the 


seventh year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the 
Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith and so forth, and in the 
year of our Lord One Thousand, seven hundred and thirty 

By Order of the said 
Common Council 

(Signed) BENJAMIN MARTYN, Secty. 

A true copy. 

Sworn before me ( John Mackintosh 

this 2oth ( Thomas Bosom worth 

September, 175 1. 

Eulogy? on tKe 

Life and CKaracter of Dr. Noble Wymberle^? Jones 

The Georgia Medical Society was incorporated by act of 
the Legislature, assented to December 12, 1804, "for the pur- 
pose of lessening the fatality induced by climate and incidental 
causes, and improving the science of medicine; and in order 
to ensure and establish their said institution in a permanent 
and effectual manner, so that the benevolent and desirable ob- 
jects thereof may be executed with success and advantage." 
Eighteen gentlemen were named as the members composing 
that body, of which Noble Wymberley Jones was the Presi- 
dent, John Irvine, Vice-President, John Grimes, Secretary, and 
Lemuel KoUock, Treasurer. 

The time of service of Dr. N. W. Jones was short, as he 
died January 9, 1805. We have had numerous sketches of the 
life of that truly good and honorable man, but none of them; 
as full or informing as the one by Dr. Grimes, who was 
well qualified for the work, as he was the friend and co- 
worker, gifted as a ready writer, and, moreover, he married 
the grand-daughter of Dr. Jones. 

While much has been written of the political and social 
life of the subject of this sketch, no reference of an extended 
character has been made to his professional knowledge and 
skill, and it was proper that Dr. Grimes should be appointed to 
pronoiince the eulogy before the Georgia Medical Society. It 
is scarcely within the knowledge of a score of persons now 
living that such a paper was ever written, and it deserves a 
place in this periodical. It is reproduced from what appears to 
be the original document, and is among the collection of papers 
of the Georgia Historical Society. 

Dr. Grimes died in 181 6, and it is a matter of regret that we 
know so little of his life. In the year 1806 he married Cath- 


erine Glen, whose father, John Glen, married a daughter of Dr. 
N. W. Jones. A stone erected in memory of Dr. Grimes in 
Colonial Park, bears this simple inscription : 


24th day of June 


Aged 35 years. 

The middle name of Dr. Jones is written Wimherly where- 
ever it appears in the manuscript, which is entitled : 

An Eulog}? 

Delivered by Dr. John Grimes 

Before the Medical Society of 


On the Occasion of the Death of their 

Late President 

Doctor Noble Wimberly^ Jones. 

— Editor. 

Gentlemen of the Medical Society : 

We have assembled on a solemn and dignified occasion — 
to honor the loss, to pay homage to the virtues of our first and 
late President, the good, the venerable Doctor Noble Wym- 
berley Jones ! By your resolve to perpetuate his memory, you 
have done equal honor to yourselves, to your country, to hu- 
manity and to your profession. In committing this interesting 
and arduous duty to me, you have imposed a task which no 
effort in my power will be able to accomplish. I have neither 
the health, the time, nor the talents, to treat the subject in the 
manner you expect, or, from its merits, it deserves. I have 
deceived you not less than myself. An ardent and enthusiastic 
love of merit obscured my judgment. In consenting to be- 
come the organ of your feelings on this occasion, it was mis- 


taken by me for talents, at the exhibition of which I shudder, 
for the imbecihty of which I crave and claim your indulgence. 
Friends and Fellow Citizens ! Death has made another inroad 
upon the worthies of our country. He, among the first that 
stepped upon this shore — a hissing and inhospitable wild; He 
the last among those who first saw this city — a rude and un- 
cultivated waste ; He from whose virtues and labours you have 
received an age of benefits — is but now no more! With fond 
and pathetic recollection of his examplary goodness, let us 
embalm his memory ! It is a tribute which the ingenuous and 
feeling heart delights to pay ; a debt of gratitude, which even 
the basest minds cannot withhold. 

What ample scope does this theme afford for all the pow- 
ers of eloquence, for all the sensibilities of reverence and af- 
fection ! 

Such shining examples as a review of his life exhibits, 
held forth to public view, have a far greater effect on the 
minds of men than all the dry dogmas and precepts of phil- 
osophy. While they enlighten they warm the heart, and by 
their living energy, stimulate to great and godlike actions. 

The celebration of the characters and exploits of the brave 
the valient and the wise, is common in every age and country 
— is a custom coeval with the history of man. This has excited 
the songs of ancient bards and minstrels, the chisel of the 
statuary, the pencil of the painter, and the pen of the his- 
torian and biographer. For this purpose have temples and 
other architectural monuments been erected. But to commem- 
orate the exertions of the just, the virtuous and the good is an 
occurence that does not often give splendor to the annals of any 
age or people. For this purpose only should the voice of the 
eulogist be heard. To fan in our breasts the flame of friend- 
ship threatened with extinction by the damy of death, to add 
perpetuity to sentiments of gratitude for distinguished services ; 
to cherish in our bosoms a love of exalted worth ; and to allure 
us on to virtuous conduct through the medium of our constitu- 
tional propensity to imitation; is a noble and important duty, 
whether we view it in its relationship to the cultivation of pri- 


vate virtues, or to the promotion of public good. Though from 
the influence of causes by which Providence prescribes the 
boundaries of human existence, our great and good parent to 
which endearing appellation he is justly entitled from the in- 
habitants of this city especially — is no more! His example 
lives. — Having traversed the utmost limits of sublunary life dis- 
pensing beneficence, and usefulness in every step of his prog- 
ress and at last summoned to attend the Tribunal of retribu- 
tion, he has bequeathed us a rich and valuable inheritance — we 
have all become his heirs — He has bounteously enriched us 
with his character, and his virtue — a legacy as far superior to 
the ordinary bequests of men, as moral excellence surpasses 
the value of perishable matter, or as the beauty of virtue and 
intellect surpasses the beauty of material objects. They still 
remain a guardian constellation — a splendid galaxy to light 
his surviving friends on the dark and intricate journey of life. 
Let us arrest the progress to decay in our memory of them. Let 
us snatch them from the shades of oblivion and fix them in 
our breasts, the monitor of our actions and conduct — another 

If ever any place owed to one of its citizens a debt of grati- 
tude that place is Savannah, that citizen was the late Doctor 
Noble Wymberley Jones. To do justice to his unequalled serv- 
ices defies panegyric ; — is what I hope you do not expect from 
me. Would that I could! would that I could illustrate his 
principles in my discourse, as he displayed them in his life. — 
Would that I could paint his virtues as he practiced them! 
Then should I possess the power to convert the fervid en- 
thusiasm of my heart into the talent to transmit his fame as 
it ought to pass to posterity. I should then be the successful 
organ of your will, the minister of his virtues. But these are 
ambitious, deceiving hopes; I reject them. For it is perhaps 
almost as difficult at once with judgment and feeling to praise 
great actions as to perform them. A lavish and indiscriminate 
eulogium is not praise, and to discriminate such excellent quali- 
ties as were characteristic and peculiar to him would be to raise 
a name, as he raised it, above envy, perhaps above emulation. 


The field upon which we are about to enter abounds with 
the richest productions of patriotism and philanthropy, morality 
and virtue — the evergreen beauties of the heart interspersed 
amidst the majestic and venerable growths of the mind: but 
rendered of difficult access by the barriers which the oblivion 
of time, the decay of memory, and the modesty of its possessor 
have thrown around it. I have been enabled to gain a partial 
admittance and ascend a slight eminence only. My view, 
therefore, will be limited and imperfect. 

The village of Lambeth on the river Thames in the county 
of Surrey in England gave birth to the man to v/hose memory 
we have, this day, assembled to pay the duties of an affectionate 
posterity. The day and year of his nativity whose annual re- 
turn should be greeted and handed down to the latest lovers 
of liberty, virtue and patriotism in this country, with signs of 
encomium and celebration, such at all times was his delicacy 
in speaking of things that respected himself ; have never been 
ascertained. Here his ancestors were born and resided. His 
father. Noble Jones, was bred to the profession of physic, 
which he followed in his native country until about the month 
of November 1732. A little anterior to this, George the 2d 
had erected Lord Percival, James Oglethorpe and others into a 
corporation under the title of the "Trustees for Establishing 
the Colony of Georgia in America." Between Oglethorpe and 
Doctor Noble Jones there was a great intimacy and friendship. 
These, aided by the earnest entreaties of the former, induced 
ultimately in the mind of the latter a determination to blend 
for a while the destinies of his family with those of that enter- 
prising adventurer. Reposing confidence in the talents, in- 
tegrity and friendship of Oglethorpe, he, with his family, con- 
sisting then of his wife, a daughter and his son Noble Wym- 
berly, embarked at Gravesend for Georgia in November, 1732. 

On the first day of February of the following year, 
1733, this Bluff hailed the access of its first Christian in- 
habitants. The first landing was effected about two hundred 
yards above the spot on which this edifice stands. It is con- 


jectured with many claims to certainty that our President was 
at that time eight or ten years old. 

The better to present you with the knowledge of the oppor- 
tunity for mental improvement which he enjoyed, the actions 
and employments in which he was engaged, and the scenes 
by which he was surrounded at a period of life the most inter- 
esting and important to the evolution of intellect ; it will be nec- 
essary for me to give you a short sketch of the difficulties and 
embarrassments of the first settlers of this Province. Without 
this his character would be despoiled of its greatest claims to 
our praise and admiration. The history of the infancy of this 
Province, is a little more than the history of the first twenty 
years of his life, which was spent in a military education for 
her safety and protection and in establishing the freedom and 
happiness of which he afterwards took an honorable and con- 
spicuous stand among the celebrated worthies of our country. 

The colony consisted at first of only ii6 persons, who had 
to contend with savages for admittance with the rude and 
boggy wilderness for habitation, with the insalubrity of climate 
for life itself. The whole attention of this little body was 
therefore necessarily directed to the exigencies of its present 
condition. The Fort their only dwelling, the camp, their only 
school ; fortifications and tactics were the only science they 
had the chance to cultivate. Every individual had the impor- 
tant knowledge to acquire of protecting and defending himself, 
and to study the best system of co-operation for the common 
safety. The proprietary laws by which they were governed 
strictly regarded each individual in the twofold light of planter 
and soldier, the accoutrements of the latter being esteemed a 
badge of right to the possession of the former. 

In this situation the colonists remained for several years, 
when, in 1737, new difficulties arose from the hostile dispo- 
sition of their jealous neighbors, the Spaniards, from whom 
and the aboriginal inhabitants they, for many years after, re- 
ceived almost uninterrupted molestations. 

Thus from the harassed and infant condition of his 
adopted country, the youth of the late Doctor Jones was shut 


out from the advantages of an early and liberal education — 
that valuable period of life in which the human mind is most 
ardent and susceptible of the impressions of science and learn- 
ing — the only age when the senses are quick and true to the re- 
ception of the rudiments of knowledge, the materials for the 
after operations of reason and judgment, was chiefly spent by 
him in military employments. 

As early as 1738, when not more than fifteen years of age, 
we find him a Cadet in the armjy of Genl. Oglethorpe in which 
he was afterwards promoted. He continued in this situation 
discharging the double duties of officer and chirurgeon, till the 
expulsion of the Spaniards from the colony about the year 

Soon after this, Genl. Oglethorpe took final leave of his 
young establishment, which he had protected with the solicitude 
of a parent, with the wisdom and conduct of an able politician 
and a great general, not, however, without first rewarding and 
cherishing a fond affection for those whose peculiar merits 
and services had attracted his particular notice. The son now 
shared the friendship and regard which had attached the Genl. 
to his father, in testimony of which, and in remuneration for 
the early military merits and medical services of our deceased 
President, a present was made him no less honorable than 
lucrative. Through his means, the Trustees of the Province 
granted to Doctor Noble Wymberley Jones certain lands in the 
vicinity of this place, which in commemoration of his native 
village bears the name of Lambeth. But this was not all. 
Oglethorpe, soon after his arrival in England, as a further 
mark of his esteem, sent him his own Portrait with another of 
a favorite young Savage (represented standing next the Gen- 
eral with a book open, reading) whom he had taken with him 
to educate. 

In 1752 the Trustees relinquished the proprietary govern- 
ment, by the impolitic regulations of which the pros- 
perity of this settlement had been vastly impeded. Georgia, 
then with a Governor, his Council and an Elective Assembly, 
acquired the privileges and immunities of her sister provinces. 


Of this Assembly our President was appointed the first speaker. 
In this situation he was continued by the respect and confidence 
of his countrymen till the Storm of Revolution began to lower. 
Let us now view him aiding his country in her struggle for 
liberty. Here his character was so conspicuous that many of 
the events of that celebrated epoch, inseparable from it, must 
pass in review before us. 

The firm and decided part which Doctor Jones acted in 
that memorable contest entitles him to the reverence and grati- 
ture of every true American. It proves, perhaps, as much 
as any other portion of his life, the just, the correct, and in- 
dependent structure of his principles. So susceptible was his 
mind to the impressions of truth and right in whatsoever shape 
they were presented to it, as to elevate the whole of its faculties 
to a level with the operations of moral perception, with mankind 
generally ; it belongs to the moral faculty only, to form cor- 
rect inductions from primitive impressions, among whom too 
generally even this divine capacity is forced to pay homage to 
the preconceived errors and prejudices of conscience. In the 
mind of our President, the reason, the understanding and the 
judgment in equal dignity with the moral sense, perceived at 
once the original and natural relation of things and actions to 
truth and justice. His whole conduct throughout that Revolu- 
tion, (the most interesting in the history of man, because it 
involved the freedom of conscience, as well as of persons and 
property) evinces a mind thus delicately organized. Neither 
the prejudices of education; a propensity to conform to the 
desires of a parent whom he loved and revered ; a regard for 
property ; nor his own personal safety, nor the safety of his 
family ; had any weight when they were offered to his mind — 
the eloquent advocates of error and injustice. 

With a will at all times cautious, temperate and collected, 
he rejected their suit; and listened to the cause of Genius of 
right, of liberty, and his country. 

His father was Treasurer of the Province and member of 
the Council, and he himself an officer of the army, under the 
provincial Government ; circumstances which with many would 


have discountenanced any opposition to the measures of ParHa- 
ment. The situation of Georgia at the commencement of the 
Revolution, an infant and defenseless Colony; exposed to 
savages on the frontier and to more horrid apprehensions from 
domestic enemy ; should have rendered her more cautious and 
averse than the other colonies from incurring the displeasure 
of a country by which she had been supported and protected — 
yet these considerations lost their influence in the mind of Doc- 
tor Jones, after the repeated aggressions of Great Britain. 

It is needless for me to tell you, that the sad story of 
Colonial oppression commenced in the year 1764, and that the 
British Parfiament then adopted new regulations respecting its 
colonies which, after disturbing the ancient harmony of the 
two countries for about twelve years, terminated in the dis- 
memberment of the Empire. 

Georgia in its governmental capacity, from a majority of 
its inhabitants being at first against the measure, did not concur 
in the petitions and remonstrances from the first Congress to 
the King. A few of her citizens, however, petitioned and re- 
monstrated individually ; stating their rights and grievances in 
a firm and decided language. Among these patriots was Doc- 
tor Jones. On this subject there were, until the fire which rav- 
aged this city in 1796, some interesting relics of a correspond- 
ence between our President and Doctor Franklin, who was then 
in London, exerting his conciliatory talents in behalf of his 

In 1765 Doctor Jones was President of the Assembly of 
this Province, and distinguished himself by his opposition to 
Grenville's Stamp-Act. 

When the Colonies were at length convinced of the in- 
exorable temper of the British Parliament, and began to think 
seriously of dissolving their allegiance to their Mother Country, 
the necessity and expediency of concert and system in their 
operations were evident. For this purpose. Committees of 
Safety and Correspondence were formed, in the several Prov- 
inces. These had a most astonishing effect. It is perhaps im- 
possible for human Wisdom to contrive a system more sub- 


servient to the purposes intended than the reciprocal inter- 
change of intelhgence by such committees. From the want of 
such communication with each other, and consequently of union 
among themselves, many states have lost their liberties and 
more have been unsuccessful in their attempts to regain them 
after they have been lost. Each committee as a political sen- 
sorium collected and communicated the necessary intelligence 
to every other, thus flashing the flame of patriotism from one 
end to the other of this widely extended continent. Of a com- 
mittee formed with such designs in this Province Doctor Jones 
was a member. 

From 1768 to 1770, he filled the appointment of Speaker 
to the Lower House to which he was uniformly called lyy the 
united voice of the friends to his country, notwithstanding the 
clamorous and malignant opposition made against him by the 
ministers of the Crown. From his great influence, firmness 
and manly behavior he had rendered himself so obnoxious to 
the Royal Government that, although repeatedly returned by 
the House as its Speaker, he was compelled to relinquish the 
chair by an arbitrary exercise of one of the prerogatives con- 
tended for by the Crown. This excited much commotion. His 
modesty and temper to conciliate induced him to secede. 

When, in consequence of the failure of every honorable 
attempt at reconciliation, Great Britain, advancing with threats 
and war, had forced her Colonies to the sad alternative of sur- 
rendering their rights, or making a manly stand in defense of 
them, an Assembly was formed in this State. Of this, the 
first of the kind in this State, Doctor Jones was chosen the 
Speaker. Many of the acts of confiscation show his name af- 
fixed as such. 

He was among the first who associated in this State to 
send delegates to the General Congress. He was appointed to 
the first delegation from this State, but declined serving from 
the entreaties of his father to remain with him who was then 
very ancient and infirm. Soon after, in 1775, his father died, 
aged 73 years. Our President was afterwards employed in 


several important and confidential appointments, until the sur- 
render of Charleston, in 1780. 

On the reduction of Savannah in December, 1778, by the 
British Army under the command of Lieut. Col. Compbell, he 
went with his family to Charleston. By that event, he lost 
the life of his eldest son, who was an officer in the American 
Army, and the most of his possessions. The whole of his 
property was then taken by the plunderers of his country, and 
sequestered ; and most of it afterwards attached and sold by the 
British Gov. Wright for damages which he alleged to have sus- 
tained from Doctor Jones, by his having signed, as Speaker 
of the Assembly, the Act of Confiscation. 

During his exile in Charleston he followed the practice of 
his profession, with his usual success and devotion to his pa- 
tients. From this place he was removed by the suspicion and 
jealously of the British Officers, who viewed him as too for- 
midable an enemy to be suffered to enjoy the common immuni- 
ties which they had granted to the citizens generally by treaty 
of capitulation. In violation of the good faith of that treaty 
Doctor Jones was torn from an affectionate and helpless family 
to whom, by the disasters of Savannah, he was then rendered 
the only support, and without the permission being granted to 
take leave of them, was sent in company with Middleton, Bee, 
Gadsden, Ramsey, Heyward, and many more of the most con- 
spicuous supporters of the American cause, to St. Augustine, 
where he underwent the rigorous treatment and confinement of 
a prisoner of war. 

By the talents of Major Hyrne, an officer deputed by 
Genl. Greene for the purpose, an exchange of prisoners was 
effected. Those who had been confined at St. Augustine were 
then released, crowded into a vessel, and sent with a flag to 

No sooner had the countrymen of Doctor Jones heard of 
his liberation and arrival in Philadelphia than they annexed 
him to their delegation then in Congress. In the condition 
of Member of Congress from this State he continued until De- 
cember, 1782. Here his patriotism and professional talents in- 


troduced him to an acquaintance v/ith Doctor Rush by whom 
he was advised and encouraged to commence practice ; which 
indeed the situation of his family rendered necessary. Several 
publications appeared attributed to the pen of Doctor Rush, 
advising the inhabitants of Philadelphia to have recourse to 
the obstetric talents of Doctor Jones. Here he blended his 
political engagements with the duties of his profession. 

The reduction of Cornwallis being now effected, the news 
of an amicable adjustment of differences by our ministers in 
London having reached this country and Savannah evacuated, 
Doctor Jones, first apprising the Assembly of this State of his 
intention, returned. On his arrival in Savannah, he was again 
elected Member of the Assembly, and on its first meeting in 
January, 1783, was again chosen its Speaker. 

The deliberations of this Session were impeded, and the 
lives of the Speaker and several of the members hazarded by 
the tumult and commotions of a mob, composed partly of 
members, who had seceded. In attempting to diffuse a spirit of 
moderation and compromise between the contending parties. 
Doctor Jones exposed himself to the fury of the exasperated 
mob, and had his life eminently endangered. He still perse- 
vered with moderation, and finally reconciled the disaffected. 

After the adjournment of that session, finding that his 
practice, as well as his property, was much engrossed by the in- 
vaders of his country, and being invited by many of the citizens^ 
of Charleston, who had an experience of his professional tal- 
ents, he left Savannah for that city, in February, and was soon 
engaged in a very extensive and lucrative practice. 

He returned from Charleston to Savannah in 1788, and de- 
voted the remainder of his life to the duties of his profession, 

His last political act was not very long since. He was 
President of the Convention which, in Louisville, in May, 
1795, amended the Constitution. 

The political opinions of a man who thus sacrificed prop- 
erty and domestic happiness at the altar of Liberty and Pa- 
triotism, who would at any time have given up his life for the 


salvation of his country, are entitled to our regard and rever- 
ence. Founded upon purity and rectitude of motive, they are 
recommended by reason and justice. Doctor Jones, in com- 
mon with every American citizen, esteemed and revered the 
character of Genl. Washington, but he disapproved the British 
Treaty. He was chairman of a commitee from the inhabitants 
of Savannah who addressed the President on that subject. He 
disliked the measures generally of the late administration ; but 
depreciated foreign influence and party spirit. He believed 
that talents combined with virtue and moderation would effec- 
tually preserve our Union, and Independence and happiness. 
These were the constant and fervent prayers of this Vener- 
able Patriot. Americans of the present day, recollect the la- 
bors, the principles and the men, from whom you have de- 
rived the blessings, social, political, and religious, which you 
enjoy! From the abundance of your admiration and joy, 
arising from a contemplation of the last and unprecedented en- 
largement of the intellectual and moral powers of man, as well 
as, in the melioration of his physical condition, which are, and 
are likely to be, the results of that Revolution, bestow a little, 
in gratitude and homage, to the memory of its agents ! Asso- 
ciate indissolubly their virtues, their principles, and their names, 
with your principles of patriotism and your present views of 
policy and government! Transmit them to your children as 
you have received them pure and uncontaminated ! Thus will 
they become so many fibres and filaments in the organization 
of posterity. Thus shall liberty with order, virtue and pa- 
triotism, talents with probity, and freedom with happiness be 
the hereditary birthright of every future American. 

Let it be said that Doctor Jones departed from the duties 
of a physician by devoting a part of his time and labors to the 
safety and happiness of his country. It belongs to monarchies 
to lini'it the business of government to a privileged order of 
men ; and it is from the remains of a monarchical spirit in this 
country that we complain when clergymen, physicians and me- 
chanics take an active part in the management of civil affairs. 
The obligations of patriotism are as universal and binding as 


those of justice and benevolence, and the virtuous propensities 
of the human heart are as much resisted by every individual 
who neglects the business of his country as they are by the ex- 
tinction of the social and domestic affections in a monastery 
or a cell. "Man," says the enlightened Rush, ''was made for a 
Republic and a Republic for man ; otherwise divine power and 
goodness have been wasted in the creation and gift of his pub- 
lic affections." The virtuous and just man whose loss we de- 
plore adopted this truth from the evidence of his feelings in 
com.mon with the rest of mankind ; but it was strongly re- 
inforced on his mind. By numerous analogies in nature lie 
saw that light and air are the common and equal portions ot 
every man, and concluded that Heaven intended liberty to be 
distributed in the same manner among the whole of the human 

He beheld the beauty and harmony of the universe, the re- 
sult of universal and mutual dependence, and nobly inferred 
that Heaven intended rulers to be dependent upon those for 
whose benefit alone all government should exist. To suppose 
the contrary, is to deny unity and system in the great plans of 
the Creator of all things. 

It is a maxim equally ancient and well established that the 
acquaintance we form and the intimacies we contract, reflect, 
like mirrors, our character, to the world. It may not therefore, 
be amiss to observe that our deceased President was favored in 
his life with the friendship and acquaintance of many of the 
most distinguished in our country, for virtue, probity, and tal- 
ents. From these may be selected the names of the illustrious 
Washington and Franklin, of Oglethorpe, Greene, and Wayne 
of Rush and Ramsay. 

Let us now recur to the early life of Doctor Jones, and 
view his origin and progress in medicine. This, indeed, is the 
threshold of our subject. Surrounded by difficulties, such as 
we have mentioned, so inimical to improvement in science and 
morality; amidst the danger, clamor and confusion of Indian 
and Spanish War, in which we have seen him engaged from his 
earliest childhood ; Doctor Jones did not neglect the culture of 


his mind. There were then in this Province no schools but 
such as conveyed to the mind the sounds and forms of letters 
and numbers. As yet the din of war and the yell of the 
savage had deterred the exalted genius of science and litera- 
ture from a habitation among the groves of the south. By his 
father, who was a man of much ingenuity, industry and knowl- 
edge, and of great rectitude of character, were presented almost 
the only advantages for improvement which he enjoyed. Under 
his direction he acquired a plain Engilsh and Latin education, 
and some knowledge in mathematical science. From him also, as 
his only source, he derived the rudiments of his professional 

To Europeans, this climate was then, as it is now, a hot 
bed of disease. The Colonists groaned as much under the hor- 
rors of their physical, as the distress of their political condi- 
tion. Knowledge and observation were requisite to detect the 
means, and argument and effort necessary to urge and per- 
suade them to a relinquishment of European customs, and to 
the adoption of manners and habits calculated to curtail the 
mortality of their new residence, sickly from its nature, ren- 
dered still more sickly by their devotion to the usages of their 
parent country. With these laudable and benevolent views Doc- 
tor Jones turned his attention to the practice of physic ; and in 
1748 joined his father in the business of his profession which 
he had followed from the time of his arrival in the Province. 

From this time, our President, with the preparation we 
have mentioned, devoted himself chiefly to medicine. Placed 
by destinies of which he had not the control in his then savage 
and unlettered corner of the Western Hemisphere; isolated 
from the lectures and instruction of men of great medical 
learning; cut off from all the furniture of a library but what 
was presented by the solitary shelves of his father's shop ; and 
deprived of the demonstrations of the theater, and the elucida- 
tions of the hospital ; it is scarcely necessary to add that his 
only recourse was the Hippocratic method of improving him- 
self in the important duties of his profession. Like that an- 
cient and primitive father of Reason and Observation in medi- 


cine, he directed his attention, at once, to the original source of 
all knowledge in physic. The bedside of his patients was his 
university; the Camp and Fort his hospital and theater. Here 
taking nature, as she discovered herself in the symptoms of 
disease, and in the effects of remedies as his preceptor and 
guide; unshackled by prejudice and system, and unclouded by 
vain and idle controversies, and subtile and uninstructive dis- 
tinctions of disease; he formed his views and inductions of 
practice. •"] i 

Nor is this the only point of resemblance between the 
character of our late President, and that of the renowned in- 
habitant of Ancient Cos. 

(To Be Concluded in the September Number.) 


Queries and Answers 

M. S. — I do not remember ever seeing any account of 
the giving of a war dance by the Indians of Georgia, in honor 
of General Oglethorpe. Is there a record of any such cere- 
mony? • ^ 'i-uS^ 

There is. The incident is related in an interesting narra- 
tive of ''A Voyage to Georgia, Begun in the Year 1735," by 
Francis Moore, Keeper of Stores, by appointment of the Trus- 
tees, in which he described the performance given at Frederica. 
He wrote : "Next day, being the 26th, the Indians arrived, and 
camped by themselves near the town, and miade a war dance, 
to which Mr. Oglethorpe went, and all the people. They made 
a ring, in the middle of which four sat down, having little 
drums made of kettles, covered with deer skins, upon which 
they beat and sung ; round them the others danced, being naked 
to their waists, and round their middles many trinkets tied with 
skins, and some with the tails of beasts hanging down behind 
them. They painted their faces and bodies, and their hair 
was stuck with feathers ; in one hand they had a rattle, in the 
other hand the feathers of an eagle, made up like the caduceus 
of Mercury ; they shook these wings and the rattle, and danced 
round the ring with high bounds and antic postures, looking 
much like the figures of the satyrs. They showed great ac- 
tivity, and kept just time in their motions, and at certain times 
answered by way of chorus to those that sat in the middle of 
the ring. They stopt, and then stood out one of the chief war- 
riors, who sung what wars he had been in, and described (by 
actions as well as by words) which way he had vanquished the 
enemies of his country. When he had done, all the rest gave a 
shout of approbation, as knowing what he said to be true." 

R. S. G. — I have always wondered why the business of 
raising silk in Georgia was abandoned. I know the general 
impression is that it did not pay ; but it seems to me that after 
all is said, the experiment never had a complete trial, and the 
discouragement was too readily yielded to. I have also won- 
dered whether the quality of the silk raised was of the finest. 


Can you throw any light on this point? 

It is doubtless true that the quality of the silk produced in 
the Colony had nothing to do with the failure to keep up the 
industry. There are many statements extant showing that it 
was as good as any raised in any country. Among them we 
copy the following for the benefit of our correspondent : 

"King Street, Cheap Side, Jan. i6, 1739-40. 
"To Mr. Harman Verelst: 

"Sir, — The silk you was so kind to send to have my opin- 
ion of is as good a quality, in all appearance, as any we have 
from Italy ; it is already as well sorted as it can be ; indeed the 
finer the more valuable, as it is so well cleaned. 

"The price of raw silk is variable, but at present being 
dear, I think the greatest part of it is worth twenty shillings 
per pound. 

"I am, sir, your most humble serv't, 



Editor's Notes 

In the charter of the Georgia Historical Society, assented 
to as an act of the Legislature, December 19, 1839, the pre- 
amble declares that the corporation was instituted ''for the 
purpose of collecting, preserving and diffusing information 
relating to the history of the State of Georgia in particular, 
and of American history generally." While much has been 
done in the way of collecting matter relating to the history of 
the State, and nine volumes of collections and many pamphlets 
have been published, the Society still has material for additional 
volumes ; but an appeal is now made to our members for addi- 
tions to our store of documents and other original matter use- 
ful in preserving and diffusing knowledge relating to all periods 
of the State's history. Such appeals are always in order, and 
have been made from time to time, and we take this occasion to 
add another to the number, hoping that it will meet with abun- 
dant success. 

At the time this number of our periodical is ready for dis- 
tribution it is probable that the proposed union of the Georgia 
Historical Society and the Georgia Historical Association will 
have been perfected. These two organizations have the same 
purpose in view as mentioned in the quotation from the char- 
ter of the former, given in the foregoing paragraph. It is 
eminently proper that the two societies be made one body, and 
that its efforts to accomplish the objects aimed at be made state- 
wide. The appeal made, therefore, for additions to the material 
for writing our history includes the members of the united 
bodies, wherever they may live. 

The June number of this periodical will be a special one, 
containing matter relating to the work done by the two organi- 
zations and other things of interest to all members and others. 
It will necessarily be larger than usual and, for that reason, 
this number is reduced in size and the printing of the remainder 
of the N. W. Jones eulogy must be delayed until September. 


Among the honorary members elected by the Society, im- 
mediately following the founding of the institution, was the 
great statesman, Daniel Webster. In accepting membership 
Mr. Webster expressed his opinion as to the need for such or- 
ganizations in the letter herewith presented: 

"Boston, Nov. 25, 1840. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Your letter of the 13th inst., informing me of my elec- 
tion as Honorary Member of the Georgia Historical Society, is 

"I pray you to accept for yourself, and to present to the 
Society, my cordial thanks for the honor thus conferred on me, 
& to assure them of my hearty sympathy with the objects 
they have in view. 

"It is earnestly to be hoped that similar societies will be 
formed in all of the States where they do not already exist, 
that the almost infinite variety of interesting events connect- 
ed with the early history of our Country may be rescued from 
that oblivion which is rapidly closing over them, & that they 
may be collected in a form convenient for the preservation and 
transmission to future generations. Nowhere in the annals 
of our race is there to be found more brilliant ex^imples of all 
those qualities which dignify & adorn human nature than those 
which distinguished the American Colonies, & it is among our 
high & imperative duties to take good care that their influence 
shall not be lost. 

"I am, dear sir, your obliged friend 
"& fellow citizen, 

"I K. Tefft, Esq., 

"Cor. Sec'y, &c." 

One year before the election of Mr. Webster the venerable 
John Quincy Adams was enrolled as an honorary member. He 
v/as elected during the latter part of the year 1839, when he was 
in the 73rd year of his age, and he acknowledged the compli- 
ment in these words : 


"I K. Tef ft, Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the Georgia 
Historical Society, Savannah. 

''Quincy, 26 Nov'br, 1839. 

"I received some time since your favour of the 13th of 
August last, informing me of the honour conferred upon me 
by the Georgia Historical Society, in electing me one of their 
honorary members. Your letter was accompanied by a copy of 
the Constitution and By Laws of the Society. 

"I pray you, sir, and the members of the Society to be 
assured of the high sense which I entertain of the mark of dis- 
tinction which they have bestowed upon me ; and of the respect 
with which I am your and their obed't Serv't. 









VOL. IV— Nos. 2 and 3 


Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 




Hodgson Hall . . . Frontispiece 


Two Acts Constituting the Charter of Georgia Historical 

Society . . . . . . . . . >. . . , 41-44 

Constitution 45-49 

Hodgson Hall So-52 

List of Officers and Curators Feb. 17, 1920 53-54 

Extract from President's Report of 1914 55-59 

Annual Reports Feb. 17, 1920, of Officers and Committees 60-70 

Annual Report of the President . 71-80 

Article on Library, Manuscripts, Etc. 81-87 

Dr. Brooks's Sketch of Georgia Historical Association . 88-92 

Consolidation Report of the Society's Committee, with 

Accompanying Plan. Resolutions 93-103 

Circular of the Association to Its Members Announcing 

Consolidation 103-105 

Picture of Telfair Academy . Insert 

Item 14 of Miss Telfair's Will 106-107 

Resolutions of the Society on Telfair Trust .... 108 

Final Report of Committee on Union 109-114 

Petition for Charter Telfair Academy of Arts and 

Sciences 116-118 

Order Granting Charter 119-121 

Bibliography . . . ... . 122-131 

List of Officers of Georgia Historical Society from Date 

OF Organization to August i, 1920 . . . . . . 132-138 


VOL. IV-Nos. 2 and 3 










1 920 


Mm'' IMIlfllllll«llfllil|lliMlii™i^^lff 







« ^^ "^^^^^||piM|^^^B^^^^^^H^B^^^^B^^^^^^^B^^B 


The reorganization of the Georgia Historical Society in this its 
eighty-second year is so radical and so important as to justify the con- 
version of this number of the Quarterly into an account of what has 
been done, with some information as to the Society, its present and 
its past. This number shows : 

1. The Society's charter of 1839, with the amendment of 1870 
(pp. 41-44), and the new constitution adopted August 2, 1920 (pp. 

2. A short list of its publications beginning in 1840 (pp. 56-57)- 

3. A brief description of Hodgson Hall, its handsome home in 
Savannah, with the trust under which it is held (pp. 50-52) ; its 
Library of about 40,000 volumes and 40,000 pamphlets, and some of 
its valuable historical possessions (pp. 81-87). 

4. A list of those who have been its officers (pp. 132-138). 

5. Reports of Officers and Committees submitted at the Eighty- 
first Annual Meeting February 17, 1920 (pp. 60-70). 

6. The Society's resignation (pp. 108-109) as Trustee of Telfair 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Savannah's beautiful Art Gallery 
founded and endowed by Mary Telfair, daughter of Edward Telfair 
(1735-1807), member of the Sons of Liberty, the Council of Safety, 
the Continental Congress, signer of the Articles of Confederation, 
and twice Governor of Georgia. Mary Telfair was last survivor of the 

An account of the institution of the Academy and the Society's 
administration of the trust will be found in the Georgia Historical 
Quarterly for March, 1917. The charter of the new corporation is in- 
cluded herein (pp. 116-118). 

7. Accomplishment of the complete union and consolidation of 
Georgia Historical Association with Georgia Historical Society under 
the charter of the latter (pp. 109-114). 

8. Radical changes in the personnel of the Curators and the 
Offixers (pp. 111-112) indicating the state-wide character of the re- 
organized society, with reports showing the terms of the consolida- 
tion (pp. 93-109). By this union and consolidation Georgia Historical 
Society has acquired many new members residing in all parts of the 

This number is sent to all members, including of course, all former 
members of Georgia Historical Association. By virtue of the con- 
solidation they have ipso facto become members of Georgia Historical 
Society, which extends to them its most cordial greetings. 


At the Annual meeting of Georgia Historical Society, February 17, 
1920, the recommendation of the Board of Curators embodied in the 
President's report (pp. 75-80) was approved and the Society ap- 
pointed a committee to negotiate with Georgia Historical Association 
for union and consolidation and to report back to the Society. A 
like committee was appointed by the President of Georgia Historical 
Association and the two committees met in Hodgson Hall, Savannah, 
on March 6, 1920. Their joint action appears from the report of the 
Society's committee and the plan of union, included herein (pp. 109- 

This report was presented to the Society at its quarterly meeting. 
May 3, 1920, and was unanimously approved and adopted as will ap- 
pear by the resolutions included herein (p. 102). 

At its annual meeting in the State Library at Atlanta, May 22, 
1920, the plan of union and consolidation was presented to Georgia 
Historical Association, and was unanimously approved, as will appear 
by the resolutions of the Association included herein (pp. 102-103). 

On July 28, 1920, the Board of Curators of the Society met in 
Savannah and, under the power conferred upon them by the Con- 
situation, accepted the resignations of certain officers and curators, at 
the same time filling the vacancies thus created; as will appear by 
the list of officers included herein (p. iii). On August 2, 1920, the 
Society's committee on union and consolidation with the approval of 
the Board of Curators submitted its final report, including the draft 
of a new constitution in the place of the former constitution and by- 
laws, which were unanimously adopted and which are included herein 
(pp. 96-101). 

This was the final step in the reorganization of the Society ex- 
cept the acceptance of its resignation as Trustee of Telfair Academy of 
Arts and Sciences and the appointment of its successor by the Superior 
Court of Chatham County. This resignation has been filed and peti- 
tion for charter of a new charitable corporation to be known as Telfair 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, which it is hoped will be appointed as 
the new trustee, is pending. (See circular to resident members of the 
Society, post page 114-116). 

niie Georgia Historical Quarterly 

Volume IV JUME and SEPTEMBER. 1920 Numbers 2 and 3 

A Note of Explanation to Our Readers 

While this is a regular number of the Georgia Historical Quar- 
terly, it has been deemed advisable to depart from the usual form 
in which the periodical has regularly appeared, and, in place of the 
articles on subjects of historical interest, matter relating to the 
recently perfected amalgamation of the Georgia Historical Society 
and the Georgia Historical Association has been substituted, as 
indicated in the March number. In this shape, and with the ma- 
terial containing so much information as to the history and work 
of the now united bodies, it is hoped that this publication, in the 
nature of a hand-book, will prove acceptable to all of our readers. 


Whereas, The members of a society instituted in the City 
of Savannah for the purpose of collecting, preserving and dif- 
fusing information relating to the History of the State of Geor- 
gia in particular, and of American history generally, have ap- 
plied for an Act of incorporation. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the State of Georgia, in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That 
J. M. Berrien, James M. Wayne, M. H. McAllister, I. K. 
Tefft, William B. Stevens, George W. Hunter, H. K. Preston, 
William T. Williams, C. S. Henry, J. C. Nicoll, William Law, 
R. M. Charlton, R. D. Arnold, A. A. Smets, J. W. Anderson, 
William B. Bulloch, William H. Bulloch, J. H. Burroughs, J. 
Balfour, Joseph G. Binney, William P. Bowen, J. B. Bartow, 
James Barnard, Morgan Brown, G. B. Gumming, Solomon 
Cohen, Joseph Gumming, D. C. Campbell, J. H. Couper, W. A. 
Caruthers, W. H. Cuyler, Edward Coppee, William Crabtree, 
Jr., Archibald Clark, William Duncan, William C. Daniell, 
George M. Dudley, J. De La Motta, Jr., J. S. Fay, S. H. Fay 
W. B. Fleming, J. F. Griffin, Robert Habersham, W. Neyle 



Habersham, J. C. Habersham, E. J. Harden, S. L. W. Harris, 
George Jones, J. W. Jackson, P. M. Kollock, G. J. Kollock, 
Ralph King, T. B. King, Wilham McWhir, J. B. Mallard, John 
Millen, W. H. Miller, C. McArdell, J. S. Morel, M. Myers, 
J. F. O'Neill, E. Neufville, E. A. Nisbet, A. G. Oemler, A. 
Porter, J. F. Posey, Thomas Paine, Willard Preston, Edward 
Padelford, Thomas Purse, R. W. Pooler, William Robertson, 
L. O. Reynolds, J. Bond Read, R. H. Randolph, F. M. Robert- 
son, George Schley, James Smith, William H. Stiles, B. E. 
Stiles, J. L. Shaffer, Charles Stephens, William P. White, John 
E. Ward, George White, and such other persons as now are 
and may from time to time become members of said Society, be, 
and they are hereby, declared and constituted a body corporate 
and politic, by the name of "The Georgia Historical Society," 
and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and be capa- 
ble to sue and to be sued, to plead and be impleaded, answer and 
be answered unto, defend and be defended in all courts or 
places whatsoever ; to have a common seal and the same at 
pleasure to change or alter ; to make, establish and ordain such 
a Constitution and such By-laws not repugnant to the Con- 
stitution of this State or of the United States, as shall from 
time to time be necessary and expedient, and to annex to the 
breach thereof such penalty, by fine, suspension or expulsion, 
as they may deem fit, and to purchase, take, receive, hold and 
enjoy, to them and their successors, any goods and chattels, 
lands and tenements, and to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of 
the same, or any part thereof, at their will and pleasure ; Pro- 
vided, that the clear annual income of such real and personal 
estate shall not exceed the sum of five thousand dollars ; and, 
Provided, also, that the funds of the said corporation shall be 
used and appropriated to the purposes stated in the preamble of 
this Act, and those only. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted by the authority afore- 
said, That the said Society shall have power to elect and qualify 
such officers as may by them be deemed necessary, to be chosen 
at such time and to hold their office for such period as the Con- 
stitution or By-Laws of said Society shall prescribe ; and that if 
the election of said officers, or any of them, shall not be held on 


any of the days for that purpose appointed, it shall be lawful 
to make such election on any other day. 

Sec 3. And be it further enacted by the authority afore- 
said, That it shall be the duty of the Governor of the State to 
transmit, or cause to be transmitted, to the said Society a set 
of the Acts and also of the journals of the present and future 
sessions of the Legislature, and also copies of all other docu- 
ments, papers, books, and pamphlets that shall hereafter be 
printed under or by virtue of an act of Legislature, or joint 
resolution of both branches thereof, unless such Act or reso- 
lufion shall otherwise provide; and tTiat the said Society 
may, by their agent or agents, have access at all reasonable 
times to the several public offices of this State and of the 
corporate towns and cities thereof, and may cause such docu- 
ments to be searched, examined and copied without paying 
office fees, as they may judge proper, to promote the object of 
the Society. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted. That this Act shall be 
and is hereby declared to be a public Act, and shall be con- 
strued benignly and favorably for every beneficial purpose 
therein intended, and that no misnomer of the said corporation 
in any deed, will, testament, devise, gift, grant, demise or other 
instrument of contract or conveyance, shall vitiate or defeat the 
same; Provided, the corporation shall be sufficiently described 
to ascertain the intention of the parties. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted. That the Governor be, 
and is hereby, authorized and requested to confide to the care 
and keeping of the proper officers of said Society the tran- 
scripts of the Colonial records lately taken by the Rev. C. W. 
Howard in London, until further disposition of the same shall 
be made by the General Assembly. 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

President of the Senate. 

Assented to 19th December, 1839. 




19TH DECEMBER, 1839. 

Section i. The General Assembly of the State of Geor- 
gia do hereby enact : That the provisos in the first section of 
the Act entitled *'An Act to incorporate the Georgia Historical 
Society," assented to on the nineteenth day of December, in the 
year eighteen hundred and thirty-nine be, and the same are, 
hereby repealed. 

Sec. 2 And it is hereby further enacted, That this Act 
take effect immediately on its passage; and that all Acts and 
parts of Acts, so far as they militate with this Act, are hereby 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 


Clerk of the House of Representatives. 


President of the Senate. 

J. G. W. MILLS, 

Secretary of the Senate. 

Approved October 25th, 1870. 






Adopted August 2nd, 1920. 

Article i. 

The corporate name of the Society is "Georgia Historical 
Society." Its domicile is Savannah, in Chatham County. 

Article 2. 

Its objects are to collect, preserve and diffuse information 
relative to the History of the State of Georgia in particular, 
and American History generally, and to create an historical 
library for the use of its members and others. 

Article 3. 

Members shall be of the following classes : Members, Con- 
tributing Members, Sustaining Members, and Life Members, 
all of whom are classed as active members, and all of whom 
shall have the right to vote ; and Corresponding Members and 
Honorary Members, who may not vote. Any reputable per- 
son may be an active member, and those who pay $100 shall 
be Life Members. The Society or the Board of Curators 
may fiom time to time elect as Corresponding Members per- 
sons having special qualifications in history, and as Hon- 
orary Members persons distinguished in history or kindred 
subjects, or distinguished persons who have given valuable 
and special aid to the Society in promoting the objects set 
forth in Article 2. Corresponding Membership and Hon- 
orary Membership may be terminated by the Society when- 
ever in its opinion such termination is desirable. 


Article 4. 

The officers shall be a President, four Vice Presidents, a 
Corresponding Secretary, a Secretary, a Ti-easurer, a Libra- 
rian, a Board of fifteen Curators (herein called the Board)', 
and such other officers as may from time to time be pro- 
vided for by the Board or the Society. 

At each annual meeting five Curators shall be elected to 
serve for three years, and others shall be elected for such 
terms as may be necessary to fill existing vacancies. Election 
of Curators shall be by ballot, unless otherwise ordered by a 
two-third vote of those present. The Board may fill all va- 
cancies in their number pending the next annual meeting. 

All other officers shall be elected by the Board, and shall 
hold office at the pleasure of the Board. The President, the 
Vice Presidents and the Corresponding Secretary shall be 
elected from among the Curators. 

Article 5. 

The Society shall meet annually on the 12th day of Feb- 
ruary, Georgia Day ; but if said day fall on Friday, Saturday or 
Sunday, the meeting shall be held on the following Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday. The Board may from year 
to year change the date of meeting. The place of meeting shall 
be from time to time determined by the Society or the Board. 

Article 6. 

Special meetings of the Society may be called by the Board, 
by the President or by a Vice President, and shall be called by 
the President or a Vice President, or the Secretary, upon the 
written request of five active members. 

the georgia historical quarterly 47 

Article 7. 

Unless otherwise ordered by unanimous vote of those 
present, admission of members shall be by ballot, and nega- 
tive votes amounting to one-fifth of the total number of 
votes cast shall be sufficient to reject. Members may be 
elected by the Society or by the Board. 

Article 8. 

Life members, corresponding members and honorary mem- 
bers shall pay no dues. The dues of Members shall be $3 
per annum; Contributing Members $10 per annum; and 
Sustaining Members $25 per annum. All dues shall be for the 
calendar year and payable on or before February 12th of that 
year. Members elected after July ist in any year shall pay 
one-half the annual dues, and those elected after October ist 
shall pay no dues for that year. 

Article 9. 

Twelve active members shall constitute a quorum and be 
empowered to transact the business of the Society. 

Article 10. 

Except as otherwise provided herein or otherwise ordered 
by the Society, all powers of the Society are vested in the 
Board of Curators. 

The Board shall meet as soon as practicable after the An- 
nual Meeting and shall then elect from their number the 
President, the Vice Presidents and the Corresponding Secre- 
tary. They shall also elect a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a 


The Board shall meet from time to time, as often as may 
be necessary, on the call of the President, any Vice President 
or any three Curators. Five members shall constitute a 

Article ii 


There shall be standing committees on printing and pub- 
lishing, on finance, and on membership; each to consist of 
such number of Curators or active members as the Board may 
determine. The Board may also create other committees, and 
may delegate to any committee such of its power and au- 
thority as it may deem advisable. All committees shall be ap- 
pointed by the President, unless otherwise ordered by the 
Board or the Society. 

Article 12. 


Subject to Article 4, all Officers shall hold office until the 
annual meeting next succeeding their election, and all officers 
and Curators shall hold office until their successors shall have 
been elected and qualified. 

Article 13. 


(i.) The President shall preside at all meetings of the 
Society and Board of Curators, shall be the chief officer of 
the Society, and shall perform such duties as usually apper- 
tain to the office or may be assigned to it. 

(2) The Vice Presidents shall perform such duties as 
may be from time to time assigned to them by the Society, the 
Board or the President. In the absence or disability of the 
President all the duties of the office shall devolve upon the 
Vice Presidents in order of rank. 


(3) The Corresponding Secretary shall conduct all cor- 
respondence relating to the business of the Society as a his- 
torical organization, shall perform such other duties as may 
be from time to time assigned by the Society or the Board, and 
shall preserve as the property of the Society full files of all 

(4) The Secretary shall keep the records of all meetings 
and shall perform all other duties that usually appertain to the 
office of Secretary except those assigned to the Corresponding 

(5) The Treasurer shall collect and disburse for account 
of the Society, and shall be the custodian of, its funds and its 
securities; and shall give such bond, if any, and make dis- 
bursements under such rules and regulations, as may from 
time to time be prescribed by the Board or by any committee 
to whom it shall delegate this power. 

(6) The offices of Secretary and Treasurer may be com- 
bined in one person. 

(7) The Librarian shall have custody and charge of all 
books, manuscripts, documents, pamphlets, papers, articles of 
historical value, and all property other than that appropriately 
entrusted to the Secretary or the Treasurer; and shall per- 
form such other duties as may from time to time be assigned 
by the Board or by any committee to whom it shall delegate 
this power. 

(8) All officers except the Vice Presidents shall make re- 
ports at the Annual Meeting. All officers shall make such re- 
ports to the Board or to the Society as may from time to 
time be required of them by either. 

Article 14. 


This Constitution may be altered or amended by the 
affirmative vote of two-thirds of the active members present 
at any meeting, annual or special, at which a quorum shall be 


(See Frontispiece) 

Margaret Telfair Hodgson, widow of William B. Hodgson 
of Savannah and sister of Mary Telfair, founder of Telfair 
Academy of Arts and Sciences and other charities in Savannah, 
began in her lifetime the erection of a building on Lot 14, 
Forsyth Ward, southwest corner of Gaston and Whitaker 
Streets in Savannah, to be called Hodgson Hall, as a memorial 
to her scholarly husband, and for the use and benefit of 
Georgia Historical Society. Before completing it she died 
leaving her sister, Mary Telfair, as residuary legatee. On June 
10, 1874, Miss Telfair, reciting these facts, executed and de- 
livered to the late General Alexander R. Lawton and his suc- 
cessors a trust deed conveying the property for the benefit of 
the Society and charging the residuary estate of her sister in 
her own hands with the completion of the building, "in trust 
nevertheless, to permit the Georgia Historical Society to have 
the exclusive use, possession, control and management of said 
building and lot ; Provided, said Society will, through its proper 
officers, accept the same on the following terms and conditions 
to-wit: That the said building shall be known as, and called, 
Hodgson Hall ; that no public speaking shall be permitted 
within the walls of said building, except under the auspices or 
connected with the business of said Georgia Historical So- 
ciety ; that no entertainments or amusements of any kind, which 
include or involve eating, drinking or smoking, be permitted 
within the walls of said building; that the building is never to 
be rented or lent out for any purposes whatsoever; and, further 
that under the portrait of the said William Brown Hodgson, 
which is to be hung on the wall of said building, shall be in- 
scribed, in permanent letters, the following words : "In Memo- 
riam, William Brown Hodgson ; this building is erected by Mar- 
garet Telfair Hodgson, A. D., 1873," or other vv^ords of similiar 
import ; and that the other conditions, on which the use and con- 


trol of the building are committed to the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety shall also appear conspicuously on the wall of the princi- 
pal Hall in the buidling. 

Miss Telfair died June 2, 1875. The building was com- 
pleted by her executors and was dedicated and delivered to the 
Society on February 14, 1876. For forty-four years Hodgson 
Hall has been the Society's home and place of meeting, con- 
taining its valuable library, manuscripts, portraits and other ar- 
ticles of historical value. 


On the first day of July last, the contract with the City, 
by which Hodgson Hall, the Society's home, for some twelve 
or fifteen years past, had been used as a public library, was 
terminated by mutual consent ; — an event which was hailed by 
the Society with pleasure and gratification, for it had been 
seen that while this contract had proven of inestimable benefit 
to the people of Savannah, making it possible, as it did, that 
they should have the advantages of a public library, it worked 
to the serious detriment of the welfare of the Society, de- 
priving it of the use of its library building and giving the im- 
pression that the Society had, to a more or less extent, retired 
from active operations. 

With the return of Hodgson Hall to the Society, steps were 
immediately taken to repair and remedy the building, so as to 
make it in every way suitable for the purposes intended ; — and 
at the same time a committee was appointed to outline and rec- 
ommend a policy to be adopted by the Society for its future 
work. The recommendations of this committee, which were 
duly adopted by the Society, are embodied in the Committee^s 
Report to the Society. 


Speaking generally, the purport of these recommendations 
was two-fold : 

1st. The enlargement and systematization of the activi- 
ties of the Society for usefulness. 

2nd. The arousing among the people of the State at large 
a deeper interest in the work and objects of the Society. 

The Society at once set itself to work to accomplish the 
ends proposed, and we confidently believe that our efforts in 
this direction have so far proven fruitful of satisfactory re« 



FEBRUARY 17TH, 1920. 


President _______ Alexander R. Lawton 

Vice President ______ Thomas J. Charlton 

Vice President ______ Otis Ash more 

Vice President ______ Alexander C. King 

Vice President ______ Lawton B. Evans 

Corresponding Secretary _ _ _ Otis Ash more 

Secretary and Treasurer _ _ _ Chas^ F. Groves 

Librarian and Editor _ _ _ _ William Harden 

Treasurer, Telfair Trust Fund.^ _ Chas. F. Groves 


Otis Ash more ____ — _ — Savannah, Ga. 

Thomas J. Charlton _ — — Savannah, Ga. 

T. M. Cunningham, Jr. _ — - Savannah, Ga. 

Wymberley W. DeRenne _ _ _ Savannah, Ga. 

Charles Ellis _________ Savannah, Ga. 

Lawton B. Evans _ _ — — _ Augusta, Ga. 

Beverly D. Evans _______ Savannah, Ga. 

Henry R. Goetchius _ Columbus, Ga. 

Wm. W. Gordon ________ Savannah, Ga. 

DuPONT GUERRY ________ MaCON, Ga. 

Alexander C. King _ _ Atlanta. Ga. 

Alexander R. Lawton _____ Savannah, Ga. 

Benjamin H. Levy _ _ _ — _ Savannah, Ga. 

J. F. Minis __________ Savannah, Ga. 

Wm. W. Williamson _ Savannah, Ga. 





J. Florance Minis, Chairman 
T. M. Cunningham, Jr. 
Thomas J. Charlton 
Charles Ellis 
Beverly D. Evans 


Otis Ash more. Chairman 
]. Florance Minis 
Mrs. Anna Belle Karow 
Charles Ellis 
Henry R. Goetchius 


, Chairman 

W. W. Gordon 
Alexander C. King 
Lawton B. Evans 
T. M. Cunningham, Jr. 
Leonard L. Mackall 


Wm. W. Williamson, 

Lawton B. Evans 
ITenry R. Goetchius 
DuPoNT Guerry 
Benjamin H. Levy 
W. W. Gordon and others. 


Alexander R. Lawton, Chairman. 

Beverly D. Evans 

Miss Elisabeth Beckwith 

Benjamin H. Levy 

William W. Williamson 




The Georgia Historical Society was incorporated by act 
of the General Assembly of Georgia approved December 19, 
1839, and amended October 25, 1870. Its first Annual Meet- 
ing was held on Georgia Day, February 12, 1840. The list of 
its charter members contains many names of the men of that 
day whose memory we delight to honor. It is headed by John 
McPherson Berrien, our first President, probably the most dis- 
tinguished lawyer who ever practiced at the bar of Georgia, 
United States Senator, Attorney General in Andrew Jackson's 
Cabinet; and next is James M. Wayne, our first Vice Presi- 
dent, Judge of the Superior Court, Member of Congress, and 
for thirty-two years a Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

We now celebrate the passage of the third quarter century 
of its existence. When the first of these three periods expired 
the country was engaged in the throes of the Civil War, and 
while most of the members were then so busily engaged in the 
making of history that they could devote to its preservation 
neither time nor thought, it is worthy of note that those whose 
duties or disabilities kept them from going to the front con- 
tinued to maintain the organization and to hold regular meet- 
ings through those four trying years ; but there was no cele- 
bration of the twenty-fifth anniversary in 1864. 

Not even did the trying days of reconstruction suppress 
the zeal of the then members. In 1873 just at the end of this 
period which had so tried men's souls and thrown the State 
into almost hopeless poverty, the publication of the "Collec- 
tions of the Georgia Historical Society" was resumed after a 
lapse of twenty-five years by the issue of Volume III in 1873. 
"A sketch of the Creek Country in 1798 and 1799, by Ben- 
jamin Hawkins," had been published in 1848 as Volume III, 
Part I, and I am unable at this date to explain why this desig- 
nation was ignored in the publication of the other Volume III 
in 1873, containing Letters of General James Oglethorpe to the 


Trustees of the Colony, 1735-1744, Letters of Governor Sir 
James Wright to his chiefs in England, and two addresses de- 
livered before the Society. 

In 1889, when your Society had reached the age of 50 
years, the occasion was appropriately celebrated, and a full 
account of this celebration has been transmitted to all mem- 
bers as an appendix to the programme of the present occasion. 

It would be inappropriate to this report to now recount the 
history of the Society for the seventy-five years which have 
elapsed. It has been given from time to time in former re- 
ports and in the Collections of the Society heretofore issued. 
Suffice it to say here that for the full seventy-five years it has 
been a living active body, with no period of suspended anima- 
tion, with no need of reorganization or revival. We still have 
the recorded minutes of all its meetings and transactions from 
the beginning. Clearly it is the oldest Historical Society in the 
South and one of the oldest in the Union. 

What are the notable events of our three periods? The 
first quarter century covered the foundation and organization 
of the Society, the Second, the foundation and organization of 
the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences. What of the 
third? Have we proved worthy successors of our predeces- 
sors ? While we have had our days of prosperity and our days 
of struggle for existence, yet there are three noteworthy 
achievements which we can recall with pride and satisfaction. 
The first is that we have more than sustained the pace set by 
our predecessors in the publication of our "Collections ;" the 
second is our material and potent part in giving to Savannah 
the Public Library which she has so long needed; and the 
third is the continued improvement of the Telfair Academy 
(which twenty-five years ago was but in its infancy) and its 
establishment as a Museum of Arts whose excellence is uni- 
versally recognized. 


The Librarian has compiled a bibliography of the Society's 
publications, containing not only the series designated as Col- 
lections of the Georgia Historical Society, but also other books, 


addresses, etc., published by it or under its auspices. During 
its first quarter century, from 1839 to 1864, there were pub- 
Hshed three volumes of its Collections ; during the second quar- 
ter century, 1864 to 1889, Volumes III and IV appeared; dur- 
ing the quarter century now closing there have appeared Vol- 
ume V, Part I, (1901), Volume V, Part 2 (1902), Volume VI 
(1904), Volume VII, Part i (1909), Volume VII, Part 2 
(19 11), Volume VII, Part 3 (1913), and Volume VIII (1913). 
Each of these parts is itself a separate and complete publica- 
tion. In the first quarter century the Society issued three pub- 
lications, in the second quarter century but two, and in the third 
quarter century seven. The later period in our history shows 
a greater activity in the preservation and dissemination of the 
history of Georgia than does the entire half century of the 
earlier period. 


While the Georgia Historical Society has always been 
limited in the extent of its activities by the want of funds, and 
while this want has been accentuated and increased by the 
fact that during about one-third of its existence the people of 
our State were suffering from the losses and the arrest of prog- 
ress due directly and indirectly to our Civil War, yet its work 
will compare favorably, not only with the work of similar so- 
cieties in the South, but with the work of many historical so- 
cieties in the older and more prosperous states. Most of its 
accomplishments have been strictly within the line of its duty 
and the objects prescribed by its charter; but the last quarter 
century of its life has been distinguished by a foundation out- 
side of the field of its activities as a historical society pure and 
simple, but of great benefit to the community in which it is 

The first meeting for organization of the Georgia Histori- 
cal Society in 1839 was held in the rooms of the Savannah 
Library Society, whose object is sufficiently indicated by its 
name. The general activities of these two societies for many 
years, the close association between them, and the ultimate 
merger of the two are fully set forth in an interesting address 


by Dr. Richard D. Arnold delivered before the Society on July 
24, 1 87 1, and printed in Volume III of its Collections. The ab- 
sorption of the Library Society accounts for the fact that our 
own organization, founded for purely historical purposes, col- 
lected in its library not only works bearing on historical sub- 
jects, but also books suitable for a circulating library. For a 
number of years the gathering and publishing of historical 
material was secondary to its principal work of maintaining a 
circulating library, and when it had several hundred members 
the great inducement was ability to obtain for a small annual 
fee the privilege of a library — a privilege not open to them 
through any other organization or through any public institu- 

The dual nature of the Society under its former organiza- 
tion is well indicated by the fact that Dr. Arnold's sketch is 
addressed to "Gentlemen of the Georgia Historical and Savan- 
nah Library Societies, now consolidated as the Georgia Histori- 
cal Society." Dr. Arnold, for many years one of our most dis- 
tinguished citizens, a ripe scholar of great culture, was him- 
self a founder of our Society and was old enough to remember 
the beginnings of the Savannah Library Society, which was or- 
ganized on January 8, 1809. It is interesting to observe that 
among the founders of this older organization were John Mc- 
Pherson Berrien the first President, James M. Wayne the 
first Vice President, of the Georgia Historical Society, and 
Alexander Telfair, the brother of Mary Telfair and of Mar- 
garet Telfair Hodgson, to whose wise and thoughtful gener- 
osity we are indebted for the Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences and for Hodgson Hall. 

It is a pleasure to remind you that this valuable 
municipal utility has been built up under the executive admin- 
istration of two of the officers of this Society who have been 
successively Chairman of the Public Library, Mr. Baldwin 
your First Vice President, and Mr. Otis Ashmore your cor- 
responding Secretary. 

The public press reports that our Mayor has procured 
from Mr. Carnegie a promise of $75,000 for the erection of a 


Public Library building. While the sum is inadequate and 
must be increased, and while there is a decided sentiment 
among many citizens that the funds for the library building 
should come from other sources, yet from our standpoint this 
information must be received with pleasure and satisfaction. 
We need our building. We have shown public spirit and gen- 
erosity to an extent greater than could be expected of us. The 
Public Library is now necessarily a permanent institution. No 
city administration would dare abandon it, and we have done 
a great work in promoting it. Let a suitable public library 
building be erected with all practicable speed and let the Geor- 
gia Historical Society resume its own, and return to its digni- 
fied home, surrounded by its own volumes and encouraged by 
its traditions to proceed with the good work for which it was 
founded, mindful always of its avowed "purpose of collecting, 
preserving and diffusing information relating to the history of 
the State in particular and of American history generally." 

The contract with the city provides that on its termina- 
tion the city shall deliver to the Society all the books turned 
over by it to the Public Library "as well as those bought to 
add to the same." Among these are works of current fiction and 
others not necessary to the completeness of the library of a 
purely historical body, and I have no doubt when the new 
building is completed, the Society will meet the Mayor and 
Aldermen in a spirit of equity and generosity, and will be will- 
ing, if the city shall return to the Society its building in first- 
class condition and as well suited in its interior arrangements to 
our purposes as it was when surrendered, to make liberal con- 



Savannah, Ga., February 17, 1920. 
To the Georgia Historical Society : 

Your Secretary-Treasurer submits herewith a Hst of all the 
members of the Society at this date. The list shows names and 
addresses as well as information as to members in arrears. 
One mark indicates those who still owe for 1919; two marks 
for 1918; three for 1917; and four for 1916. 

At this date the active members number 450; Life, 4; 
Honorary, 5 ; Corresponding, 10. The increase over last year 
at this time amounts to 138 active and i life. 

Condensed annual financial statement for Georgia His- 
torical Society and also for Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, for the year ended December 31, 1919, are also sub- 
mitted herewith. 

Insurance carried by Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
on building $61,000; contents, $44,000; total $105,000. 

Insurance carried by Georgia Historical Society, on build- 
ing $27,000; contents, $15,000; total, $42,000. 

Respectfully submitted, 






Savings Account _ $3-6i 

Open Account Overdraft 348 $ .13 


Dues $2,058.80 

Sales 66.40 

Interest ______________ .06 

Loans 1,125.00 $3,250.26 $3,250.39 


Salaries $1,662.50 

Lighting Current _________ 16.26 

Fuel 20.70 

Payment of loan to Lawton & 

Cunningham _________ 125.00 

Repairs ______________ 10.65 

Printing costs in re : publication of 

Quarterly 699.35 

Supplies and postage 225.74 

Subscriptions and purchases _ _ _ _ 58.87 

Insurance 44.00 

Miscellaneous 6.11 $2,869.18 

Dec. 31 BALANCE 381.21 $3,250.39 




Cash __$ 270.85 

3rd L. L. Bond 1,500.00 

C. R. E. & I. Co. Certificate of 

Indebtedness 856.79 $2,627.64 


Interest $ 124.11 

R. J. Nunn Trust Fund 66.94 

Strachan Life Membership 100.00 $ 291.05 $2,918.69 

Dec. 31 Cash $ 561.90 

3rd L. L. Bond 1,500.00 

C R. E. & I. Co. Certificate of 

Indebtedness 856.79 $2,918.69 

Correct : 



July 26, 1920. 




JUNE 30TH, 1920. 

April I, BALANCE $ 693.88 


Dues $ 832.15 

From Permanent Fund _ _ _ i,5CX).oo 
Sale of Publications _ _ _ _ 8.00 

Refund by Telfair Academy 
of insurance premiums paid 
by G. FI. S. for its ac- 
count ______-_-_ 140.00 2,480.15 


Subscriptions _______$ 18.50 

Books __________ 22.50 

Fuel ___________ 10.85 

Current __________ 3.66 

Insurance premiums _ _ _ _ 262.00 

Salaries __________ 325.00 

Payment of Chatham Bank & 

Trust Co. note ______ 1,000.00 

Interest __________ i7-7o 

Braid & Hutton, printing 

Quarterly ________ 100.45 

Miscellaneous _______ 49.50 $1,810.16 

June 30, BALANCE 1,363.87 




April I, BALANCE $3'053-66 

Interest I5-I5 $3,068.81 

Transferred to Current Account : 

Cash $ 638.77 

" 4.44 

Proceeds of C. R. E. & I. Co. 

Certificate of Deposit 856.79 $1,500.00 

June 30, BALANCE 

3rd L. L. Bonds $1,500.00 

Cash _- 68.81 $1,568.81 


Correct : 




JULY 26TH, 1920. 


JUNE 30TH, 1920. 


April I, BALANCE $2,521.66- 


Sale of Catalogues _ _ _ _$ 21.05 

Interest 40.63 

Miscellaneous 3.aD 64.6S 




Salaries __________$ 405.00 

Lighting current ______ 11.89 

Telephone _________ 8.00 

Fuel 45.30 

Express charges ______ 112.82 

Labor in re Exhibits _ _ _ _ 37.70 

American Federation of Arts, 

in re Metropolitan Exhibit _ 83,00 

Harding Exhibit ______ 57.00 

Buffalo Fine Arts Academy- 
additional expense in re 

Roll Exhibit 116.83 

Painting interior ______ 482.71 

Repairs __________ 18.50 

Curtains _________ 100.00 

SuppHes _________ 7.50 

Burglar Alarm Service _ _ _ 112.50 

Insurance Premiums _ _ _ _ 383.75 

Carl Brandt Cemetery Lot _ _ 2.00 

Chapter Dues _______ 10.00 

Miscellaneous _______ 2.00 $1,996.50 

June 30, BALANCE $ 589.84 



Augusta &, Savannah Railroad Stock _____ _$ioo,ooo.oo 

War Savings Stamps _____________ 842.00 

Fourth Liberty Loan Bond ___________ 1,000.00 







Savannah, Ga., Feb. 12, 1920. 
To the Georgia Historical Society. 
Gentlemen : 

During the year the work of the Corresponding Secretary- 
has been considerably varied. Inquiries about historical mat- 
ters have come from nearly every state in the Union, and I 
have made prompt reply to all, giving the information re- 
quested whenever possible. 

In the latter part of the year I undertook to secure more 
members for the society through a plan of correspondence. I 
sought to obtain from each county in the state a list of names 
of such persons as would probably be interested in the work 
of the society. For this purpose I wrote to the Ordinary of 
every county in the state extending him an invitation to become 
a member of the society, and requesting him to mail me a list 
of such persons in his county as would most likely take an in- 
terest in the society's work. A printed pamphlet setting forth 
the organization of the society, its purpose and its past work 
was mailed to each. Very few responses were received from 
this request. A sufficient number of new members were thus 
obtained, however, to reimburse the society for the expense of 
printing and mailing the communications, and the dues follow- 
ing the first year will be net gain. There ought to have been a 
more general response to this request, but it only illustrates 
how much men are moved by personal appeal rather than by 
long distance writing. 

A similar invitation was sent to the Regents of some sixty 
chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and a 
number of these sent in their applications for membership. 

Invitations to become members of our society were sent to 
a number of our public men in Georgia to whom I believed our 
work would appeal. Among these were the Governor, Sec- 


retary of State, our two United States Senators, and every 
member of the Lower House of Congress, but I regret to say 
that not one of these repUed. However, the total number of 
new members obtained through these efforts was not alto- 
gether discouraging. 

It should be a source of gratification to the members of our 
Society that it stands high in the estimation of other historical 
societies throughout the country, and that its archives are 
recognized for their rarity and value. We can also have the 
satisfaction of knowing that we are performing a duty to pos- 
terity that will be more and more appreciated as the years 
go by. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Corresponding Secretary, 



To the Georgia Historical Society ; 
Gentlemen : 

Owing to the limited financial resources of the Society the 
committee on the library has not been able to purchase many 
books, or to make many improvements in our equipment dur- 
ing the year. Nevertheless quite a number of valuable books 
have been acquired chiefly through gifts, government publica- 
tions, and through exchanges with other societies, as will be 
seen from the report of the Librarian. 

The physical condition of the building and its contents is 
excellent. It became necessary to make .some extensive re» 
pairs upon the roof last summer, the cost of which amounted 
to $235.90. Aside from this expense the cost of upkeep has 
been practically nothing. 

The daily use of the library has not been large. No his- 
torical society's daily use is large. But its use is important. A 
historical society with adequate resources at its command may 
function actively and extensively in many useful fields, but as 
a repository of information and reference it is of great value. 
It is to be hoped that the income of the society may soon jus- 
tify greater activity and greater usefulness to the people of our 

Respectfully submited, 





Savannah, Ga., February 7, 1920. 

To Georgia Historical Society : 

Following is the report of the Committee on Printing and 
Publishing : 

The contract for printing the Georgia Historical Quarterly 
was let by the Committee to Braid & Hutton for $2.00 a page 
for 500 copies the issue. This price was somewhat more than 
paid in previous years but was considerably less than could be 
obtained elsewhere. M. S. & D. A. Byck Co. offered to print 
the magazine for $2,325 a page, while the Commercial Litho- 
graph &, Printing Company asked $2.90. 

Three numbers of the Magazine, namely the March, June 
and September, 1919, numbers have been published while the 
January, 1920, number is now on the press and will appear in 
a week or two. It has been impossible to publish the magazine 
on time and this has been mainly due to the printers, who were 
unable to keep up to the schedule during the War. This year's 
January number is appearing a little in advance of the corre- 
sponding number last year, but it was not possible to make up 
the entire amount of lost time. 

The Committee has left practically the entire choosing of 
material and editing of the magazine to the Editor, Mr. Wil- 
liam Harden, feeling that he was best qualified by experience 
and knowledge to do this work. They wish to thank him for 
the untiring interest he has shown and they wish him to re- 
ceive entire credit for giving the Society such an excellent 

Respectfully submitted, 


Committee on Printing and Publishing. 



Savannah, Ga., 3d February, 1920. 

To the Board of Curators of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Gentlemen : 

At the time of my last annual report there were in the 
Library a total of 40,038 volumes, and a large number of 
pamphlets. Since that time additions have been made amount- 
ing to 358 volumes and 2,906 pamphlets. This gives us, then, 
at the close of the year, the large number of 40,396 volumes 
and about 26,000 pamphlets, but the exact number of the lat- 
ter is not positively estimated. 

The additions have come mainly from the various depart- 
ments of the U. S. Government, but our members have been 
mindful of our wants, and contributions of some value have 
been received from several of them. Special mention of some of 
these gifts have been made in the numbers of the Georgia 
Historical Quarterly. 

Within the last few days, the members of the Camp Com- 
munity Service, organized for special work (most success- 
fully and heartily performed) during the recent great world 
war, but now disbanded, turned over to us, for preservation and 
as an interesting part of the history of that war carried on in 
this community, the complete records of that splendid organiza- 
tion, together with the service flag used by those patriotic 
women in the good work done at their headquarters, as well as 
five framed pictures which hung upon the walls of their meet- 
ing place. These have come to us through the hands of Mrs. 
lola G. Bishop who sent the records and flag done up in a 
neat manner, rolled in water-proof and dust-proof cloth, and 
accurately described in well-lettered inscriptions painted on the 

Through Mr. Simon N. Gazan there has recently come into 
our possession a volume containing the "Minutes of the Jasper 
Festival," beginning with Nov. 22d, 1887, and complete to the 


end of the service of the organization formed in connection 
with the work of erecting the monument to Sergeant WilHam 
Jasper by the ''Jasper Monument Association/' 

It is well that the persons mentioned thought it proper to 
commit these records and other historical articles to the cus- 
tody of our Society which is truly the rightful custodian of 
such things. 

Respectfully submitted, 





Savannah, Ga., February 12, 1920. 

In accordance with the by-laws, I submit the Eighty-first 
Annual Report of the President. 


During the year Mr. Wm. W. Mackall, who has been a 
curator since February 12, 1902, and who, as President for the 
five years preceding the annual meeting of 1919, so success- 
fully brought about the resumption by the Society of the pos- 
session and use of its building and its books on establishment 
of the municipal public library, and also the inauguration of 
the Georgia Historical Quarterly, presented his resignation as a 
curator, which was accepted by the Board with much regret. 
Judge Beverly D. Evans, Judge of the District Court of the 
United States for the Southern District of Georgia, was elected 
to fill Mr. Mackall's unexpired term. 

The terms of Messrs. Charles Ellis, Wm. W. Gordon, Alex- 
ander C. King, Wm. W. Williamson and Beverly D. Evans ex- 
pire at this meeting and their successors will be elected at this 
meeting to serve for three years. 


During the year just closed the membership dues were 
changed from $10 for male residents of Chatham County, and 
$5 for all other active members, to a uniform charge of $5 
per annum, with the hope and expectation that this would re- 
sult in such an increase of membership as to bring a larger 
income from dues. The Committee on Membership, Mr. W. 
W. Williamson, Chairman, which was appointed during the 


year, ably assisted by Mr. Otis Ashmore, Vice President and 
Corresponding Secretary, has been diligent and the following 
is the paying membership to-day as compared with last year : 

In- De- 
Class 1919 1920 crease crease 

Residents Chatham Co., Men 84 202 118 

" Women -35 55 20 

Total 119 



Non-Residents '' 

'' Men _ _i74 


ii i( a 

" Women _ 14 



(I u a 

" Organiza- 

tions _ _ _ 5 



Total 193 193 

Grand Total Active Members 312 450 138 

On the assumption that all members pay their dues, the 
result after taking into consideration the reduction of dues for 
male residents of Chatham County would bring an income from 
dues of $2,250.00 in the coming year as compared with 
$2,080.00 on the ofd basis for the preceding year. The actual 
collection of dues however during the year 1919 was $1,818.80 
for 1919 and $240.00 for prior years. The number of persons, 
men and women, but chiefly men, whose reputation and stand- 
ing are good, but who are willing to enroll themselves as mem- 
bers of such an organization as this and persistently fail to pay 
the dues for a series of years is astonishing- I do not attempt to 



Your cash balance of a year ago was 13 cents with no un- 
paid current bills. This was exclusive of the permanent fund 
established with small beginnings in 1912, consisting of cash 
and securities with a book value, and approximately a market 
value, of $2,627.64, which during the year has been increased 
by current accumulations to $2,918.69. It is estimated that, 
after making reasonable allowances for default in the payment 
of dues, the Society's requirements for the coming year will 
exceed its prospective income by approximately $900. During 
the year there was a deficit, and by authority of the curators a 
bank loan of $1,000 was made to meet current bills. The re- 
payment of this loan, which is not included in the estimate, 
would increase the deficit to $1,900. 

This change in financial condition is easily accounted for 
by the assumption of expenses, some which the Society had 
never previously incurred and some of which it had been re- 
lieved for many years because its building and its library had 
been devoted to the use of the city, chiefly at the city's ex- 
pense. We now keep Hodgson Hall open for the accommo- 
dation of members and we have added the publication of the 
Quarterly. These items add approximately $2,500 to our annual 
expenses. This report will recommend to you action which is 
closely allied to the question of finances, and I make no recom- 
mendation at this point." 


Under the efficient administration of Mr. Wm. Harden, 
who has been Librarian for more than fifty years, the library 
has been open for the use of members on week-days from 
3 p. m., to 6 130 p. m., and on Saturdays Jrom S p. m., to 10 
p. m. The expense of this has been greater than the finances 
of the Society justify, and yet no one can claim that, if it is to 
be used at all, these hours can be cut down. The attendance is 
small and the members make but little use of it. It is claimed 
(not without justification) that longer hours would increase its 


usefulness. They would also increase the expense and the 
Society cannot meet it. Your finances have not permitted for 
several years the purchase from time to time of necessary ad- 
ditions to the library, and particularly of books and compilia- 
tions relating to the world war. If we are forced to pursue the 
present policy of inaction your library will soon be entirely out . 
of date. If its usefulness is to continue it will not be sufficient 
to provide additional funds to take care'of the current deficit, 
but we must add enough for the necessary accretions to the 


The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which this 
Society is trustee, began the year with a cash balance of 
$885.42 and no debts. The cash balance to-day is $2,944.29. 
Attendance in 1919 (all free) was 6,574 against 4,921 for the 
preceding year. We had four exhibits during the year; in 
April war pictures by Johansen, with an attendance of 1,252; 
in May an exhibit of French war posters, with an attendance 
of 497; in June an exhibit of war drawings, with an attend- 
ance of 374 ; and in December an exhibit of portraits by Amer- 
ican women, with an attendance of 867. These figures are dis- 
appointing. When will Savannah realize that she possesses the 
best small Art Collection in America? 

During the year the Academy has acquired La Madrilenita, 
by Robert Henri, at a cost of $2,000, less the usual discount of 
25 per cent to public galleries — a valued addition to our gal- 


It was my privilege to make the annual report at the cele- 
bration of the Seventy-fifth anniversary of the Society in 1914, 
and I took occasion to give a brief retrospect and resume of its 
history, which was published and distributed with the inter- 
esting account of that celebration. Now that you have again 
honored me with the presidency it is my duty to call attention 
to this history without repeating it. In the first ten years the 


Society published three volumes of "Collections" and no other 
was published for twenty-five years. During the next twenty- 
eight years two volumes were published, and two more in the 
succeeding four years. From the time of the consolidation into 
your Society of the Savannah Library Society in 1849 to the 
time of the dedication of your building and your library to the 
public use in 1903, a period of fifty-four years, the Georgia 
Historical Society was little more than a circulating library — 
strictly a local institution. During this period it published only 
six volumes of collections, and twenty-one pamphlets which 
bore its name, but many of which were actually published by 
the authors. Its claim during these fifty-four years to be an 
active historical society stood on a slender foundation, and its 
activities as a circulating library made it strictly a local in- 
stitution. Never until the year 1917 did it have a non-resident 
of Chatham County as an officer or a curator. The number 
of its occasional non-resident members was so small as to be 
negligible. The fact that it had failed to make of itself a 
state historical society as contemplated by its charter, and had 
become strictly a local institution whose chief function was to 
maintain a circulating library, seems not to have been appre- 
ciated until within the past few years, when efforts were made 
to get non-resident members. Diligent work has been done in 
this line, but that the Society is still mainly local is shown by 
the fact that the active membership of today consists of 257 
residents and 193 non-residents of Chatham County. Chatham 
County has less than four per cent, of the population of the 
State. Neither the curators nor the Society has ever met 
outside of Savannah. In the state at large the Society is 
little known. 


During the past quarter century there has been great im- 
provement in the educational facilities of Georgia, and par- 
ticularly m the faculties of her colleges for men and women. 
We have now in these faculties a goodly number of trained 
technical historians with Doctors' degree, who are qualified to 


take active and practical interest in the history of the state and 
to help this Society in the declared purpose of its charter, 
"of collecting, preserving and diffusing information relating 
to the history of the state of Georgia in particular, and Ameri- 
can history generally." 

Not unnaturally regarding the Georgia Historical Society 
as a local institution, which had during far the larger part of 
its life subordinated its proper functions to the maintenance 
of a local circulating library, a group of these qualified his- 
torians, and other Georgians outside of Chatham County who 
were willing to contribute to a laudable purpose, formed the 
in its fourth year and has a reasonable prospect of being es- 
tablished on a firm basis. It's annual dues are low — lower 
than ours on the new basis. It has moved slowly, however, 
and its expenses are light, with the result that its finances are 
in good condition. It has determined to publish a quarterly 
magazine under the title of "Georgia Historical Review." Your 
Society has entered a respectful protest against the similarity 
in name of the new Association and of the new publication, 
but it is hoped that this protest will be unimportant if you ap- 
prove the recommendation of your Curators. 

Wisely realizing the difficulties of maintaining a creditable 
quarterly historical magazine when supported only by the dues 
of members, the officers of the Georgia Historical Association 
have secured from public-spirited Georgians subscriptions to 
an ample guarantee fund deemed sufficient to take care of the 
cost of publication for two or three years ; an example which, 
if we continue in our present isolated state, it will be necessary 
for us to follow. Pending the negotiations which I am about 
to lay before you, Georgia Historical Association has courte- 
ously suspended inauguration of its quarterly. 

If we have not completed the demonstration of them, we 
are now clearly demonstrating two facts : ( i ) that the Georgia 
Historical Society, as a local institution, cannot be properly 
maintained and cannot creditably perform the functions of a 
state historical society, and will not faithfully or successfully 


perform the functions for which it was chartered, until in fact 
and in spirit it shall become a state institution; and (2) that a 
state which has not yet been able to maintain one active, effi- 
cient, useful and influential historical society cannot now main- 
tain two. Georgia is the largest of the Southeastern States, and 
perhaps the most prosperous. Georgians are no less public- 
spirited than are citizens of her sister states. Georgia can 
sustain a creditable historical society, but it will require the 
cordially united effort of all Georgians who are sufficiently in- 
terested in the history of their state to give to its collection, 
preservation and dissemination their money or their time, or 

Firmly convinced that this disastrous division of interests 
and activities was founded on no cause which could not be 
removed, your Curators with the cordial co-operation of officers 
of Georgia Historical Association arranged a full conference 
between officers of the two organizations, as to which I am 
pleased to report that I have never attended one in which was 
manifested less selfish pride of opinion or more desire to pro- 
mote the best interests of the whole state. 

The Association has appointed a committee of which Dr. 
R. P. Brooks, formerly De Renne Professor of Georgia His- 
tory at the University of Georgia, a trained historian and now 
residing in Macon, is Chairman, to meet a similar committee to 
be appointed by your Society for the purpose of approving a 
plan of union of these organizations for the common welfare. 

The discussion at the conference was distinctly informal 
and no plans were formulated. Many suggestions of principle 
were made and no differences of opinion developed. It was 
clearly recognized that a necessary basis was the transfer by 
Georgia Historical Association of its roll of members to mem- 
bership in the Georgia Historical Society under its ancient 
charter now eighty-one years old. I am instructed by the 
Board of Curators to present this question for your considera- 
tion with their unanimous recommendation for prompt ap- 
pointment of a committee of moderate size, authorized and in- 
structed to meet the Association's committee and report back 


to the Society at the earliest practical date for its approval a 
plan of union, with such changes in Constitution and By-laws 
as it may involve. I lay this recommendation befere you and 
trust that you will act upon it at this meeting. 

Through the generosity of Mrs. Margaret Telfair Hodgson 
there is held in trust for the exclusive use and benefit of your 
Society, Hodgson Hall, a handsome library building in Savan- 
nah and the ground on which it stands. This trust property is 
not subject to your disposal and can be used for no other 
purposes than those of a historical society. You own in fee 
the vacant half lot immediately sotsth of Hodgson Hall. You 
have a permanent fund started with small beginnings in 191 2 
and now amounting to $2,918.69. The annual accretions to this 
pennanent fund are approximately $200.00. These include 
your interest in the R. J. Nunn Trust Fund which may be 
relied on to add to the permanent fund approximately $70.00 
per annum, and will probably show a very slight increase in 
each year on account of the accumulations of the trust fund. 
You own about 40,000 volumes and many thousands of pamph- 
lets a valuable library not up to date. Your liabilities are $1,000 
borrowed to meet current deficit of the closing year, and your 
budget shows a permanent deficit. You have 450 members 
obligated to pay dues aggregating $2,250.00 per annum. Be- 
sides these material possessions you have a history which, 
while not broad in achievement, is honorable and unstained, 
with no black marks, and has a historical background of eighty- 
one years. 

Against this resume of what you have to offer to new mem- 
bers, let us not forget what we lack. For seventy-five years we 
remained content as a strictly local organization and failed to 
foster or to use the interest of other Georgians in Georgia 
history, and during nearly all of those years we subordinated 
the functions of a historical society to those of a local circulat- 
ing library. It would be difficult to defend your Society against 
the charge that it has not made full use of the franchise with 
which the state entrusted it in 1839. When we consider the 
facts we are surprised, not that Georgians in other parts of 


the state have now rebelled and determined to work independ- 
ently of us, but that they have waited so long to do so. 

A moment's thought will clearly show that the union cannot 
take place without certain changes. While nearly, if not quite all, 
of the incorporators named in the original charter of 183^9 were 
residents of Chatham County, the charter is silent as to the 
domicile of the corporation. It may be fairly concluded, how- 
ever, that the custom of eighty-one years and the location in 
Savannah of Hodgson Hall, so necessary to the housing 
of its valuable library, have fixed it in Chatham County 
but legal domicile does not control the place of meeting. The 
Society has never met anywhere except in Savannah — a mis- 
taken policy which should be corrected even if there be no 
union of the two organizations. From the standpoint of the 
new Association the inducement to the amalgamation is the 
building of a state-wide organization which shall in no sense 
be local. The plan therefore necessarily involves meetings of 
the Society from time to time in various cities of the state of 
which Savannah would of course be one. As is the case with 
most state historical societies, this would probably result in 
but one meeting of the Society as such in each year. The Board 
of Curators, however, would meet more frequently. The 
membership of this Board must be state-wide. The officers of 
the society, other than the Librarian, would be selected without 
reference to residence. The quarterly magazine should be in 
charge of a board of editors composed of trained historians 
whom Georgia can now offer, with one of them as Editor-in- 
Chief. These suggestions are but the expression of my per- 
sonal opinion, are not official, and are not a part of the recom- 
mendation of the Board of Curators. I mention them to as- 
sist in your understanding of what fs involved in the proposi- 

If we shall accomplish this union we shall have in Georgia 
what the state has long needed ; one historical society of state- 
wide personnel, influence and activity, and that society would 
be the ancient Society which is yours. Its maintenance as an 
active, useful organization will not be an easy task, for Geor- 


gians are yet to be educated in appreciation of the importance 
of such work, and persuaded of their duty to take part in it. 
The duty of our Savannah members will by no means termi- 
nate with this union. It is my earnest wish that none of you will 
drop membership, but that on the contrary more of you will 
participate in the expanded organization, not only that Savan- 
nah may continue to exert a large influence in it, but that she 
may not fail in her duty to the State. We have, I submit, a spe- 
cial duty greater than that of our fellow citizens. Nearly a cen- 
tury has passed since the state committed to us this charter. It 
committed it to us as Georgians. I have no condemnation for the 
course which you have pursued because of the reasons which 
brought it about and which I have touched upon; but the fact 
remains that we have seen fit to keep to ourselves this broad 
state-wide franchise, and, whether with or without justification 
and excuse, we have failed to perform one duty which the 
state undoubtedly expected of us — the enlistment into the ac- 
tivities of the Society of all Georgians without regard to local 
habitation. I hope we are now about to perform this duty, but 
we should indeed deserve censure if, when we shall have done 
so, w^e, who have for so long almost exclusively enjoyed these 
benefits, should now shirk the duties yet to come, because we 
are to share the benefits with so many others. 

Respectfully submitted, 





By William Harden, Librarian. 

It is not to be wondered at that in the course of nearly a 
century since its founding the Georgia Historical Society has 
acquired, among the books composing its Library of more 
than 40,000 volumes, not a few works of rarity and, in conse- 
quence thereof, of some value. 

The collecting of a Library did not, for nearly a decade 
after its founding, receive the attention of its members to such 
an extent as might have been reasonably expected, but with the 
absorption of the old Savannah Library Society, in the year 
1847, whereby its shelves were enriched with the well-selected 
stock of the latter, the growth of that department of the So- 
ciety was more steadily developed, and, at times since then, 
special efforts have been successfully put forth to strengthen 
certain sections of the collection. Thus, about two score years 
ago, attention was called to the need of filling up gaps in the 
material on hand for the study of English History, and many 
books were added thereto, at considerable expense. 


Perhaps the most valuable of the Library's possessions is 
the collection of newspapers issued in the State of Georgia, 
but principally in Savannah. The most important of these is 
the almost complete file of the Georgia Gazette which was 
started in Savannah by James Johnston, in April, 1763, the 
first Georgia nev/spaper. Our files of papers following the 
suspension of the Gazette is full to the date of establishing of 
the Georgian, in 18 18, of which we have the full office file 
from its beginning to the date of its failure in 1853. Other 
newspapers are too numerous to mention here. 



One of the rarest books relating to Georgia is "A Journal 
of the Proceedings in Georgia, from Oct. 20, 1737," by Wil- 
liam Stephens, Secretary to the Trustees. While this work is 
what is generally classed as '^scarce," the ist and 2nd vol- 
umes are not as hard to find as the 3d which is seldom to be 
met with. The Society's copy is complete. 

Of still greater value is a book in this Library called "The 
Castle-Builders ; or The History of William Stephens, of the 
Isle of Wight, Esq., Lately Deceased. A Political Novel, 
Never Before Published in any Language," By Thomas 
Stephens, son of William, which the "Dictionary of National 
Biography" describes as "a curious memoir of his father." 
Both the writer of the article in the "Dicfionary" and Alli- 
bone's "Critical Dictionary of English and American Authors" 
mention only a second edition, published in 1759, and it is a 
copy of that edition owned by the Society. It would seem, 
therefore, that no copy of the first has been located. Allibone 
says of this edition (the 2d) that it is "very rare." 

There is in the collection, of course, a copy of the original 
edition of Hugh McCall's "History of Georgia," long out of 
print, and the Library is rich in works pertaining to the his- 
tory of the State, as is most surely to be presumed, but a list 
of even a fair selection of the most interesting would re- 
quire too much space here. 


The oldest book in the Library is a copy of Lucan's "Phar- 
salia," printed at Venice in the year 1492. Besides this, there 
is a copy of Hakluyt's "Early English Voyages," 1 599-1600, a 
copy of the same edition having been sold a few years since at 
an enormous price, shows its great value. Another work of 
rarity is one of the original edition of the great Dictionary of 
the famous Dr. Samuel Johnston. 


Through a division of the books accumulated while the 
Society, in conjunction with the City, maintained the Savannah 
Public Library, we acquired, at the time of the separation, 
many volumes, mainly those published during the period of 
over thirteen years when the Public Library occupied Hodg- 
son Hall. Not a few of these are of peculiar interest as they 
give much information on the subject of the great world war 
during the first two years of its progress. It is to be re- 
gretted that since that time the financial condition of the So- 
ciety has not permitted us to keep this collection up to date; 
and we, therefore, are not as rich in material relating to that 
most important epoch in the world's history as is desired. 

A Library containing 42,000 volumes cmd 30,000 pamphlets, 
among them many of importance exceeding that of large col- 
lections of costly bound books, is of itself a treasure-house of 
inestimable use and value. These books and pamphlets embrace 
all kinds of matter, including works of reference, history, 
biography, science, art, literature, travel, fiction and religion. 
The maps in the Library are not the least of our valuable 


First among the portraits must be named the life-size oil 
painting of Mr. William Brown Hodgson, in whose memory 
the Society's home was erected and whose name it bears. It 
was painted by the late Carl L. Brandt, at a cost of $3,500.00. 

Another portrait, of interest from its connection with Geor- 
gia History, is that of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, who 
did so much in enabling Whitefield to establish and care for 
the noble institution at Bethesda. For a long time it was 
thought to be the work of Sir Joshua Reynolds, but investiga- 
tion has revealed the fact that he did not paint it. 

The collection includes portraits of James Habersham, 
Colonel Joseph Habersham, Major John Habersham, Count 
Pulaski, General Oglethorpe, Hugh McCall (Georgia's first 
historian), David Brydie Mitchell (Governor of Georgia), I. 
K. Tefft, (founder of the Georgia Historical Society), John 
MacPherson Berrien (the Society's first President), Bishop 


Stephen Elliott (another President of the Society), and a large 
engraving of a beloved President, Colonel John Screven. An 
oil painting of Gov. Archibald Bulloch and his family, owned 
by Dr. J- S. B. Bulloch, hangs in the Library. The name of the 
artist is not known. 


The first of the objects of great interest in connection with 
Georgia history is the surveyor's compass, believed, for good 
reasons, to have been used in laying out the streets of Savan- 
nah by Oglethorpe and his helpers. 

Next in importance is a plan of Savannah as it was laid out 
in 1733, but dated 1734, and, with hardly a doubt, an original 
by Peter Gordon and dedicated "To the Honourable the 
Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America." 


There are other articles of interest relating to Georgia dur- 
ing the period from the landing of Oglethorpe and the War of 
the Revolution ; but they need not be mentioned, and attention 
is now called to a collection of articles used in that War, and 
presented to the Society shortly after its founding by General 
Charels R. Floyd. The most interesting of the lot is a drum 
which is inscribed with the words "This Drum was used in the 
Army of the American Revolution at the Battles of Eutaw, 
Saratoga and Cowpens. Presented to the Georgia Historical 
Society by Charles R. Floyd in 1841." It was used, by the 
Society's permission, during the celebration of the centennial of 
the Battle of Fort Moultrie, at Charleston, S. C, in June, 1776, 
and attracted much attention. 


Mr. J. Florance Minis has recently presented to the Society 
the walking-cane, made of a piece of live-oak from the U. S. 
frigate "Constitution," belonging to the late Commodore Josiah 
Tattnall, famous as a naval officer of the United States as well 
as of the Confederate States, who, on an occasion well known 


to Students of history, used the characteristic langnaue: "Blood 
is thicker than water." We have also a large photograph of 
the Commodore, well framed, a remarkably fine likeness. 

When Mr. John E. Ward, the distinguished Georgian, was 
U. S. Minister to China, he purchased a Japanese suit of armor, 
of fine texture, for presentation to the Georgia Historical 
Society, and it was brought here by the Commodore who was 
then on duty as a naval officer in Chinese and Japanese waters, 
and it is among the Society's interesting articles. 

Within the past year the collection of relics has received 
an important addition from the McAdoo family, consisting of 
articles connected with the Floyds. The most valuable of these 
are the epaulets worn by General John Floyd. 

The solid gold copy of the seal of the State Executive De- 
partment, made for and presented to the Honorable Charles J. 
Jenkins by the Georgia General Assembly, is in the Society's 
possession, the gift of Dr. Chas. Jenkins Montgomery, of 
Augusta, to whom it was bequeathed by Governor Jenkins. It 
was given to Governor Jenkins in accordance with a joint reso- 
lution, approved August 22, 1872, "in the name of the people 
of Georgia," and is a copy of "the one preserved and restored 
by him when expelled by usurpers from the office of Governor" 
as stated in the resolution. 


The following is a list prepared by the Committee on 
Printing and Publishing, in the year 191 5, in a report on the 
Society's manuscripts. Since then two items (the Hawkins 
Papers and Letter Books of Governors John Martin and Ed- 
ward Telfair) have been printed and are not included. 

Letters of General Lachlan Mcintosh to Washington, Lee, 
Elbert, Howe and others, about the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion, concerning the military affairs of the State. About sixty 
letters, in rather bad condition. 

Notes of General James Jackson on Ramsay's History of 
the Revolution in South Carolina. A valuable criticism. 

Letter Book of General James Jackson, 1788 to 1796. Per- 


tains chiefly to military and Indian affairs. About 200 pages 
with about 175 words to a page. In handwriting of Gen. 
James Jackson. 

Abstracts of Documents Relating to the State of Georgia 
between 1755 and 1824, and in 1893 in possession of Reginald 
Bolton, no Leadenhall St., London, and Worsley Road, Hamp- 
stead, England. A manuscript abstract of deeds, chiefly 
granted to parties in Georgia. A number of other documents 
are listed. In excellent condition and well indexed. 

Letter Book of Philip Box, Postmaster at Savannah, 1804 
to 1808. Letters chiefly to Postmaster General. About eighty 

Sales Book of George Galphin, a merchant of Silver Bluff 
on the Savannah River. About 100 pages of sales of ordinary 
articles kept in store at that time for Indians and others. Pre- 
sented to the Society by Hon. George R. Black, M. C., First 
District of Georgia. 
, A Number of Miscellaneous Letters on Various Subjects. 


The home of the Georgia Historical Society is Hodgson 
Hall, and it was set apart for the Society's use by the terms of 
a trust deed, dated June 10, 1874, from Miss Mary Telfair who 
was "desirous to carry into effect the wishes and intentions of 
Margaret Telfair Hodgson," her sister, who, 'Muring her life- 
time, commenced the structure of a building on lot number 
fourteen (14) Forsyth Ward, being the southwest corner of 
Gaston and Whitaker streets in the city of Savannah, to be 
called Hodgson Hall, and intended to complete the same on a 
plan furnished by Detlef Lienau, architect, as a memorial of 
her late husband, William Brown Hodgson," said property 
being by such deed conveyed in trust to Alexander R. Lawton, 
his executors and administrators, "in trust to permit the Geor- 
gia Historical Society to have the exclusive use, possession, 
control and management of said building and lot" on certain 
conditions- The lot is described as "containing one hundred 
and thirty-one feet on Gaston street and forty-three feet and 
nine inches on Whitaker and Howard streets.'^ 


On the 20th day of July, 1874, a little more than a month 
after the signing of the trust deed, the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety purchased from Bishop Wm. H. Gross, of the Roman 
Catholic Church, the lot adjoining that on which Hodgson Hall 
stands being lot number thirteen (13) Forsyth Ward, de- 
scribed in the deed as "fronting forty-three feet and nine 
inches on Whitaker street, and extending one hundred and 
thirty-one feet in depth to Howard street, bounded north by 
lot number fourteen, east by Whitaker street, south by lot num- 
ber twelve, and west by Howard street." The Society still 
owns this lot in fee simple. The two lots (87.5x131 feet) are 
enclosed as one. 


By R. p. Brooks, University of Georgia. 

This number of The Quarterly is devoted to an account of 
the reorganization of the Georgia Historical Society following 
the amalgamation with it of the Georgia Historical Associa- 
tion, and it is deemed fitting that in such an account there 
should be included a statement covering the origin and history 
of the Association. In transmitting the request that the writer 
prepare such a statement, Colonel Lawton, until recently Pres- 
ident of the Society, expressed the opinion that we should put 
on record "the history of that Association which did so much 
good and which has proven a very vital element in what I 
believe will be the beginning of greatly increased influence of 
the Historical Society. It has gone out of existence and we 
should preserve its record." 

The organization of the Georgia Historical Association was 
the result of several conferences arranged during the spring 
and summer of 1916. Those participating in the conferences 
were for the most part, men and women living in the northern 
part of the State, and in the group were several professors of 
history in the leading colleges of the State. On August 16, 
1916, a circular letter was sent to a selected Hst of Georgians, 
inviting them to become members of a new historical associa- 
tion. This circular was signed by Honorable Lucian L. 
Knight, State Compiler of Records, Chancellor David C. Bar- 
row of the University of Georgia, Miss Mildred Rutherford, 
Historical General of the U. D. C, Mrs. H. H. McCall, State 
Regent of the D. A. R., Mrs. H. M. Franklin, President of the 
Georgia U. D. C, Judge Samuel B. Adams, formerly of the 
Supreme Court of Georgia, Dr. J. H. T. McPherson, Professor 
of History in the University of Georgia, and R. P. Brooks, 
Professor of History University of Georgia. The reasons 
for this venture were thus expressed in the letter: 

"The purpose of this letter is to enlist your interest in the pro- 
posed organization of a new historical society in Georgia. Under the 
auspices of the Georgia Historical Society, which has been in exist- 
ence for many years, a great deal of valuable historical work has 


been accomplished. That society has confined its activities largely 
to Colonial and Revolutionary history, and the documents published 
in its Collections have been of prime importance. We feel that there 
is now a need for another society, w^hose aim shall be to assist in 
popularizing the study of State history, and especially to work for 
the collection and preservation of materials bearing on the history 
of Georgia in the nineteenth century. 

"This later phase of our history has been greatly neglected. There 
is no comprehensive treatment of the ante-bellum and war periods, a 
condition due in part to the fact that the documentary materials for 
such a study have not been collected and put at the disposal of the 
historian. The archives of the State are not in a satisfactory condi- 
tion for use, and many individuals have priceless historical documents 
stuffed away in garrets and boxes, where they are useless for prac- 
tical purposes and are in danger of destruction from fire or neglect. 

"We desire to see ultimately established in Georgia a department 
of archives and history, with adequate powers under the law for the 
systmatizing of State archives and the collection and preservation of 
historical materials." 

The response to this appeal was wide-spread and con- 
vinced those who had taken the initiative that there was a real 
demand for a second historical organization. A meeting of 
those who had signified their desire to become members was 
therefore called, and, on April lo, 1917, at the State Capitol in 
Atlanta the Georgia Historical Association was organized with 
four hundred and fifty members. Honorable L. L. Knight 
was elected President, Professor T. H. Jack, of Emory Uni- 
versity, Vice President, and Professor R. P. Brooks of the 
University of Georgia, Secretary and Treasurer. These officers 
with Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb, State Librarian, and Professor 
J. R. McCain, of Agnes Scott College, constituted the Execu- 
tive Council. A Constitution and By-Laws were adopted along 
the usual lines. At this meeting a program of historical papers 
was presented. These papers, with the minutes of the meet- 
ing, the Constitution and a list of the members of the Asso- 
ciation were printed in the Proceedings of the First Annual 
Session of the Association, published in April 1917. 

During the first year of the Association an active cam- 
paign for members was carried on, but, as is usually the case, 
resignations were not slow to come in, and the new members 
enrolled barely sufficed to keep the membership up to the orig- 
inal numbers. During this year the Legislature, due partly 
to the efforts of the Association, created the State Department 
of Archives and History. 


The second annual meeting of the Association was held in 
Atlanta, on April 6, 1918. Honorable L. L. Knight was re- 
elected President, Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb, Vice President, 
and Professor R. P. Brooks, Secretary and Treasurer. The 
two additional members of the Council elected were Miss 
Helen M. Prescott and Mr. Alfred C. Newell, both of Atlanta. 
The program of this meeting consisted of an address by 
Professor U. B. Phillips, formerly of the University of Geor- 
gia, now of the University of Michigan, on the subject "The 
Plantation Product of Men." Miss Nellie Adamson of Rome, 
read a paper on ''The Secession Movement in Georgia," and 
a very informing paper descriptive of the DeRenne Collection 
of books on Georgia History by Mr. L. L. Mackall of Savan- 
nah. These papers, except that of Mr. Mackall, are printed on 
the Proceedings of the Association for 1918.* 

The report of the Secretary-Treasurer showed a total of 
$480.50 collected from dues, and disbursements of $399.38, 
leaving a balance of $81.12. The number of members was 
four hundred and fifty-five, many of whom, however, had 
never paid any dues to the Association. The Treasurer was 
authorized to purchase Liberty bonds with any unexpended 
funds in his keeping. In the subsequent drives $500 was in- 
vested in Government bonds. 

The third annual meeting of the Association was held in 
Atlanta, on April 12, 1919. Judge Andrew J. Cobb, of Athens, 
was elected President, and Mr. Alfred C. Newell, of Atlanta, 
first Vice President. A change in the constitution had been 
made creating the office of second Vice President, and Mr. 
Orville A. Park, of Macon, was elected to this office. Pro- 
fessor W. O. Payne, of the University of Georgia, was made 
Secretary-Treasurer. In addition to the annual address of the 
President, papers were read by Professor W. D. Hooper, of the 
University of Georgia, and Professor W. G. Perry, of the 
Georgia School of Technology, on the war activities of those 
institutions. The Association also received interesting reports 

*Mr. Mackall's paper was printed in the Georgia Historical Quar- 
terly for June, 1918, Vol. II, pp. 63-86. 


from committees appointed to collect materials bearing on the 
participation of Georgia in the War. These addresses, papers, 
and reports were printed in the Proceedings of the Third An- 
nual Session. The report of the Treasurer showed a cash 
balance of $23,95 and $400 worth of Liberty bonds. The mem- 
bership at that time was four hundred and forty-four. 

During the interval between the third annual session and 
the time set for the fourth annual meeting, the officers of the 
Georgia Historical Society approached the Association on the 
subject of merging the two organizations. Details of the ne- 
gotiations which eventuated in this union are given elsewhere in 
this number of the Quarterly. It may briefly be said here that 
the suggestion of a union was favorably received by the officers 
of the Association. It had become apparent that there were not 
enough historically-minded people in Georgia to support two 
organizations in the way they should be supported. We were 
having the usual experience of state historical societies. It was 
difficult to find new members, and many of those who nom- 
inally retained their membership failed to pay their dues, and 
the attendance on the annual meetings was always small. The 
officers of the Association were unable with the small funds 
at their disposal to do anything of lasting value, except to pub- 
lish a number of excellent papers in the annual Proceedings. 
At the time the merger was proposed the Association had al- 
most completed plans for publishing a historical quarterly with 
funds raised by private subscriptions among the members. 

The officers of the Association, therefore, met in a very 
friendly spirit the overtures of the Society. A number of con- 
ferences were held and an agreement reached by committee^: of 
the two societies. This agreement of merger, herein printed, 
was unanimously approved by the two committees and unani- 
mously adopted by the two organizations- The terms of the 
agreement have recently been carried into effect, with the result 
that fundamental changes have been made in the Georgia His- 
torical Society. It has become more thoroughly state-wide in its 
membership — the members of the Association automatically 
becoming members of the older organization; its new officers 


and Board of Curators are chosen from the State at large ; its 
ordinary membersliip fee is reduced from $5 to $3 ; and plans 
are in the making which will lead to an improvement in the 
Quarterly. In so far as these changes have come as the re- 
sult of the organization of the Georgia Historical Association, 
the younger organization may fairly claim not to have lived in 

The fourth and last meeting of the Association was held 
on May 20th, in Atlanta. The Proceedings have not been pub- 
lished, but two excellent papers were presented by Professor 
E. M. Coulter, of the University of Georgia, and Miss Mildred 
Thompson, of Vassar College. Professor Coulter's subject 
was "The Nullification Movement in Georgia; Miss Thomp- 
son's "The Freedmen's Bureau in Georgia in 1865-66." These 
papers will probably be printed in a later number of the 
Quarterly. The report of the Secretary-Treasurer showed a 
cash balance of $81.48 and $500 invested in Liberty bonds. 

It was at this meeting that the Association adopted the re- 
port of the two committees appointed to draw up a scheme of 
union. The whole question was presented by Colonel Lawton, 
a member of both organizations, in his usual happy manner, 
and after a brief discussion the agreement was adopted by 
unanimous vote, as above recorded. A short time after the 
meeting the Association issued a formal letter to all of its 
members advising them of the action of the Association and 
notifying them that their membership had been transferred to 
the Georgia Historical Society. The writer has heard on all 
hands nothing but approval of the action of the Association and 
it is hoped that the former members will do everything in their 
power to make vital and lasting the work of the Georgia His- 
torical Society under the new regime. 



Savannah, Ga., May 3rd, 1920. 

To The Georgia Historical Society : 

The undersigned committee appointed by resolution of the 
Society February 17, 1920, to take up with the Georgia His- 
torical Association the question of union, and to report a plan 
to the Society reports as follows : 

The committee on behalf of Georgia Historical Association 
consisted of Dr. R. P. Brooks, Chairman, Mr. P. F. Brock, Mr. 
Orville A. Park, and Dr. P. S. Flippin, all of Macon. After 
some correspondence these gentlemen consented to meet with 
your committee in Hodgson Hall, Savannah, and a joint con- 
ference was there held on March 6, 1920, in the morning, with 
adjournment over to the afternoon. All the members of your 
committee were present. Of the Association committee. Dr. 
Brooks was detained by providential cause, and Mr. Park by 
imperative engagements. The committee of the Association 
met your committee in a spirit of mutual co-operation, with an 
earnest desire to accomplish that which was best for the in- 
terest of the state and both organizations. The joint confer- 
ence unanimously adopted a plan of union, which is attached 
to and forms a part of this report, and your committee com- 
mends it to your approval and recommends that the Georgia 
Historical Society shall take such action as may facilitate its 
early accomplishment. 

The plan is self explanatory. The reasons why such a 
union is desirable were set forth in the annual report of the 
President. Your committee deems it unnecessary to make de- 
tail comment upon the plan submitted. 



The disposition of the Telfair Academy trust was referred 
to this committee at the annual meeting in connection with the 
plan of union, and the plan provides that the Society should 
resign the trust and request the Court in selecting the new 
trustee to have regard so far as practicable to the wishes of the 

When Miss Mary Telfair selected this Society as trustee of 
the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences about forty-five 
years ago the Society was in that stage of its existence in 
which it was exercising no functions except those of a local 
circulating library for the benefit of its members. Apparently 
Miss Telfair regarded it as a purely local institution and it 
probably seemed simpler to her to select this existing local or- 
ganization composed of thoroughly trustworthy persons than to 
make special selection of inidviduals or of a new corporation, 
with the necessity of providing for future successions. She 
created a local institution, and she intended to appoint a local 
institution as its governing body. Even today your Society has 
to a considerable extent changed its character as a local insti- 
tution. The non-resident membership has reached important 
numbers, and four out of fifteen curators reside in other parts 
of the state. If this plan of union be consummated it will en- 
tirely cease to be a local institution and will be a strictly state 
institution. If it should continue to execute the trust entrusted 
to it by Miss Telfair it would clearly be acting contrary to her 
wishes, and would take from Savannah the control of Savan- 
nah's art gallery. 

Your committee is unanimously of the opinion that as a 
part of the proposed union the Society should present to the 
Superior Court of Chatham County its resignation of the trust 
and request that it be relieved. If and when the court shall 
accept this resignation, the appointment of a successor will rest 
exclusively with the court, but your committee ventures the 
opinion' that the court will not receive with disfavor any sug- 
gestion which may be made to the court by this honorable 


society, which has faithfully and efficiently administered the 
trust since the termination of the Telfair will litigation and the 
distribution of the estate in 1883. 

Miss Telfair, by the selection of your Society as trustee, 
clearly experssed her wish that the trust should be administered 
by residents of Savannah who had the qualifications possessed 
by members of your Society. Her wishes would be more nearly 
carried out if the trust should be committed to a ''charitable" 
corporation to be organized by residents of Chatham County 
interested in the Telfair Academy, who are at the time of or- 
ganization members of the Georgia Historical Society; who 
should be charter members of the new corporation, and who, 
with such other persons as they may associate with them and 
their successors from time to time, should constitute a cor- 
poration to be known as 'Telfair Academy of Arts and Scien- 
ces," to be vested with the title and management of the Acad- 
emy. Your committee recommends that the Society approve 
this suggestion and let it at the proper time be presented to the 
Judge of the Superior Court. 


Your committee is advised that when your Board of Cura- 
tors first met after the annual meeting for the election of 
officers for the ensuing year, all the then incumbents were re- 
elected with the understanding that in view of the proposed 
union and the state-wide character of the consoHdated society, 
the resignations of these officers would be at the disposal of the 
consolidated society immediately after the union. Your com- 
mittee is also advised that the majority of the Curators resi- 
dent in Savannah have expressed their intention to present their 
resignations as Curators as soon as the union shall be effected. 
The carrying out of these intentions will enable the personnel 
of the Curators and officers of the Society to reflect its state- 
wide character. 

Otis Ashmore^ A. R. Lawton^ 

Charles Ellis, Anton P. Wright. 

Beverly D. Evans, By A. R. Lawton, 

Lawton B. Evans, Chairman. 



Savannah, Ga., March 6, 1920. 

Plan of merger of the tzvo organisations adopted in a joint 
conference of their respective committees held this day in 
Hodgson Hall, Savannah. 

Georgia Historical Society is herein referred to as the "So- 
ciety," and Georgia Historical Association as the ''Associa- 


The Association to be merged into the Society, which will 
continue under its present name and charter with its domicile 
at Savannah. This merger to be accomplished so soon as prac- 
ticable after the annual meeting of the Association, and a spe- 
cial meeting of the Society to be called. Both organizations 
shall meanwhile continue their current and usual activities, in- 
cluding the collection of their dues as now prescribed. 


The Society should meet once a year for the election of 
officers, transaction of business, and appropriate exercises ; and 
at other times on special occasions as may be hereafter deter- 
mined. Meetings should be held by rotation among various 
places in the state as may from time to time be determined by 
the Board of Curators. 


The Consolidated Society should establish branch societies 
in all the counties of the state in which sufficient historical 
interest can be developed, and should encourage and assist 
them by all practicable means. 



All members of the Society to continue as such for the year 
1920 on payment of dues now prescribed ($5). The Association 
will use its best endeavors to transfer all its members to mem- 
bership in the Consolidated Society on payment for 1920 of the 
dues which may be prescribed for the Consolidated Society. 


The Society to transfer from its permanent fund to its 
current fund $1,500 and to pay its note in bank for $1,000 and 
interest, which is its only debt other than minor current bills. 
All moneys and other assets of the two organizations shall be- 
come the property of the Consolidated Society, 

The Association will endeavor to transfer to the Consoli- 
dated Society the guaranties which it has procured to assist in 
paying the cost of a quarterly magazine, and all members of 
the Consolidated Society will endeavor to increase and renew 
such guaranties. 


The entire management of the Consolidated Society, ex- 
cept as may from time to time be otherwise provided by the 
Society, should be reposed in a Board of Curators consisting of 
fifteen members ; each curator to hold office for three years and 
until a successor shall be elected and qualified ; elections to so 
alternate that the terms of one-third of the curators should ex- 
pire each year. Membership of the Board of Curators should 
be, so far as practicable, evenly distributed geographically over 
the state, having due regard, however, to special qualifications 
of individuals. The Board of Curators should meet at the 
time and place of the annual meeting, and also at such other 
times and places as they may determine. All expenses in- 
curred by curators and officers in attending meetings, and on 
the business of the Society, should be paid by the Society. 



The library of the Society located in Hodgson Hall in Sa- 
vannah, now consisting of about 40,ocxD volumes and about an 
equal number of pamphlets, shall be continued at its present 
location and should be kept open for the use of members, 
(and, under proper restrictions, of others) for reasonable 
hours consistent with the financial resources of the Consoli- 
dated Society. It should be in charge of a competent librarian, 
and arrangements should be made for the use (under rea- 
sonable restrictions) of its contents by members at places 
other than Savannah. 

The budget of the Consolidated Society should provide a 
reasonable amount for continuing accretions to the library. 


All publications of the Society, including its "collections," 
its reports and its magazine, should be under the control of a 
Committee on Publications selected by the Board of Curators, 
from members having special qualifications for such duties. 
This committee should have immediate charge of the magazine, 
for which there should be a managing editor reporting to this 
committee. The magazine and all other publications should 
conform to the best historical standards of the country. 


The Consolidated Society should have the following classes 
of membership, for which the committees in conference recom- 
mend dues as stated : 

Honorary members and corresponding members who pay 
no dues and have no vofe; all other members to have voting 

Life members who, on payment of $100, are exempt from 
all further dues and from solicitation. 

Active members $3, Contributing members $10, and Sus- 
taining members $25, per annum. 


At the beginning the budget should provide for an annual 
income from dues of not less than $5,000 as follows : 


Includes Maintenance and Operation of Hodgson Hall and 
the Library, Salary of Librarian, Corresponding Secretary, 
and Editor of magazine (one or more persons), printing of 
magazine, general and miscellaneous expenses. 
Insurance Hodgson Hall, Library and 

their contents _________$ 175.00 

Fuel and lights ___________ 150.00 

Repairs and Miscellaneous Supplies _ _ 250.00 
Janitor Service ___________ 500.00 

Miscellaneous 50.00 $1,125.00 

Salaries __,_^________ _$2,ioo.oo 

Printing Quarterly — 1,500 Copies _ _ _ 1,500.00 

Postage 150.00 

Subscriptions 75.00 $3,825.00 

Margin for accretions to Library, Mis- 
cellaneous printing. General and In- 
cidental Expenses, etc. ______ 300.00 


The committees estimate that the consolidated Society can 
procure and maintain the following membership : 
1,000 active members at $3 _____ _ -$3,000 

100 contributing members at$io_ _ _ _ 1,000 

50 sustaining members at $25 _ 1,250 $5,250 

There should be a permanent committee on membership 
whose continuing duty it should be not only to bring the mem- 
bership to, but to retain it at, the above figures as a minimum. 
This committee should be divided into separate sub-committees 
for the different classes of membership. 

Pending increase of membership to the basis indicated, the 
combined funds of the two organizations should be sufficient 
for current requirements. 



There should be compiled for the use of the Committee on 
membership and other uses, a pamphlet of moderate size giv- 
ing in succinct form appropriate information about the So- 
ciety, its relics, manuscripts, library and other property, its aims 
and purposes, and a condensed description of its valuable books 
(calling special attention to rare volumes). This compilation 
should from time to time be renewed and brought up to date. 


The Society is trustee under the will of Mary Telfair of the 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, an art gallery located 
in Savannah. From its inception more than thirty-five years 
ago it has been managed and controlled by the Society and its 
Board of Curators acting purely in the capacity of Trustee. 
It has its own separate fund, none of which has ever been used 
by the Society. It is a strictly local institution and should 
not be controlled by other than a local organization. The So- 
ciety should resign the trust, requesting the court in selecting 
a new trustee to have regard so far as practicable to the wishes 
of the founder. 

Meanwhile the Academy should, so far as lawful, be under 
the sole control of a Managing Committee composed of resi- 
dents of Savannah. 


The merger should be completed as soon as practicable 
after the approval of a plan by the two organizations. Each 
organization should appoint a committee with power to act, 
and these committees acting jointly should have power to adopt 
new by-laws for the Consolidated Society, which shall remain 
in force until the next annual meeting, or until otherwise 
ordered by, the Consolidated Society. 




Georgia Historical Society 

A. R. LAWTON, Chairman, 

Georgia Historical Association: 

R. P. BROOKS, Chairman, 

Both Committees are unanimous, but the following * 'reser- 
vations" are submitted : 

Dr. Brooks of the Association is of the opinion that the 
qualifications of members of the Committee on Publication 
should be stated with more particularity in order that the per- 
sonnel may be confined to historical experts. 

Mr. Ellis is of the opinion that the classes of membership 
should not for the present include Life Members, fearing that 
it may tend to reduce the number of sustaining memberships. 



RESOLVED, by Georgia Historical Society: 

I. The Society approves and adopts the proposed plan of 
union of Georgia Historical Society and Georgia Historical 
Association this day reported and recommended to it by its 
committee, consisting of A. R. Lawton, Chairman, Otis Ash- 
more, Charles Ellis, Beverly D. Evans, Lawton B. Evans, 
Anton P. Wright, and appearing on the minutes as part of the 
report of the Committee. 

a. The above named committee on union is hereby au- 
thorized and instructed to take and perfect all steps to do and 
perform such acts and things as to them shall seem meet and 
proper for finally effecting the union of the two organizations. 

3. The Treasurer is authorized and directed to transfer 
from the permanent fund to the current funds the sum of 
Fifteen Hundred ($1,500.00) Dollars in cash or securities or 
both, and to pay the current indebtedness of the Society. 

When this meeting shall adjourn it shall be subject to the 
call of the President or any Vice-President, and the ad- 
journed meeting shall be held at such time and place as may be 
indicated in the call. 


On May 22, 1920, the Georgia Historical Association at a 
meeting held in Atlanta, unanimously approved the same plan 
by the adoption of the following resolution : 

"That the recommendations made by the joint committee 
of the Georgia Historical Association and the Georgia Histori- 
cal Society, as embodied in the 'Plan of Merger' submitted by 


said Committees, be accepted as the will of this Association; 
that the Georgia Historical Association hereby declares itself 
amalgamated with the Georgia Historical Society; that the 
'Plan of Merger' be spread upon the minutes of the Associa- 
tion that the President of the Association appoint a Committee 
with plenary powers to carry into effect the union of the two 
organizations; and that the said Committee be authorized to 
deliver to the Treasurer of the Georgia Historical Society all 
the assets of the Association." 


To the Members of the Association : 

You have no doubt seen in the press an account of the 
amalgamation of the Association with the Georgia Historical 
Society. This union of the two organizations was effected by 
unanimous votes of the Society at its meeting on May 3rd, and 
of the Association at its annual meeting on May 22nd. In 
view of the importance of this step, it is fitting that a state- 
ment should be addressed to you explaining the circumstances 
which led to it. 

The organization of the Georgia Historical Association in 
191 7 was due to the feeling that the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety had failed in a measure to live up to its name, since prac- 
tically throughout its history its officers and curators, and 
largely the membership, had been confined to Savannah, 
while the publications of the Society had usually been devoted 
to the Colonial and Revolutionary phases of our State history. 
The founders of the Association desired to organize an his- 
torical society which would be State-wide in its membership 
and cover the whole range of Georgia history in its activities. 

The response to the appeal for membership and support 
for the new organization was widespread. We succeeded in 
enrolling nearly 500 members, every part of Georgia being 
represented. We have held four annual meetings, at which 


historical papers and addresses of a high order were presented. 
These have been put into your hands through the medium of 
the Proceedings of the Association. 

The Association has found itself financially unable to un- 
dertake any other pubfication. It was, however, putting aside 
a small annual surplus, and last year a movement was begunto 
establish a quarterly magazine through private contributions. 
Something over $2,000 was raised for this purpose, and an- 
nouncement was made that the first number of the magazine 
would appear on January ist last. 

While the plans were being perfected for beginning the pro- 
posed magazine, Judge Cobb received a letter from Col A. R. 
Lawton, his lifelong friend and the President of the Georgia 
Historical Society, suggesting an amalgamation of the two or- 
ganizations. Judge Cobb was inclined to look favorably on 
the suggestion and laid the matter before tine members of our 
Executive Council, all of whom were found like-minded. 

In January an informal conference was held in Atlanta be- 
tween representatives of the two organizations; a full and 
frank discussion of the situation was had and a tentative 
agreement reached. The Presidents of the two organizations 
were requested to appoint committees to confer together and 
draw up a plan of merger. These committees met in Savannah 
on March 6th, and prepared the formal scheme of union, which 
subsequently, as above related, was adopted by the two organi- 

This agreement entered into between the two organiza- 
tions provides that the united bodies shall retain the title and 
legal domicile of the Society. Thi^; was felt to be due and 
fitting on account of the prestige and dignity of the older or- 
ganization, and the considerable amount of property which the 
Society owns in Savannah. The agreement emphasizes the 
State-wide character of the united societies, providing that the 
controlling body (the Board of Curators) is hereafter to be 
chosen from the State as a whole, instead of being confired 
principally to the city of Savannah; and by the requirement 
that in future the annual meeting shall rotate among the larger 


centers of the State, in which it is proposed to organize branch 
societies. The pubHcations, including the Quarterly, are to 
be put under the control of persons having special qualifica- 
tions for this work. The annual dues have been reduced 
from $5 to $3, for the ordinary membership. 

Needless to say, our conferences with representatives of the 
Society were altogether agreeable; no difficulty whatever was 
met with in securing the readjustments which we felt must 
necessarily be made before the Georgia Historical Society 
could claim to be a genuinely popular State-wide institution. 
All lovers of Georgia History are to be congratulated on the 
happy outcome of the schism which occurred several years 
ago, and it gives us great pleasure to inform you that you are 
now a regular member of the Georgia Historical Society. We 
trust that you will not only retain your own membership, but 
will assist the Society in finding new members. The com- 
bined membership of the amalgamated societies is about 900; 
the budget for the current year will necessitate our having no 
fewer than 1,000 regular members. 

Within a short time you will receive from Mr. C. F. Groves, 
Secretary of the Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Ga., a 
copy of the Quarterly with an account of the merger and full 
information with reference to the Georgia Historical Society. 
You will also receive a statement giving the changes in the per- 
sonnel of the curators and officers of that Society. 

Respectfully yours, 


President Georgia Historical Association. 


Secretary Georgia Historical Association. 

Athens, Ga., 
June 23, 1920. 




"Fourteenth. I hereby give, devise and bequeath to the 
Georgia Historical Society and its successors, all that lot or 
parcel of land, with the buildings and improvements thereon, 
fronting on St. James Square, in the City of Savannah, and 
running back to Jefferson street, known in the plan of said City 
as lot letter 'N,' Heathcote Ward, the same having been for 
many years past the residence of my family, together with all 
my books, papers, documents, pictures, statuary and works of 
art, or having relation to art or science, and all the furniture 
of every description in the dwelling house and on the premises 
except bedding and table service, such as china, crockery, 
glass, cutlery, silver, plate and linen), and all fixtures and at- 
tachments to the same, to have and to hold the said lot and im- 
provements, books, pictures, statuary, furniture and fixtures, 
to the said Georgia Historical Society and its successors, in 
special trust, to keep and preserve the same as a public edifice, 
for a Library and Academy of Arts and Sciences, in which the 
books, pictures and works of art herein bequeathed, and such 
others as may be purchased out of the income, rents and profits 
of the bequest hereinafter made for that purpose, shall be 
permanently kept and cared for, to be open for the use of the 
public, on such terms and under such reasonable regulations 
as the said Georgia Historical Society may from to time pre- 
scribe ; but this devise and bequest is made upon condition that 
the Georgia Historical society shall cause to be placed and kept 
over and against the front porch, or entrance to the main build- 
ing on said lot, a marble slab or tablet, on which shall be cut 
or engraved the following words, to-wit : 

*Miss Mary Telfair died June 2, 1875. 
Will of Miss Mary Telfair dated June i, 1875. 
Will of Miss Mary Telfair probated June 5, 1875. 
Messrs. Wm. Neyle Habersham and William Hunter qualified as 
executors June 7, 1875. 




the word Telfair' being in larger letters and occupying a sep- 
arate line above the other words ; and on the further condition 
that no part of the building shall ever be occupied as a private 
residence or rented out for money, and none but a janitor and 
such other persons as may be employed to manage and take care 
of the premises shall occupy or reside in or upon the same, 
and that no part of the same shall be used for public meetings 
or exhibitions, or for eating, drinking or smoking, and that no 
part of the lot or improvements shall ever be sold, alienated or 
encumbered, but the same shall be preserved for the purposes 
herein set forth. And it is my wish that whenever the walls of 
the building shall require renovating by paint or otherwise, the 
present color and design shall be adhered to as far as prac- 
ticable. For the purpose of providing more effectually for the 
accomplishment of the objects contemplated in this item or 
clause of my will. I hereby give, devise and bequeath to the 
Georgia Historical Society and its successors, one thousand 
shares of the capital stock of the Augusta and Savannah Rail- 
road, of the State of Georgia, in special trust, to apply the divi- 
dends, income, rents and profits arising from the same, to the 
repairs and maintenance of said buildings and premises, and 
the payment of all expenses attendant upon the management 
and care of the institution herein provided for, and then to ap- 
ply the remaining income, rents and profits in adding to the 
Library, and such works of art and science as the proper 
officers of the Georgia Historical Society may select, and in the 
preservation and proper use of the same, so as to carry into 
effect in good faith the objects of this devise and bequest.'' 






WHEREAS Georgia Historical Society is of opinion that 
it was the intention of Mary Telfair, the generous and public- 
spirited founder of Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, that 
this local Savannah institution should be controlled and man- 
aged by residents of Savannah; and 

WHEREAS it is further of opinion that in selecting Geor- 
gia Historical Society as Trustee of said Academy Miss Tel- 
fair regarded the Society, under the then existing limitations 
upon its activities due to Civil War conditons, as a local in- 
stitution ; and 

WHEREAS the proposed plan of merger of Georgia His- 
torical Association into Georgia Historical Society will, when 
completed, conspicuously emphasize Georgia Historical So- 
ciety as a state-wide institution ; and 

WHEREAS in the opinion of Georgia Historical Society 
the original intention of Miss Telfair should be carried out and 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences should be controlled and 
managed by residents of Savannah ; 


I. That with all practicable dispatch after the above 
described proposed merger shall become effective, the proper 
officers of Georgia Historical Society are directed to present 
to the court having jurisdiction the resignation of Georgia 
Historical Society as Trustee of Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences under the will of Mary Telfair, and the request of the 
Society that it may be relieved of its trust ; and are further au- 
thorized to take all steps and do and perform all acts and 
things which may be necessary or expediehf to effect the said 
resignation, the acceptance thereof, the appointment of a sue- 



cesser, and all transfers, assignments, conveyances and other 
instruments in connection therewith. 

2. That the Society respectfully suggest to the court that 
the intentions of Miss Telfair will be more nearly approxi- 
mated if the court shall appoint as successor a charitable cor- 
poration to be chartered by the Superior Court of Chatham 
County, Georgia, composed at the beginning of such residents 
of Savannah as may be interested in the Telfair Academy of 
Arts and Sciences and shall at that time be also members of 
Georgia Historical Society, and that those persons shall be 
the charter members and organizers of such corporation. 

3. That the Society is of opinion that, if the court shall 
adopt this suggestion, all residents of Savannah who shall then 
be members of Georgia Historical Society should be afforded 
reasonable opportunity to become members of the new cor- 
poration with equal voice in its control and management on 
such terms as the new corporation, so far as its charter shall 
permit, may prescribe. 

4. Georgia Historical Society here records its sincere re- 
gret that the taking of a step which in its opinion is essential 
to its primary function as a state-wide historical society, 
should necessitate its retirement from this trust which for 
thirty-seven years it has administered to the best of its ability. 
Its request to be relieved of the trust is due solely to a high 
sense of public duty. 


August 2nd, 1920. 
To Georgia Historical Society : 

The Committee on Union and Consolidation and the Board 
of Curators, who met in joint session on July 28th and acted 
as hereinafter stated, submit this joint report. 

At your quarterly meeting on May 3, 1920, you approved 
the plan of consolidation and authorized the Committee to carry 


it out. On May 22, 1920, the Georgia Historical Association 
at its annual meeting in Atlanta unanimously approved the 
same plan. 

On that date Georgia Historical Association really was dis- 
solved by absolute merger into Georgia Historical Society 
under the latter's charter, and its members thereby automatic- 
ally became members of Georgia Historical Society. 

Since then there has been correspondence between the com- 
mittees of the two organizations and the action herein reported 
completing and effecting the final steps in the merger accorda 
with the views of the Association's committee. 


The following vacancies in the Officers and Board of Cura- 
tors have occurred : Dr. Thomas J. Charlton, who served as a 
Curator from February 25, 1908, and as First Vice President 
of the Society from April 2, 19 14, departed this life on Sunday, 
July 25, 1920. The Board of Curators recorded on the min- 
utes an appropriate minute on the Society's irreparable loss. 
Hon. DuPont Guerry a Curator, of Macon, resigned his mem- 
bership and thereby vacated his office. On July 28, 1920, the fol- 
lowing resignations were tendered to and accepted by the Board 
of Curators, effective at the conclusion of the quarterly meeting 
to which this report is submitted : Wymberley W. DeRenne, 
Charles Ellis, Alexander R. Lawton, Benjamin H. Levy, and 
William W. Williamson as Curators and Alexander R. Law- 
ton as President. At the same meeting the Board of Curators 
filled the vacancies, effective at the close of the quarterly meet- 
ing to which this report is submitted, as follows : 

CURATORS: David C. Barrow, Athens, Ga. ; R. P. 
Brooks, Athens, Ga. ; Andrew J. Cobb, Athens, Ga. ; P. S. 
Flippin, Macon, Ga. ; A. C. Newell, Atlanta. Ga, ; H. R, Slack, 
LaGrange, Ga. ; W. E. Thomas, Valdosta, Ga. President, An- 
drew J. Cobb. Judge Cobb was President of Georgia His- 
torical Association on May 22. The Vice Presidency vacated 
by the death of Dr. Charlton was not filled. 


At the close of this meeting the Officers and Curators of the 
Society will be as follows : 

President _______ Andrew J. Cobb^ Athens,, Ga. 

Vice-President _____ 

Vice-President _____ Otis Ash more, Savannah, Ga. 

Vice-President _____ Alexander C. King, Atlanta, Ga. 

Vice-President _____ Lawton B. Evans, Augusta, Ga. 

Corresponding Secretary _ Otis Ash more. Savannah, Ga. 
Secretary and Treasurer - Chas. F. Groves, Savannah, Ga. 
Librarian and Editor William Harden, Savannah, Ga. 


Otis Ashmore _________ Savannah, Ga. 

David C. Barrow ________ Athens, Ga. 

R. P. Brooks __________ Athens, Ga. 

Andrew J. Cobb _______ _ Athens, Ga. 

T. M. Cunningham, Jr. _ _ _ _ _ Savannah, Ga. 

Beverly D. Evans _______ Savannah, Ga. 

Lawton B. Evans ______ _ Augusta, Ga. 

P. S. Flippin ________ _ Macon, Ga. 

Henry R. Goetchius ______ Columbus, Ga. 

William. W. Gordon ______ Savannah, Ga. 

Alexander C. King _____ _ Atlanta, Ga. 

J. Florance Minis _______ Savannah, Ga. 

A. C. Newell ________ _ Atlanta, Ga. 

H. R. Slack _________ _ La Grange, Ga. 

W. E. Thomas _______ _Valdosta, Ga. 


By resolution of the Curators the existing standing com- 
mittees are to remain undisturbed until otherwise ordered by 
the President or the Board of Curators, as the Curator's office 
is not a necessary qualification for service on these commit- 
tees : They are as follows : 




J. Florance Minis^ Chairman Otis Ash more. Chairman 
Charles Ellis J. Florance Minis 

Beverly D. Evans Mrs. Anna Belle Karow 

T. M. Cunningham, Jr. Charles Ellis 

Henry R. Goetchius 


Wm. W. Williamson, 
yChairman Chairman 

W. W. Gordon Lawton B. Evans 

Alexander C. King Henry R. Goetchius 
Lawton B. Evans 

T. M. Cunningham, Jr. Benjamin H. Levy 

Leonard L. Mackall W. W. Gordon and others. 


Alexander R. Lawton, Chairman, 

Beverly D. Evans, 

Miss Elisabeth Beckwith, 

Benjamin H. Levy, 

William W. Williamson. 


Among the duties with which your Committee was charged 
was the submission of a draft of a new constitution in place 
of the existing constitution and by-laws, embodying the changes 
which the pending reorganization makes advisable. In the 
opinion of your Committee a constitution alone embodying all 
necessary provisions from the by-laws is sufficient, and there 
is submitted herewith, with the recommendation that it be 
adopted, a draft of the proposed constitution. The notice re- 
quired by the existing constitution was given at the last quar- 
terly meeting and it may be adopted at this meeting. It has re- 
ceived the approval of the Board of Curators which recom- 
mends that it be adopted. 



In accordance with the resolutions adopted at the last quar- 
terly meeting the resignation of the Society as Trustee of 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences has been presented to 
the Superior Court of Chatham County, and after a confer- 
ence with Hon. Peter W. Meldrim, Judge Presiding, a circu- 
lar (which is self-explanatory and a copy of which is attached) 
was sent to all members of the Society residing in Chatham 
County. One hundred and twenty-seven members affirma- 
tively expressed a desire to be included among the petitioners 
for charter of the new corporation, and the petition for char- 
ter (as per copy hereto attached) was filed in the Superior 
Court and is now being published in accordance with the stat- 
ute. It will not be in order to accept the resignation of your 
Society as Trustee until the new corporation shall be char- 
tered and organized, and thus prepared to assume active charge 
of the trust if and when appointed by the Court. 


On the recommendation of your Committee the Board of 
Curators has ordered that the next number of Georgia His- 
torical Quarterly shall consist of a "Hand-book" giving in suc- 
cinct form a history of Georgia Historical Society and Georgia 
Historical Association, with the various steps which have been 
taken in carrying out the union of the two, including all the in- 
formation which has usually appeared in the "Annals" of the 
Society from time to time printed, but brought up to date ; in 
order that ail members, including former members of Geor- 
gia Historical Association who are now members of your So- 
ciety, may have full information as to its purposes, its ac- 
complishment, its personnel, its possessions and its equipment 
for useful work. The hand-book will speak for itself and it is 
unnecessary in this report to elaborate its contents. 



If and when you shall adopt the recommendations herein 
contained the union of the Society and the Association and the 
reorganization of the Society will be complete, except for the 
final acceptance of the resignation of the Society as Trustee 
of the Telfair Academy. This is a court proceeding and is 
in the hands of counsel under supervision of the Board, and 
further service by the Committee is not required. Your Com- 
mittee recommends that it be discharged. 

With this report the writer retires as a curator after con- 
tinuous service for over eighteen years, and as President after 
a service (not continuous) covering over eight years. He hopes 
that it is not inappropriate to express his thanks to the Society 
for the honor which it has conferred upon him and for the uni- 
form and unvarying assistance which it has given in the per- 
formance of the duties assigned to him. It has been a privi- 
lege and a pleasure to serve you. 

Respectfully submitted for the Committee on Union and 
Consolidation, and th Board of Curators. 

President of the Society and Chairman of the Committee. 

Founded 1839. 

(Georgia Historical Society, Trustee) 

Savannah, Ga., June 29, 1920. 

To Resident Members of the Society : 

As instructed by unanimous vote at the meeting of May 
3rd, the Society has filed in Superior Court of Chatham County 
its resignation as Trustee of TELFAIR ACADEMY OF 


ARTS AND SCIENCES, and its request that a successor be 
appointed. Judge Meldrim has indicated his intention to ob- 
serve the recommendations of the Society (i) that the suc- 
cessor trustee should be a charitable corporation chartered by 
the Superior Court under the name of "Telfair Academy of 
Arts and Sciences," and (2) that every member of Georgia 
Historical Society who is now a resident of Chatham County 
shall have an opportunity to join in the creation of the new 
corporation as a petitioner and a charter member. The ap- 
pointment of the new Trustee and the form and substance of 
the charter of the new corporation rest exclusively in the dis- 
cretion of the Judge, from which it follows that ihe petition 
and the order will be such as may be prescribed by him. The 
petition will not be finally drafted and filed until the person- 
nel of the petitioners is definitely settled. 

Judge Meldrim has directed the undersigned to ascertain by 
personal inquiry of each resident member of the Society 
whether or not he or she desires to participate as a petitioner 
and a charter member in the new corporation. Please reply 
promptly on the enclosed postal card not later than July 8th. 
No names will be included other than those who shall have 
affirmatively indicated a desire to participate. It is hoped 
that all resident members will favorably respond and will be 
active members of the new corporation, which, when formed 
and organized, will have entire charge of this institution so 
creditable to the city. The Academy will continue to need the 
sympathetic support and encouragement of all public-spirited 


President, Georgia Historical Society, 

P. O. Box y2y, Savannah, Ga. 


In accordance with responses to this circular, one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven members of Georgia Historical So- 
ciety, residents of Chatham County filed on July 15, 1920 the 
following : 




To the Superior Court of Chatham County, Georgia : 
The petition of Samuel B. Adams, Leopold Adler, Neal L. 
Anderson, Page W. Anderson, Leander G. Armstrong, Otis 
Ashmore, Hal H. Bacon, Craig Barrow, Elfrida Barrow, 
Charles G. Beck, Elisabeth Beckwith, F. G. Bell, Charles G. 
Bell, F. D. Bloodworth, Henry Blun, J. Sullivan Bond, Eliza- 
beth M. BuUard, Henry S. Colding, Nora L. Cunningham, T. 
M. Cunningham, Jr., Lilla W. Cunningham, Fred A. Davis, 
Jane E. DeLorme, Remer L. Denmark, Augusta F. De- 
Renne, Wymberley W. DeRenne, Charles G. Edwards, 
Charles Ellis, Marie Ellis, Carl Espy, Beverly D. Evans, 
Augusta Foster, J. A. Foster, Davis Freeman, Thomas 
Gamble, C. E. Gay, Jr., Charles M. Gibbs, Maude Glaiber, 
G. Arthur Gordon, Ellen Gordon, W. W. Gordon, Wil- 
liam L. Grayson, Charles F. Groves, N. A. Hardee,, Wil- 
liam Harden, J. Lawton Hiers, Robert M. Hitch, Walter 

F. Hogan, J. J. Horrigan, Eva B. Howze, Catherine B. Huger, 
Joseph Hull, R. M. Hull, H. V. Jenkins, Jabez Jones, Thomas 
A. Jones, H. Wiley Johnson, Jane Judge, William Kehoe, C. H. 
Konemann, Ella B. Lawton, A- R. Lawton, Elizabeth 
S. Lawton, A. R. Lawton, Jr., Beckwith Lawton, Law- 
rence Lee, Henry Levy, B. H. Levy, Lee Roy Loven- 
stein, Jonathan Lucas, Wallace W. Mallard, William Mar- 
cus, Frances G. Meldrim, Carl Mendel, George J. Mills, 
Euphemia Mills, J. F. Minis, Louisa P. Minis, David B. Mor- 
gan, Lee Roy Myers, Henry McAlpin, W. F. McCauley, Ray 

G. McCauley, B. A. McCranie, P. J. McNamara, Florence Mc- 
Neill, Henry Nanninga, M. B. Nichols, M. A. O'Byrne, Chas. 


H. Olmstead, George W. Owens, A. B. Palmer, W. J. Pierpont, 
J. Conrad Puder, W. N. Pratt, T. P. Ravenel, Frederick F. 
Reese, A. C. Read, Sam Ross, E. W. Rosenthal, Gordon Saussy^ 
Hattie Saussy, Elizabeth M. Screven, Kate F. Semmes, H. P. 
Smart, Arthur W. Solomon, Ella B. Spalding, William B. 
Stephens, H. G. Strachan, A. D. Strobhar, W. G. Strobhar, 
May S. Teasdale, John L. Travis, R. Van Keuren, Joanna E. 
Walsh, T. P. Waring, H. N. Walker, Henrik Wallin, George R. 
White, Willaim W. Williamson, Caroline Wilson, W. L. Wil- 
son, W. A. Winburn, Mary S. Irwin Wood, A. L. Willcox and 
Anton P. Wright, respectfully shows : : 

1. Petitioners desire that they and such persons as may 
from time to time be associated with them, and their successors, 
may be incorporated as a charitable corporation under the name 
and style of 'Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences." 

2. The object of their association and the particular busi- 
ness they propose to carry on are purely educational, charitable 
and social, being primarily to hold, control, preserve, administer 
and manage as trustee a library and academy of arts and sci- 
ences, known and to be known as Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, and the other property now held by Georgia His- 
torical Society as trustee of Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, all as set forth in the fourteenth item of the will of 
Mary Telfair of record in the court of ordinary of Chatham 
County, Georgia, a copy of which is herewith exhibited to the 
court ; and, secondarily, to do and perform from time to time 
all such acts and things, and to hold, enjoy and manage such 
property and hold and execute such trusts as may tend to pro- 
mote education and improvement in the arts and sciences. 

3. Petitioners will not be organized for individual pe- 
cuniary gain, will employ no capital, and will have no capital 

\4. The place of doing business will be Savannah, Chatham 
County, Georgia. 

5. The time for which petitioners desire to be incorporated 
is perpetual, or the full term (not less than twenty years) per- 
mitted by law, with the privilege of renewal. 


Wherefore petitioners pray that they and their associates 
and the successors of both may be incorporated as above stated, 
with all the powers usual or incident to corporations, with the 
right from time to time to increase or diminish their numbers, 
to classify members, to adopt such constitution and by-laws as 
they may deem best, to appoint or elect such directors, man- 
agers and officers as may be therein provided, to have per- 
petual succession, to receive gifts and legacies, and from time to 
time to apply for amendments to the charter with the approval 
of a majority of those who shall at the time, under constitution 
or by-laws, be voting members of the corporation. 


I Attorneys for Petitioners. 

Petition for incorporation filed in office July 15, 1920. 


Deputy Clerk, S. C. C. C. Ga. 



In Re : Petition for Charter Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences : 

It appearing to the Court that the petition of Samuel B. 
Adams and others for the grant of a charter for TELFAIR 
Clerk's office on July 15, 1920; was published once a week for 
four weeks in the Savannah Morning News, which is the 
nearest public gazette to the point where the business is to be 
located ; that the application is legitimately within the purview 
and intention of the code ; and that all requirements of the law 
have been complied with ; 


I. That Samuel B. Adams, Leopold Adler, Neal L. Ander- 
son, J. Randolph Anderson, Page W. Anderson, Leander G. 
Armstrong, Otis Ashmore, Hal H. Bacon, Craig Barrow, El- 
f rida Barrow, Charles G. Beck, Elisabeth Beckwith, F. G. Bell, 
Charles G. Bell, F. D. Bloodworth, Henry Blun, J. Sullivan 
Bond, Elisabeth M. BuUard, Henry S. Colding, Nora L. Cun- 
ningham, T. M. Cunningham, Jr., Lilla W. Cunningham, Fred 

A. Davis, Jane E. DeLorme, Remer L. Denmark, Augusta F. 
DeRenne, Wymberley W. DeRenne, Charles G. Edwards, 
Charles Ellis, Marie Ellis, Carl Espy, Beverly D. Evans, Au- 
gusta Foster, J. A. Foster, Davis Freeman, Thomas Gamble, 
C. E. Gay, Jr., Charles M. Gibbs, Maude Glaiber, G. Arthur 
Gordon, Ellen Gordon, W. W. Gordon, William L. Grayson, 
Charles F. Groves, N. A. Hardee, WiUiam Harden, J. Lawton 
Hiers, Robert M. Hitch, Walter F. Hogan, J. J. Horrigan, Eva 

B. Howze, Catherine B. Huger, Joseph Hull, R. M. Hull, H. V. 
Jenkins, Jabez Jones, Thomas A. Jones, H. Wiley Johnson, 
Jane Judge, William Kehoe, C. H. Konemann, Ella B. Lawton, 
A. R, Lawton, Elizabeth S. Lawton, A. R. Lawton, Jr., Beck- 


with Lawton, Lawrence Lee, Henry Levy, B. H. Levy, Lee 
Roy Lovenstein, Jonathan Lucas, Wallace W. Mallard, William 
Marcus, Frances W. Meldrim, Carl Mendel, George J. Mills, 
Euphemia Mills, J. F. Minis, Louisa P. Minis, David B. Mor- 
gan, Lee Roy Myers, Henry McAlpin, W. F- McCauley, Ray 
G. McCauley, R. A. McCranie, P. J. McNamara, Florence Mc- 
Neill, Henry Nanninga, M. B. Nichols, M. A. O'Byrne, Chas. 
H. Olmstead, George W. Owens, A. B. Palmer, W. J. Pier- 
pont, J. Conrad Puder, W. N. Pratt, T. P. Ravenel, Frederick 
F. Reese, A. C. Read, Sam Ross, E. W. Rosenthal, Gordon 
Saussy, Hattie Saussy, Elizabeth M. Screven, Kate F. Semmes, 
H. P. Smart, Arthur W. Solomon, Ella B. Spalding, William 
B. Stephens, H. G. Strachan, A. D. Strohbar, W. G Strobhar, 
May S Teasdale, John L. Travis, R. Van Keuren, Joanna E. 
Walsh, T. P. Waring, H. N. Walker, Henrik Wallin, George R. 
White, William W. Williamson, Caroline Wilson, W. L. Wil- 
son, W. A. Winburn, Mary S. L'win Wood, A. L. Willcox and 
Anton P. Wright, and such persons as may from time to time 
be associated with them, and their successors, be, and they are 
hereby, incorporated as a charitable corporation under the name 

2. That the objects of the association and the particular 
business to be carried on shall be purely educational, charitable 
and social, including power primarily (if and when the trust 
shall be committed to its charge) to hold, control, preserve, ad- 
minister and manage as Trustee the Library and Academy of 
Arts and Sciences known and to be known as TELFAIR 
ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, all as set forth in 
the fourteenth item of the will of Mary Telfair of record in 
the Court of Ordinary of Chatham County, Georgia ; and sec- 
ondarily, to do and perform from time to time all such acts and 
things and to hold, enjoy and manage such property and hold 
and execute such trusts as may tend to promote education and 
improvement in the arts and sciences. 

3. That the place of doing business shall be Savannah, 
Chatham County, Georgia. 


4. That the time for which petitioners shall be incorpo- 
rated shall be in perpetuity, so far as the same is or may be 
permitted by law, and if such perpetual charter be not per- 
mitted, then, for twenty (20) years from this date, with the 
privilege of renewal. 

5. That said corporation shall have all powers usual or 
incident to corporations, with the right from time to time to 
increase or diminish the number of members, to make classi- 
fication of members with varying rights, privileges and duties, 
to adopt such constitution and/or by-laws as it may deem best, 
to appoint or select such directors, managers and officers as 
may be provided, to have perpetual succession, to receive gifts 
and legacies, and from time to time apply for and accept 
am^endments to its charter with the approval (in meeting or by 
written assent) of a majority of the members who shall at the 
time, under charter, constitution and/or bylaws, be vested with 
unrestricted voting power. 

6. That the first meeting of the incorporators for organi- 
zation shall be held at such time and place as may be fixed in 
a call signed by not less than five of the incorporators, and pub- 
lished in the Savannah Morning News not less than three days 
prior to the said meeting. At said meeting a quorum shall be 
the number who shall attend and participate, and such quorum, 
by a majority vote, is authorized to make such provision for 
future meetings, including notice, quorum and all details, as to 
it shall deem best. 

In Open Court September 14, 1920. 

Judge Superior Court, Chatham County, Georgia, 





Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. I. Savannah^ 1840. 

8vo, pp. xii, 307, (i). 

Contents : Introduction. Oration before the Society at 
the celebration of their first anniversary, February 12, 
1840, by W. Law ; New and Accurate Account of the 
Provinces of South Carohna and Georgia (by J. Ogle- 
thorpe), London, 1733; A Voyage to Georgia, 1735, by 
F. Moore, London, 1744; An Impartial Inquiry into the 
State and Utility of the Province of Georgia (by B. 
Martyn), London, 1741 ; Reasons for Establishing the 
Colony of Georgia, with regard to the Trade of Great 
Britain (etc.), with Some Account of the Country, and 
the Designs of the Trustees (by B. Martyn), London, 
1733; Sketch of the Life of Gen. James Oglethorpe, by Spalding. — Out of Print. 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. II. Savannah, 1842. 

8vo, pp. (6) 336. 

Contents : Introduction. Discourse before the Society at 
their second anniversary, February 12, 1841, (by W. B. 
Stevens) ; A New Voyage to Georgia, by a Young Gen- 
tleman, 2d ed., London, 1737; A State of the Province of 
Georgia, attested upon oath in the Court of Savannah, 
November 10, 1740, (by William Stephens), London, 
1740; A Brief Account of the Causes that have Retarded 
the Progress of the Colony of Georgia, by P. Tailfer, H. 
Anderson, D. Douglas, Charleston, 1741 ; An Account 
Showing the Progress of the Colony of Georgia from its 
Establishment (by B. Martyn), London, 1741. Appendix: 
Account of the Society ; Constitution ; By-laws ; Act of 
Incorporation; Officers. Members, 1842. — Out of Print. 


Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. Ill, part I. Savannah, 1848. 

8vo, pp. 88 (Published by Wm. B. Hodgson.) 
Contents: Introduction. Biographical Sketch of Benja- 
min Hawkins ; The Creek Confederacy (by W. B. Hodg- 
son) ; A Sketch of the Creek Country, in 1798 and 1799 
(by B. Hawkins). Appendix; Indian Treaties, 1773- 

No other part of this volume was issued. The Society 
published no more collections until 1873, when the publi- 
cation was resumed with the designation of Vol. III. dis- 
regarding this first part. — Price $1.00. 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. III. Savannah, 1873. 

8vo, pp. vi, 428. 

Contents: Preface. Letters from General Oglethorpe to 
the Trustees of the Colony, October, 1735, to August, 
1744; Report of Governor Sir James Wright to Lord 
Dartmouth on the Condition of the Colony, September 
20, 1773 ; Letters from Governor Sir James Wright to the 
Earl of Dartmouth and Lord George Germain, Secre- 
taries of State for America, August 24, 1774, to February 
16, 1782. Appendix: Casimir Pulaski, address before the 
Society by C. C. Jones, Jr., upon the celebration of its 
thirty-second anniversary, February 13, 187 1 ; address 
before the Society by R. D. Arnold, July 24, 1871. — Price 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. IV. Savannah, 1878. 

8vo, pp. 263, 64. Illus. Plans. 

Contents : The Dead Towns of Georgia, (by Charles 
C. Jones, Jr.) ; Itinerant Observations in America*, re- 
printed from the London Magazine 1745-46. — Price $2.00. 
*By Edward Kimber (1719-1769). 


Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 

• Vol. V. Published by the Savannah Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution as a Contribu- 
tion to Georgia History. Savannah, Ga., 1901. 

Pt. I, pp. xiv, 139 (this part only published by D. A. R.). 
Contents : Proceedings of the Georgia Provincial Con- 
gress; Proceedings of the Georgia Council of Safety, 3d 
November, 1775, to 17th February, 1777; Account of the 
Siege of Savannah, from a British source. — Price $i.CK). 
Pt. II, pp. 223. (This part was pubhshed by Mr. W. J. 
DeRenne as a contribution to Georgia History.) 
Contents : Order Book of Samuel Elbert, Colonel and 
Brigadier General in the Continental Army, October^ 
1776, to November, 1778; Letter Book of Governor 
Samuel Elbert, from January, 1785, to November, 1785. 
— Price $1.00. 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. VI. Savannah, 1904. 

8vo, pp. vii, 245. Portrait. 

Contents: The letters of Hon. James Habersham, 1756- 

1776. — Cloth $2.00; Paper $1.50. 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. VII. Savannah 1909-1913. 

Pt. I, pp. 70. 

Contents : Letters of Montiano — Siege of St. Augustine. 

(Tranls, and ed. by C. DeWitt Willcox). — Paper $1.00. 

Pt. II, pp. 53. Maps and plans. — Paper $1.00. 

Contents : Oglethorpe Monument. Illustrated. 

Pt. Ill, pp. 112 — Paper $1.00. 

Contents : The Spanish Official Account of the Attack 

on the Colony of Georgia, in America, and of its Defeat 

on St. Simons Island by General James Oglethorpe. 

(Transl. and ed. by C. DeWitt Willcox.) Portrait and 



Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. VIII. Savannah, 191 3. 

Contents : Letters of Joseph Clay, merchant of Savannah, 
1776-1793; and a Hst of ships and vessels entered at the 
port of Savannah, for May, 1765, 1766, and 1767. Ills. — 
Cloth $2.50; Paper $2.00. 

Collections of the Georgia Historical Society. 
Vol. IX. Savannah, 19 16. 

Contents: Letters of Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1806. pp. 
500. — Cloth $4.00; Paper $3.50. 


A discourse delivered before the Society, February 12, 

1840. By William Law. Savannah, 1840. 
8vo. pp. 43. 

On the early settlements and history of Georgia. 


Historical lecture on Sergeant Jasper before the Society, 

1841. By Robert M. Charlton. 

Dedicated to the Georgia Historical Society. 

Biographical Memorials of James Oglethorpe founder of 
the Colony of Georgia. By Thaddeus Mason Harris. 
Boston, 1 841. 
8vo, pp. xxii, 424. Portrait. Folded Map. 


A discourse before the Society, February 12, 1841. By 

William Bacon Stevens. Savannah, 1841. 

8vo, pp. 40. 

On the events of the Revolution in Georgia. 



A discourse on the qualifications and duties of a his- 
torian, delivered before the Society on its fourth anni- 
versary, Ferbuary 13, 1841. By Mitchell King. 


A lecture delivered before the Society, March 7, 1843. 
By John Elliott Ward. Savannah, 1843. 
8vo, pp. 22. 


A lecture delivered before the Society at the Unitarian 
Church, Tuesday evening, March 14, 1843. By William 
A. Caruthers, M. D. Savannah, 1843. 
8vo, pp. 36. 


A high civilization, the moral duty of Georgians. A dis- 
course before the Society, February 12, 1844. By Stephen 
Elliott, Jr., Savannah, 1844. 
8vo, pp. 21. 


Lecture before the Society, February 29, and March 4, 
1844, on the subject of education. By Samuel K. Tal- 
mage. Savannah, 1844. 
8vo, pp. 24. 


A discourse delivered before the Society on the occasion 
of its sixth anniversary, February 12, 1845. By Alonzo 
Church. Savannah, 1845. 
8vo, pp. 34, 6. 


The romance of life. A historical lecture before the 
Society on the 14th of January, 1845. By Robert M. 
Charlton. Savannah, 1845. 
8vo, pp. 19. 


A History of Georgia, from its first discovery by Europeans 
to the adoption of the present constitution in 1798. By 
William B. Stevens, 2 vols. Vol. I New York. 1847, $2.00. 
Vol. II Philadelphia, 1859. $2.00. 8vo. Plates. Plan. Map. 
Prepared at the request of the Society and published 
under its auspices. Pecuniary aid was rendered by the 
Society for the publication of the second volume. 


Proceedings of meeting, January 7, 1855. 


Address delivered before the Society on its nineteenth 
anniversary, February 12, 1858. By John E. Ward. 
Savannah, 1858. 
8vo, pp. 24. 


Indian remains in Southern Georgia. Address before the 
Society on its twentieth anniversary, February 12, 1859. 
By Charles C. Jones, Jr., Savannah, 1859. 
8vo, pp. 25. 


Constitution, by-laws, and lis'ts of members. Savannah 


8vo. pp. 15. 


A reply to a resolution of the Society, read before the 
Society at its anniversary meeting, February 12, 1866. 
By Stephen Elliott. Savannah, 1866. 
8vo, pp. 13. 


Eulogy on the life and character of Stephen Elliott. By 
Solomon Cohen. Written and published at the request of 
the Society. Savannah, 1867. 
8vo, pp. 18. 



Constitution, by-laws, and list of members. Savannah, 


8vo, pp. 2^. 

Wilde's Summer Rose; or, the Lament of the Cap- 

An authentic account of the origin, mystery, and explana- 
tion of R. H. Wilde's alleged plagiarism. By Anthony 
Barclay, and with his permission published by the Society. 
Savannah, 1871. Published in both bound and unbound 
form. — Cloth $1.50; Paper $1.00. 
Svo, pp. 70. 

Casimir Pulaski. 

An address delivered before the Society by Charles C. 
Jones, Jr., upon the occasion of the thirty-second anni- 
versary, February 13, 1871. Savannah, 1873. 
8vo, pp. 28. Large paper. Also included in Vol. Ill of 
the Society's collections. 


Proceedings, resolutions and communications, commemo- 
rative of Edward J. Harden, attorney for the City of 
Savannah and president of the Society, who died April 
19, 1873. Savannah, 1873. 
8vo, pp. 31. 

The Siege of Savannah in 1779, as Described in Two Con- 
temporaneous Journals of French Officers of the 
Fleet of Count d'Estaing. Albany, 1874. 
4VO, pp. yy. Folded Map. 

Edited by Charles C. Jones, Jr., and dedicated to the 
Georgia Historical Society. Some copies are indexed. 


Proceedings of the dedication of Hodgson Hall, by the 
Society, on occasion of its thirty-seventh anniversary, 
February 14, 1876. Savannah, 1876. 
%vo, pp. 29 Photograph. 




Sergeant William Jasper. An address delivered before 

the Georgia Historical Society in Savannah, Ga., on the 

3rd of January, 1876. By Charles C. Jones, Jr., (Albany). 

Printed for the Society 1876. 

8vo, pp. 36. 

Same. Albany, J. Munsell, 1876. 

8vo, pp. 36. 


By Lafayette McLaws. (Read before the Society.) 
Southern Historical Society Papers. Vol. vii, pp. 64-90. 
Richmond, 1879. 


Reminiscences of service with the first volunteer regi- 
ment of Georgia, in Charleston Harbor in 1863. An ad- 
dress before the Society. March 3, 1879. ^7 Charles 
H. Olmstead. Savannah, 1879. 
8vo, pp. 15. 

The same in Southern Historical Society Papers^ Vol. 
ii, pp. 1 18-125, 158-171. Richmond, 1883. 


Hernando De Soto. The adventures encountered and the 
route pursued by the Adelantado during his march 
through the territory embraced within the present limits 
of Georgia. By Charles C. Jones, Jr., Read before the 
Society. Savannah, 1880. 
8vo, pp. 42. ( I ) . Portrait. 


Anniversary address before the Society on the 14th of 

February, 1881. By Charles C. Jones, Jr., Savannah, 


8vo, pp. 40. 

Title on cover reads: "The Georgia Historical Society, 

its Founders, Patrons and Friends/' 



Constitution, by-laws, and list of members. Savannah, 


8vo, pp. 31 (i). 


A suggestion as to the origin of the plan of Savannah. 
Remarks by William Harden before the Society, Sep- 
tember 7, 1885. Savannah, 1885. 
8vo, pp. 4. No title page. 


The life and services of the Hon. Maj. Gen. Samuel El- 
bert, of Georgia. By Charles C. Jones, Jr. An address be- 
fore the Society, at Savannah, on the 6th of December, 
1886. Printed for the Society. Cambridge, 1887. 
8vo, pp. 48. 


A brief sketch of the life and writings of Sidney Lanier, 
by Charles N. West. An address delivered before the 
Society on the 5th of December, 1887. Printed for the 
Society. Savannah, 1888. 
8vo, pp. 25. 


The interest and efficiency of woman in the development 
of literature and art. Address delivered at the annual 
meeting, February 12, 1889. By Henry R. Jackson, 
president of the Society. Savannah, 1889. 


The life and times of William Harris Crawford, of 

Georgia. An address delivered by Charles N. West, A. 

M., before the Society, May 2, 1892. Savannah, 1892. 

8vo, pp. 45. 

Constitution, by-laws, and list of members. Savannah, 


8vo, pp. 35. 




Constitution, by-laws, and list of members. 


8vo, pp. 28. 



75th annual reports of Officers, addresses, bibliography of 
the Society, list of officers and members, constitution and 
by-laws, acts of incorporation. Miss Telfair's trust deed, 
extract from the Telfair will, etc. Savannah, 1914. 
pp. 108. 


76th annual reports of officers, bibliography of the So- 
ciety, list of officers and members, constitution and by- 
laws, etc. Savannah, 191 5. 
pp. y2. 


Letters of General Lachlan Mcintosh to Washington, Lee, 
Elbert, Howe and others. 

Notes of General James Jackson on Ramsay's History of 
the Revolution in South Carolina. 

Letter Book of General Jackson, 1788 to 1796. 

Letter Books of Governors John Martin and Edward Tel- 

Abstracts of Documents Relating to the State of Georgia 
between 1755 and 1824. 

Letter Book of Philip Box, Postmaster at Savannah, 1804 
to 1808. 

Sales Book of Georgia Galphin, 

A number of Miscellaneous Letters on Various subjects. 







John M. Berrien, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1841 

John M. Berrien, Feb. 13, 1854 Jan. i, 1856 

James M. Wayne, Feb. 12, 1841 Feb. 13, 1854 

James M. Wayne, Feb. 12, 1856 Feb. 17, 1862 

Charles S. Henry, Feb. 17, 1862 Aug. 19, 1864 

Stephen ElHott, Sept. 12, 1864 Dec. 21, 1866 

John Stoddard, Feb. 12, 1867 Feb. 12, 1868 

Edward J. Harden, Feb. 12, 1868 April 19, 1873 

George W. J. DeRenne, June 2, 1873 Mar. 2, 1874 

Henry Roots Jackson, Mar. 2, 1874 May 23, 1898 

John Screven, Mar. 6, 1899 Jan. 9, 1900 

George Anderson Mercer, Feb. 12, 190c April, 5, 1907 

Alexander Rudolf Lawton, April 5, 1907 April 2, 1914 

Alexander Rudolf Lawton, Feb. 21, 191 7 Aug. 2, 192c 

William W. Mackall, April 2, 1914 Feb. 21, 1919 

Andrew J. Cobb, Aug. 2, 192c 

James M. Wayne, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1841 

Matthew H. McAllister, 
Charles S. Henry, 
Stephen Elliott, 
John Stoddard, 
Solomon Cohen, 
William M. Charters, 
G. Moxley Sorrel, 
John Screven, 
George Anderson Mercer, 
Richard J. Nunn, 
George J. Baldwin, 
*Thomas J. Charlton, 
*Vacant Aug. 2, 1920. 





12, 1851 





17, 1862 





12, 1864 





12, 1867 





12, 1868 





6, 1883 





12, 1889 





6, 189c 





12, 190C 





5, 1907 





2, 1914 





25, 192c 




William B. Bulloch, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1841 

William Law, Feb. 12, 1841 Feb. 12, 1853 

Stephen Elliott, Feb. 12, 1853 Feb. 17, 1862 

John Stoddard, Feb. 17, 1862 Sept. 12, 1864 

Solomon Cohen. Sept. 12, 1864 Feb. 12, 1867 

Edward J. Harden, Feb. 12, 1867 Feb. 12, 1868 

Alexander Robert Lawton, Feb. 12, 1868 Feb. 14, 187c 

Alexander Robert Lawton, Feb. 12, 1883 Feb. 12, 1888 

Juriah Harriss, Feb. 14, 1870 Nov. 7, 1876 

G. Moxley Sorrel, Feb. 12, 1877 Feb. 12, 1883 

John Screven, Feb. 12, 1888 Feb. 12, i88c 

Charles H. Olmstead, Feb. 12, 1889 Feb. 12, 1895 

William D. Harden, Feb. 12, 1895 Feb. 14, 1898 

George Anderson Mercer, Feb. 14, 1898 Mar. 6, 1899 

Richard J. Nunn, Mar. 6, 1899 Feb. 12, 190c 

Henry C. Cunningham, Feb. 12, 190c April, 5, 1907 

J. Florance Minis, April 5, 1907 April 2, 19 14 

Otis Ashmore, April 2, 1914 

Alexander C. King, Feb. 12, 191 7 

Lawton B. Evans, Feb. 12, 191 7 


Israel K. Tefft, June 4, 1839 Dec. 12, 1853 

Israel K. Tefft, Feb. 13, 1854 June 30, 1862 

Alexander A. Smets, Dec. 12, 1853 Feb. 13, 1854 

Charles C. Jones, Jr., July 14, 1862 Feb. 12, 1866 

Richard D. Arnold, Feb. 12, 1866 Feb. 14, 187c 

William Grayson Mann, Feb. 14, 1870 July 4, 188 1 

William W. Paine, Feb. 13, 1882 Aug. 5, 1882 

Robert Falligant, Feb. 12, 1883 Feb. 15, 1892 

Charles N. West. Feb. 15, 1892 Dec, 5, 1892 

Otis Ashmore, Feb, 13, 18Q3 






William Bacon Stevens, 







Henry K. Preston, 







Richard D. Arnold, 







J. P. Tustin, 







William S. Basinger, 







R. C. Mackall, 







Easton Yonge, 







Samuel B. Adams, 







W. H. Wade, 







W. N. Holt, 







Charles N. West, 







Charles N. West, 







Bierne Gordon, 







T. D. Rockwell, 







George T. Cann, 







H. Wiley Johnson, 







Thomas P. Ravenel, 







Charles F. Groves, 





George Wallace Hunter, 







Solomon Cohen, 







Edward J. Harden, 







William S. Basinger, 







Alexander A. Smets, 







William S. Bogart, 







James L. Rankin, 







Clarence S. Connerat 







Alexander H. MacDonell. 







John M. Bryan, 







Uldrick H. McLaws, 







Thomas P. Ravenel, 







Charles F. Groves, 










Henry K. Preston, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1842 

Henry K. Preston, Feb. 12, 1844 Feb. 12, 1847 

William Bacon Stevens, Feb. 12, 1842 Feb. 13, 1843 

Alexander A. Smets, Feb. 13, 1843 Feb. 12, 1844 

Robert H. Griffin, Feb. 12, 1847 Feb. 12, 1848 

Richard D. Arnold, Feb. 12, 1848 Feb. 12, 1849 

Charles E. Tefft, Feb. 12, 185c Feb. 12, 1851 

Louis Knorr, Mar. 12, 185 1 Feb. 12, 1853 

John B. Mallard, Feb. 12, 1853 Feb. 13, 1854 

William Epping, Feb. 13, 1854 Feb. 12, 1857 

James F. Cann, Feb. 12, 1857 Feb. 12, 1868 

John S. F. Lancaster, Feb. 12, 1868 July 5, 1869 
*WiUiam Harden, Aug. 2, 1869 


William Thorne Williams, June 4, 1839 Oct. 9, 1868 

Charles S. Henry, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 185 1 

John C. NicoU, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1846 

William Law, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1841 

Richard D. Arnold, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1844 

Richard D. Arnold, Mar. 2, 1874 July 10, 1876 

Robert M. Charlton, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1846 

Matthew H. McAllister, June 4, 1839 Feb. 12, 1841 

Stephen Elliott, Feb. 12, 1841 Feb. 12, 1852 

Alexander A. Smets, Feb. 12, 1841 Feb. 13, 1843 

Alexander A. Smets, Feb. 12, 1844 May 9, 1862 

William Bacon Stevens, Feb. 13, 1843 Feb. 12, 1845 

William B. Hodgson, Feb. 12, 1845 Feb. 14, 187c 

Joseph W. Jackson, Feb. 12, 1846 Dec. 28, 1854 

^Assistant Librarian Oct, 5, 1866-August 2, 1869. 

tPrevious to the year 1903 the executive body of the Society was 
styled the Board of Managers, consisting of the President, two Vice- 
Presidents, Corresponding Secretary, Recording Secretary, Treasurer, 
Librarian, and seven Curators — fourteen in all. 

On May 2, 1903, the name of the executive body was changed to the 
Board of Curators, and the number was reduced to twelve. 



Dexter Clapp, Feb. 12, 1846 Feb, 12, 1847 

Solomon Cohen, Feb. 12, 1847 Sept. 12, 1864 

Solomon Cohen, Feb. 12, 1869 Aug. 14, 1875 

John Stoddard, Feb. 12, 185 1 Feb. 17, 1862 

Jacob C. Levy, Feb. 12, 1852 Feb. 12, 1855 

William Duncan, Feb. 12, 1855 Feb. 12, i86c 

Joseph S. Fay, Feb. 12, 1855 Feb. 12, 1858 

William M. Charters, Feb. 12, 1858 Feb. 12, 1868 

Charles C. Jones, Jr., Feb. 17, 1862 July 14, 1862 

Edward J. Harden, July 14, 1862 Feb. 12, 1867 

Thomas M- Norwood, July 14, 1862 Feb. 12, 1877 

Thomas M- Norwood, Feb. 13, 1893 Feb, 12, 1894 

Henry A. Richmond, Sept. 12, 1864 Feb. 12, 1868 

Alexander Robert Lawton, Feb. 12, 1867 Feb. 12, 1868 

Alexander Robert Lawton, Feb. 14, 1876 Feb. 12, 1883 

Henry R. Jackson, Feb. 12, 1868 Feb. 14, 1870 

Barnet Phillips, Feb. 12, 1868 Feb. 13, 1871 

Juriah Harriss, Feb. 12, 1868 Feb. 14, 187c 

William D. Harden, Feb. 14, 187c Feb. 12, 1895 

Aug. Schwaab, Feb. 14, 187c Mar. 2, 1874 

Aug. Schwaab, Feb. 12, 1877 Feb. 13, 1888 

Bernard Mallon, Feb. 14, 187c Feb. 12, 1872 

John S. F. Lancaster, Feb. 13, 1871 Aug. 13, 1877 

Robert Falligant, Feb. 12, 1872 Feb. 12, 1883 

Robert Falligant, JVEar. 6, 1899 Jan. 3, 1902 

Charles H. Olmstead, Mar. 2, 1874 Feb. 12, 1889 

George W. J. DeRenne, Feb. 12, 1877 Aug. 4, 1880 

Richard J. Larcombe, Feb. 12, 1878 Oct. 13, 1887 

William W. Paine, Feb. 14, 1881 Feb. 13, 1882 

WilHam H. Baker, Feb. 13, 1882 Feb. 13, 1888 

John O. Ferrill, Feb. 12, 1883 April 18, 1884 

William N. Holt, Feb. 12, 1883 Feb. 15, 1886 

John Screven, Feb. 12, 1885 Feb. 12, 1889 

George A. Mercer, Feb. 15, 1886 Feb. 14, 1898 

George A. Mercer, May 2, 1903 Feb. 25, 1908 

W. G. Charlton, Feb. 13, 1888 Feb. 12, 1895 







Richard J. Nunn, 


13, 1888 




Richard J. Nunn, 


2, 1903 




J. R. F. Tattnall, 


i3> 1888 




H. S. Haines, 


13, 1888 




J. H. M. Clinch, 


12, 1889 




Charles N. West, 


2, 1889 




Charles N. West, 


5, 1894 




Lester Hubbell, 


6, 1891 




William Garrard, 


12, 1894 




Henry C. Cunningham, 


4, 1895 




Henry C. Cunningham, 


2, 1903 




Horace P. Smart, Sr., 


4, 1895 




Augustus Oemler, 


4, 1895 




Wymberley J. DeRenne, 


12, 1896 




Wymberley J. DeRenne, 


12, 1912 




Joachim R. Saussy, 


15, 1897 




Brantley A. Denmark, 


14, 1898 




William L. Clay, 


14, 1898 




Charles F. Fulton, 


12, 190C 




George J. Baldwin, 


12, 1902 




William W. Mackall, 


12, 1902 




Alexander Rudolf Lawton, 


12, 1902 




Otis Ashmore, 


2, 1903 

J. Florance Minis, 


2, 1903 

Spencer P. Shotter, 


2, 1902 




Spencer P. Shotter, 


15, 1911 




Uldrich H. McLaws, 


2, 1903 




Benjamin H. Levy, 


6, 1906 




Thomas J. Charlton, 


25, 1908 




William W. Williamson, 


25, 1908 




Horace P. Smart, Jr., 


16, 191C 




William W. Gordon, Jr., 


16, 191C 

Charles Ellis, 


19, 1914 




W. W. DeRenne, 


30, 1916 




Henry R. Goetchius, 


13, 1917 

Alexander C. King, 


12, 1917 





Lawton B. Evans, 


12, 1917 

R. P. Brooks, 


12, 1917 

R. P. Brooks, 


2, 192c 

DuPont Guerry, 


12, 191P 

T. M. Cunningham, 


12, 1918 

Beverly D. Evans, 


17, 192c 

David C. Barrow, 


2, 192c 

Andrew J. Cobb, 


2, 192c 

P. S. Flippen, 


2, 192c 

A. C. Newell, 


2, 192c 

H. R. Slack, 


2, 192c 

W. E. Thomas, 


2, 192c 


Nov. 2, 1917 
April 5, 1920 


NOTE: — The conclusion of the Eulogy on Dr. N. W. Jones by 
Dr. Grimes, begun in the March number, will be given in the Quar- 
terly for December. 







VOL. IV— No. 4 




Eulogy on Dr. Noble W. Jones (Conclusion), 

By Dr. John Grimes 141 

Two RoYAi Commissions Issued to John Reynolds .... 159 

Index 181 







VOL. IV— No. 4 


Printed for the Society by 


Savannah, Georgia 



niie Georgia Historical Quarterl}? 

Volume IV DECEMBER. 1920 Numbers 4 


Life and CKaracter of Dr. Moble Wymberle}? Jones 



Did Hippocrates evince his love and attachment to his pro- 
fession by the uncommon zeal and pains he took to instruct 
many of his own family in physical science, and sending 
them afterwards to practice in different countries, the most 
interesting in point of their medical history, with the com- 
mand to dispense the beneficence of their art to all, espe- 
cially the poor on the highway ; and to report to him faithfully 
the results of their observation and experience in climates so 
opposite, the better to enlarge his own mind on the nature and 
cure of disease ? Having first imparted to them his knowledge 
of the principles of medicine and his skill at observation, he 
sent Thessalus, his eldest son, to Thessaly; his younger son, 
Draco, to the Hellespont; and Polybus, his son-in-law, into 
another quarter of Greece. 

The same spirit of devotion and reverence for medicine 
animated the labors and sweetened the professional cares of 
Doctor Jones. Proud of the honor of being a physician, con- 
vinced of the dignity and respect attached to all who dis- 
charge a right, and, with conscience, the solemn obligations 
of that avocation; sensible of the numerous blessings flow- 
ing to society, to humanity, from the well directed exertions of 
his profession; and anxious to discharge his overflowing 
philanthropy through that channel, he would gladly have 
rendered the names of Jones and Doctor indissoluble in his 
family forever. By his entreaties his only surviving child. 
Doctor George Jones, was induced, through a sentiment of 


filial regard, to apply himself to medicine, contrary to his 
original bias. But he extended his solicitude to have his 
name connected with medicine still further. He was de- 
serious that the present young Noble Wymberly Jones should 
at once perpetuate his name and his profession. 

Like Hippocrates also he applied to comparative anatomy, 
with the view of enlarging his knowledge of the internal and 
intimate structure of man. The wild animals of the forest 
were made subservient to the benefit of his patients. 

He continued to prosecute the duties of his profession in 
common with his father, until 1756, the three or four last 
years of which the burthen of the business devolved upon 

As the settlements extended, he obeyed professional calls 
into the country even as far as Sunbury, which is 40 miles 
from Savannah. The dangers and hardships of the Camp 
had already enured to habits of great labor, activity and 
vigilance. It would seem to have been the religion of his life 
to obey the calls of the sick with whatever difficulties and 
dangers they were accompanied. Such hazard was there to 
life from the ambuscade of the savage, and the lawless depre- 
dations of plundering banditti who lay in wait in the im- 
penetrable morass and robbed and killed in the forest; that 
the practitioner who would then venture to visit alone in the 
country must have had a mind as bold and fearless as it 
was anxious to fulfill its obligations to his patients. On 
horseback, with a weapon of defense. Doctor Jones made his 
professional excursions from the city, whenever called upon 
either by night or day. I regret exceedingly that my per- 
sonal acquaintance with Doctor Jones, formed in the latter 
part of the last year of his life, was necessarily so short; but 
I know enough of him to say that he was an excellent practi- 
tioner of medicine generally. He was correct in conception 
of disease, and bold and prompt in the application of his 
remedies. He was wedded to no particular system or mode of 
practice which left his mind free and open to suggestions 
from reason and changes in the indication of his patient's com- 


plaints. He was cautious and precise in forming his opinion 
of a disease, and vigilant and active in executing it. The 
sensibility of his mind to the end of his life was so great as to 
be acted upon by the smallest portion of truth. While most 
physicians, from indolence and prejudice, become unchange- 
able in their principles and practice, before they are 40, 
Doctor Jones, at double that age, acknowledged and continued 
to embrace improvements in his profession. He was con- 
vinced that medicine is still in its infancy, and detested that 
stability in error so disgraceful to the healing art. Of this 
rare trait in his character and of the uncommon boldness 
and decision of his practice I became convinced, much to my 
satisfaction and astonishment, soon after my acquaintance 
with him. 

In May, 1804, I consulted his aid in the treatment of a 
case of Opisthotomos to which I had been called, and pro- 
posed a plan of cure then new to him. Convinced of the 
usual inefficiency of all former methods, he readily assented, 
and urged it to an extent much beyond what experience 
had warranted, I believe to the safety of our patient. 

Of the originality of his judgment and the accommodation 
of his practice to variations in the type and force of disease, 
I will mention another very conspicuous proof. Some time 
in the years between 1756 and 1761, a disease exhibiting all 
the essential characters of what has since been improperly 
called "yellow fever," visited Savannah. Finding the ordi- 
nary remedies for complaints of the season in which it invaded 
to be wholly ineffectual, he had recourse to bleeding and 
other depletive means, with benefit to his patients. This was a 
mode of practice then new and original in autumnal disease. 
In several other instances that have come to my knowledge, 
he has astonished his consulting brethren with the strength 
and boldness of his prescriptions and practice, of which the 
result always proved the correctness and depth of his judg- 
ment. Doctor Jones performed all the common operations in 
Chirurgery with dexterity and adroitness. He was particu- 
larly attentive to the cleanliness and condition of his chirurgi- 


eal instruments, and used them as occasion required, with 
firmness and intrepidity, but he was chiefly pre-eminent in 
the art of the accoucheur. Here he was certainly master of his 
art. For knowledge and experience in this important branch 
of his profession, he was surpassed by none in this, or per- 
haps any other country. He practiced it with equal reputa- 
tion in Philadelphia, Charleston and Savannah. Here even 
his competitors in the art acknowledged him dexterous and 
expert. Here, his patience, self-denial and devotion to his 
profession were particularly conspicuous, and excited the as- 
tonishment of all who knew him. 

When called upon to administer relief in the line of his 
profession, his exertions were paramount to every difficulty. 
Neither the inclemency of the weather, the untimeliness of the 
hour, nor his own ill health, could operate as barriers to the 
accomplishment of his benevolent purpose. The stream of hu- 
manity springing from the copious reservoir of his heart was 
neither to be congealed by the wintry blasts nor evaporated 
by the summer blaze. Fed by a tributary streamlet from every 
fibre of his system, it could be exhausted only by the termina- 
tion of his life. Sensible to the wants and sufferings of his 
patients, he was a stranger to that counterfeit humanity 
which evaporates in the empty parade and profession of sym- 
pathy. Leaving to others the suspicious practice of announcing 
in words their benevolent and charitable disposition, he spoke, 
by his actions, the reality of his feeling. 

He was remarkably punctual to all his professional en- 
gagements, making every other kind of business subservient 
to them. Indeed, his devotion to his patients was such as to 
induce the belief that, regardless of emolument, motives of 
humanity were the only objects of his professional care. In 
his attendance upon the sick, he made their health his first 
object. So gentle and sympathizing was Doctor Jones' man- 
ner in a sick room that pain and distress seemed to be sus- 
pended in his presence. Humanity blessed his access, and 
hope followed his footsteps. He was compassionate and chari- 
table to the poor; and made no distinction in his medical 


services between them and the rich. Never, I venture to say- 
it, never will Savannah again witness a physician possessed of 
as many amiable qualities as those which have endeared the 
memory of Doctor Jones. I smile under the magnitude of 
the subject. 

Who has the language to express or can wield his pen to 
describe in a manner sufficiently vivid and glowing, the toils, 
the cares, the anxieties, and watchings of a physician such 
as our President was. Sedulously devoted to the best in- 
terests of his patients ! But I acquire support from you 
citizens of Savannah who know and can conceive, better than I 
can paint, the inestimable value of his medical services. Are 
there any among you who do not recollect with sentiments 
of gratitude some signal mark of attention, benevolence and 
skill, bestowed upon the tender object of your solicitude or 
yourselves? When mankind in another far distant age shall 
have arrived at a more accurate and determinate knowledge 
of the, at present, secret and inexplicable motives to action 
in the human breast; when they shall have learned to reject 
from instances of human greatness the productions of base 
appetities and passions — the idolatry of the present day — 
and shall regard the quantity of volition expended and the 
sum of good attained by the exertions of man, as the only 
square and rule by which to adjudicate portions of reputa- 
tion and fame; then shall beneficence, goodness and philan- 
thropy exult in the reward of their services. Then shall the 
labors of the physician, exposing him to whatever is dis- 
gusting and offensive to the senses, stemming the torrent of 
disease, misery and distress ; and moving in the silent and un- 
ambitious walks of his profession; excite the admiration, and 
insure the gratitude of the human race. 

From this short and imperfect review of the life and 
early opportunities for medical improvement which Doctor 
Jones enjoyed, the inference is irresistible that, had these been 
such as are presented in a course of common medical educa- 
tion, he would have been as great in the science as he was 
in the practice of his profession. A mind such as he possessed, 


laborious, minute and correct, could not fail to have imbibed 
with avidity, and improved upon, the knowledge of others. 
How vast is the difference between the avenues to medical 
knowledge which he commanded and those placed at the dis- 
cretion of the common student of physic! The latter has 
presented to his juvenile and susceptible mind, systematized 
and cleansed from their rubbish, the facts, the opinions, the 
principles and the knowledge, which have been accumulated 
by the industry and genius of his ancestors from Hippocrates 
to CuUen, elucidated by lecture, and impressed by demonstra- 
tion. Doctor Jones had the whole labor of thought and reason 
to perform for himself. What must the labors of that 
physiologist be, who, in forming just notions of the 
Zoonomia, (I mean the laws of organized life), never had his 
mind enriched by that preparatory knowledge which nothing 
but dissection, and the inspection of the various anatomical 
preparations of the human body can impart! What diffi- 
culties obscure the science of Pathology, when our knowledge 
of its basis. Physiology, is either small or incorrect; without 
these two main pillars, how tottering must be the Edifice of 
Medicine! Reflect, also, how many of the most perplexing 
intricacies of our science have been illustrated by that halo 
of light, with which chemistry has lately invested it. Within 
the limits of the last thirty years Chemistry has detected the 
nature and demonstrated the constituent parts of the element 
in which we live and upon which we depend for every moment 
of our existence. Within the same short time she has satis- 
fied us upon the knotty and difficult subjects of respiration 
and animal heat ; and convinced us that digestion is effected 
neither by trituration nor fermentation. She has exploded 
the ancient and very general belief of putrefaction in the fluids 
of the living system. She has purified and enlarged our views 
of the Materia Medica, and improved the science even of 
Chirurgery. She is now opening an extensive field of pneu- 
matic remedies, and promises fairly to analyze that gas of 
Pandora which, in epidemic form, pervades the world. But 
with how many impediments do we meet in attempting to eon- 



ceive of and reason upon these brilliant discoveries, without 
the aid of the experiments and demonstrations of him who is 
skilled in this branch of our profession? Of these Doctor 
Jones was deprived both by the time of his application and the 
penury of his opportunities. When we consider this, and view 
the point of eminence he attained in his profession, we have 
a right to exclaim — He was a physician as great as he was 

Doctor Jones' private, moral and religious character, was 
without a shade or a hlemisJi. If the early part of his life, 
spent in the midst of toils, dangers, and watchings, had nerved 
his system and evolved his constitution to a degree well suited 
to the duties of an arduous and laborious profession, it will be 
admitted that it was exposed to causes unfriendly to the germ- 
ination and growth of the seeds of humanity, morality and 
virtue. But neither the licentiousness and profligacy of the 
camp, nor the carnage of war, could harden the native sus- 
ceptibility of his mind against that divine philanthropy which 
sympathizes in the distress and woe of another, or weaken the 
original propensity of his heart to whatever in piety and re- 
ligion exalts and dignifies the human character. Having laid 
his hand upon the key that unlocks a knowledge of the causes 
which injure or ameliorate the physical and moral conditions 
of human nature, he applied it to himself with prudence and 
judgment, throughout his long life. To industry and activity 
he united the greatest temperance. "With how much wisdom 
he adopted and practiced the latter virtue those know best 
who, like himself, are possessed of a knowledge of the del- 
eterious effects of those physical agents which if they do not 
contract the sphere of life — a position be denied — do worse; 
in the destruction of our native susceptibility of moral and 
physical truth, and in the obliteration of that exalted sense — 
the lamp of the mind — the sense of conscience and of God. 

Endowed naturally with the faculties for improvement, 
vast and infinite, we are ushered into a world of causes of 
opposite effects with the liberty to use or abuse them. Adapted 


by the organization of our nature to hold extensive relation 
with external and surrounding objects, the most secret re- 
cesses of mind are not a sanctuary from their encroachment. 
Framed by the great Architect for the purpose of investigat- 
ing, we are in turn affected by the objects of creation. Born 
with capacity only, we are indebted to these external agents 
not merely for the support and actions of life, but for the 
development of thought and mind. By them we move and 
exist; by them we are taught to cogitate, to reason, and to 
adore our Maker. 

Amidst the causes which thus impart life and health to 
the body and organization and action to the mind, an infinity 
of others are blended which have the power to pervert and de- 
range the one, and lay waste the other, to the influence of 
which we are equally propensed. Fortunate and happy in- 
deed is he, therefore, who has acquired the sense to discrim- 
inate between them. — who has the knowledge and wisdom to 
detect, and the fortitude and magnanimity to resist the latter. 
In this important branch of the philosophy of human life, 
the life of Doctor Jones abounds with examples of the greatest 
wisdom demonstrated in his action and conduct. 

Led by his knowledge in Physiological Science to unravel 
the mazes which connect the mind and body in reciprocal 
action, he was struck with the mutual dependence and ulti- 
mate reciprocity of their movements, he saw that an agent or 
impression applied to the body, by a law of physical necessity, 
affected the mind also, and that the degree of influence com- 
municated was exactly proportionate to the force, kind and 
quantity, of the agent, and the excitability of the part of the 
body to which the application is made. He also saw, that 
certain states of the mind, original in themselves, reverted 
their influence back upon the body. Conducted by the same 
channel of investigation, he beheld certain parts of the body, 
13 well as certain states of the mind, linked together in more 
intimate and sensible connection than the rest, and exerted 
their reciprocal powers more quickly and extensively. Thus 
he contemplated the affections and gentle emotions of the 


mind scintillating, from fibre to fibre, the flame of alacrity 
and excitement, grief, sorrow and despair, enervating the 
whole fabric, the angry passions distorting the heaven-born 
aspect of man with tumult and confusion, and extending 
their ravages to the throne of life while he viewed with de- 
light and secret satisfaction salutary and benign influence 
which the understanding and the reason, the judgment and 
the moral faculty in friendship also with his exterior and 
social relations, imparted to the whole system of man. Thus, 
also, he contemplated with emotions of practical joy the 
stomach, like the suu; in the center of the planetary system, 
diffusing the light and warmth of life and energy and dart- 
ing its rays throughout the whole of the human sys- 
tem. The truth rushed in upon his mind, and he drew these 
grand practical inferences — that the stomach is the origin and 
fountain an important dispenser of motion and sympathetic 
association between the remote parts of the body and mind, 
that whatever impression or agent unnaturally affects or in- 
jures it, affects or injures, in the same degree, the whole sys- 
tem of life and thought; and that this fountain is curtailed 
in its powers of dispensation by whatever in aliment, or drink, 
or otherwise lessens and obtunds its native and original quan- 
tity of excitability — thus extinguishing the light of life and ac- 
tivity, in every corner of its associate dependencies. 

Convinced of the truth of these important facts in the 
physical history of man, he sought about their application. 
In this research, he fell in with the vestiges, and pursued 
them to the stronghold of the Monster, whose syren voice 
breathed delight and destruction in the same blast. Here he 
beheld his gorgeous dwelling enthroned upon Sensation, 
and the sure ministers of his designs, under the mask of in- 
dulgence, pleasure, delight and ecstacy, laying waste the 
fairest portion of creation! Subverting the moral sense and 
sense of Deity, the main pillars of that noble edifice the 
mind; and ambuscading the walks of life, Avith disease, de- 
formity and pemature death! Thus inflicting on the human 


race more pain and misery than the combined influence of 
pestilence and war ! Persuaded of the necessary and inevitable 
deterioration of the moral and physical character of all who 
throw themselves Avithin the sphere of the dominion of that 
Hydra (I mean sensation) ; and called upon by the destinies 
of professional education to exercise one of the most impor- 
tant functions in society; involving the obligation to display 
whatever of greatness and goodness he might profess; Doctor 
Jones put his habits, his manners, his passions and appetites 
under the control of his will. Hence he probably derived the 
reason of his temperance. 

From the earliest accounts of him, to the end of his long 
life, he was a prodigy, in this country at least, of temperance, 
both in the indulgence of his appetite and the passions of bis 

His diet, in the use of which he was singularly temper- 
ate, was simple and mostly vegetable. He ate sparingly of 
animal food, well done, with waich he occasionally used pepper 
and salt. Among the articles of vegetable diet he gave the 
preference to wheat bread on which he was wont to make the 
principal part of his meal. He rejected the whole catalogue 
of codiments, except the two mentioned, and had a particular 
dislike to the saccharine and oleaginous, especially butter of 
the least rancidity. He had an aversion, also, to mutton, 
crabs and onions. Exclusive of these exceptions, he had no 
choice in the articles of his solid food. His politeness, however, 
always got the better of these antipathies, and induced him 
to partake of whatever was placed before him. 

For many years before his death, he entirely rejected the 
use of vinous and spirituous fluids. In early and middle life, 
when much exhausted by the fatigues of his profession, he 
v^ould take a draught of porter, or gin, much diluted; and, 
after dinner, one glass of wine. Next to water he preferred cof- 
fee. These were his only beverages for the last twelve years of 
his life. Of the latter, he was particularly fond, and used free- 
ly, whenever it was offered him. He drank it morning and eve- 


ning and had recourse to it at all times, to relieve the fatigue, 
and to support the patience and vigilance, so certain and un- 
avoidable, in line of his profession. 

How fraught with happy effects would this lesson of ex- 
perience be, if men generally, but especially physicians, could 
be induced to follow it! Fatigue and weariness necessarily 
molest the walks of your profession, but apply not for re- 
dress, Physician, to the Omnipotent throne of alcohol of 
which wine is the gaudy appendage! Imitate the maxim of 
this veteran in our art! Exhilarate the exhausted powers of 
your system by the salutary and agreeable stimulus of coffee, 
which leaves no sting, hazards no virtue, destroys no talent. 
I shall make no apology for this minute detail of the furni- 
ture of the table and sideboard of our late President. It is 
no uninteresting part in the history of his life. Not only 
individuals, but whole nations, bear testimony to the good 
effects of simplicity and temperance in the use of aliments and 
drinks upon the moral and intellectual faculties and the long- 
evity of man. Carneades, Edwards and Newton, accelerated 
the operations of their minds by temperance and abstinence. 
The Spartans probably owed their mental pre-eminence to 
their black broth. And the barley broth of Scotland has no 
doubt contributed much to that reputation for genius and 
learning which its inhabitants have acquired in every part 
of the world. But we shall never arrive at the certainty of 
system in our knowledge of the effects of aliments and drinks 
upon the human mind and body, till we preserve a minute 
record of the dietetic habits of men, with whom their salutary 
effects have been apparent. The influence which temperance 
exerts upon the moral faculty has rendered fasting a com- 
mon ceremony in the religion of most countries. Did Doctor 
Jones owe to the toils and hardships of his ealy life much of 
the activity and vigor of his constitution? To industry com- 
bined with temperance we may attribute his longevity ; to his 
simplicity and care in the indulgence of his appetite he was 
largely indebted for the vigor and strength in the faculties of 


his mind ; for that rectitude and dignity of character, and for 
the virtues which accompanied him to the end, and sustained 
him at the approach of death. 

By thus resisting the influence of causes which enlarge the 
imagination and inflame the passions, at the expense of morals 
and judgment, he was enabled to subdue the original quickness 
and velocity of his temper ; to cultivate his understanding ; to 
expand his reason, and to cherish all the feelings of virtue 
and sociality. If by such habits, the limits of his fancy and 
imagination were bounded, and his passions lost their erratic 
tone, the other, and more useful, faculties of his mind and 
qualities of his heart, were strengthened and extended. His 
memory, perfect and juvenile in his last moments, was thus 
rendered an extensive and faithful repository of events, facts, 
opinions and principles. It was fed through the avenues of 
all his senses which to the end of an advanced old age were 
thus made to retain their nature and primitive sensibility. 

From this copious reservoir his will, toned by temperance 
and industry, marshalled the materials of the operations of 
his reason and judgment unobscured by the vagaries of imagi- 
nation and hypotheses. On the fine loom moves tissue of 
fancy. These agents, in the hands of Providence, made Doctor 
Jones what he was — a great and good man, and an excellent 
practitioner of the medical art. The early military habits of 
Doctor Jones were observable to the end of his life, in uni- 
form neatness and cleanliness of his person, and the order in 
which he always kept his arms and accoutrements. In robust 
manhoo'd he took much delight in the exercise and amuse- 
ment of hunting on horseback. He was an excellent horse- 
man and an uncommon good marksman. 

I shall beg no pardon for being thus circumstantial in my 
detail of his private life. Even the amusements of men who 
have in any way distinguished themselves worthy of our admi- 
ration and praise, are not uninteresting anecdotes in an ac- 
count of their lives. 


Circumstances, often very slight and unpereeived, have 
great effect in evolving and forming particular characters. 
Franklin acknowledged the force of this truth, when he de- 
tailed to us, in the history of his own life, his amusements 
of swimming and chessplaying. But the business of his pro- 
fession alone gave Doctor Jones continued exercise, and occu- 
pied nearly the whole of his time. With these he mingled 
application to various subjects of knowledge. He read much, 
and chiefly upon medical, agricultural and political subjects. 

His hours of study, the only time he could save from an 
extensive practice, were from 10 to 12 in the evening, and 
from 4 to 7 in the morning. He was a strict economist of 
time, which he appeared to consider as a species of property 
that no man had a right to take from him without his con- 
sent. It was by means of this economy and the system to 
which he reduced everything about him, that he was enabled 
to do so much in his profession; as much, if not more, than 
any of his younger brethren in this place could effect. 

It may be well said of Doctor Jones that he lived by 
rule, without subjecting himself to the slavery of forms. 
He was always employed, but never in a hurry. 

In the early part .of his life he commonly devoted 6 or 7 
hours out of the 24 to sleep. But the frequent interruptions 
to repose from professional calls induced a habit in him, at 
length, of waking up almost every hour of the night. For the 
last thirty years, three or four hours of sleep sufficed with 
him to recruit the exhaustion of the day. 

We have to regret, in common with the rest of the inhabi- 
tants of Savannah, the devastation on property, committed by 
the fire of 1796. By that accident Doctor Jones was deprived 
of all of his books and papers, and use of many valuable and 
interesting documents, particularly his records of the condi- 
tion and phenomena of our climate, which he had kept for 
many years. Convinced of the great and very extensive in- 
fluence which temperatures and other conditions of the at- 


mospliere exert in the production and prevalence of disease, lie 
made meteorology for many years an object of his particular 
attention. Of his accuracy and faithfulness in recording the 
phenomena of this interesting science, he has left behind him 
some instructing monuments. Numbers from 1796 to the 
first day of the present year have been preserved. From a 
cursory review of them, it appears that he took particular 
notice of the degrees of heat, both in the sun and shade, and 
at different times in the day and night, of the direction of the 
currents of the air, of the quantity and frequency of rains, 
of the different degrees of dampness and clearness of the at- 
mosphere, of the aerial electricity and explosion, and of frosts 
and high winds — all as they appeared conjointly or separately. 
In the course of a month there was not a single hour in the 
day and night against which the observation of temperature 
was not marked once or oftener, but commonly his hours of 
observation were 2, 5, 7 and 12 in the fore and 2 and 10 in 
the afternoon. He continued these observations to the day of 
the illness which terminated his valuable life. On that day, 
the 1st of January, as if tvilling to undertake another year of 
labor and observation, and determined not to outlive his useful- 
ness, he made the follovvung, his last record of the weather: 
"January 1st, 1805 — at 3 a. m. the heat forty degrees; clear 
and starlight. ' ' 

After the fire of 1796 Doctor Jones retired into the country 
with the intention of declining practice; but he soon became 
convinced that habits of industry and activity, once formed, 
could not be laid aside with impunity. Under a life of coun- 
try indolence, his active mind and body both languished and 
grew sick. His extremities, long accustomed to the tone of 
continued exercise and motion, became fatigued by rest; 
waxed painful and swollen, and threatened abscess. Having 
remained in this condition in the country about six weeks, 
he was advised by his friends to return again to the busy 
scenes of practice. He complied; and when upward of 70 
years of age re-entered with as much industry as ever the 


beloved theater of his professional actions, which he continued 
with a renewal of cheerfulness and health to the first day of 
the present year. 

Doctor Jones' social and domestic character was the most 
mdld and amiable. If he could say nothing commendatory of 
one, he avoided giving or offering an opinion. His benevolence 
and charity were unbounded. He preserved economy in all 
his own expenses; but gave liberally to the poor and all use- 
ful institutions. He was long a member of the Union Society, 
of this place, and several times its President. This is the oldest 
and most respectable charitable institution in the state. His 
modesty was so great, that he cautiously avoided mentioning 
any material action of his life, lest it should have the air of 
vanity. His delicacy of manner was such that he was seldom 
known to ask for refreshment or make known a want, fearing 
it might occasion what he deemed trouble. Knowing his dispo- 
sition, his family always had prepared, as if it were by acci- 
dent, whatever they thought would be agreeable to him. He was 
indulgent to his servants, and so extremely affectionate to his 
relatives that he forgot his own indisposition while watching 
over and attending upon them when sick. For his success 
in his profession and all the services he had been enabled to 
bestow upon his family, his fellow citizens, and his country, 
he gave to God the praise; without prejudice, superstition or 
bigotry, he believed and practiced the wide and rational 
precepts of our holy religion. To the silence of medical in- 
fidelity be it spoken, that those who have the most improved 
and adorned our profession, in all ages, have been the friends 
and supporters of religion. Nor shall I defile the purity of 
their religious character, if to Hippocrates and G-alen in the 
first, and Sydenham, Hoffman and Boerhaave in the middle, 
I add Doctor Jones to Cheselden and Fothergill, in the modem, 
age of medicine. In the progress of my inquiry after anec- 
dotes of the early life and character of our President, I had 
recourse to the oldest memories the circle of my acquaintance 
furnished. All of them cherished a faithful record of the 
virtues I have attempted to portray. One of these, in which 


the dementing inroads of time had obscured the recollection of 
almost every event still retained, asseverated this forcible ex- 
pression : ' ' That he was as good a man as ever lived ! Indeed, 
were I permitted to epitomize his character. I would exclaim, 
in the apposite eulogy on Hippocrates by Galen; ^That there 
was but one sentiment in his soul, and that was the love of 
doing good; and, in the course of his long life, but one act, 
and that was the relieving the sick.' " 

Doctor Jones had fourteen children, and survived them all 
but his son, whom we have mentioned. The day on which 
he was taken ill was the fiftieth of his nuptials. It was a cus- 
tom with him to celebrate its anniversary by assembling his 
numerous family to dinner with him. This patriarchal assem- 
bly convened for the last time on the 1st of January, 1804. 
He then observed to his son, ''It was the best he could give," 
and requested him to prepare the next, should he and the 
ancient partner of his life, be still living. The welcome in- 
junction was obeyed, and an invitation sent to his parents to 
vhich he received as apology the indisposition of his father. 

From much fatigue and exposure to cold in attending upon 
several obstetric patients, the two or three last nights. Doctor 
Jones was attacked on the morning of the 1st of January, 1805, 
with pain in his back and extremities, particularly his feet 
and legs, which he said had been much affected by the severity 
of the cold. In this condition, he returned from visiting some 
of his patients, about 10 o'clock in the morning; and was ad- 
vised by his son to rest and the use of medicine. His friends 
hoped that his indisposition was slight, and, arising mostly 
from fatigue, would be removed by refreshment and gentle 
ineans ; but he had and expressed from the first of his going to 
bed, a presentiment that his illness would be fatal. His disease 
continued two or three days, as it commenced, without assum- 
ing any characteristic or specific form. It was fever of the 
Synocha grade of excitement, with a sense of weariness and 
lassitude over the system generally, attended with some pain 
in the lumbar regions and extremeties, frequently changing 
place, and with cramps in the muscles of his legs. 


He was now about his eightieth year, had never been bled, 
and only once blistered, from which he then suffered so much 
that he felt loath ever after to recur to their use. These con- 
siderations induced in himself a disinclination to use, and in 
his attendants to urge, at first either of these remedies, so ob- 
viously indicated. . Thus several days elapsed under a mild 
depleted regimen; then his disease which as yet had worn 
only the livery of the complaints of the season, evolved itself. 
It was now evidently the pneumonic state of fever, with an 
aggravation of all the original symptoms. The lancet and 
vesicating remedies were now urged by his physicians. 
''Though," he said, "he had himself no hope of relief from 
remedies, he conceived it a duty he owed to his family and 
his Maker to submit to whatever treatment was advised." 
Blood was let three or four times, which exhibited much in- 
flammatory scurf; blisters were applied and the antiphlogistic 
system adopted in its extent. The activity and force of his 
pulse continued unrestrained, and his malady augmented. 
His arteries would seem to have been literally the ultimMm 
moriens of his system, such was the force and vigor of their ac- 
tion to the very last. The citizens of Savannah evinced their 
love and affection, and the whole medical faculty of this place 
their respect for Doctor Jones, by their frequent calls and in- 
quiries after his health. 

About 1 o'clock in the afternoon of the 8th day of his 
indisposition he requested that, having submitted to treat- 
ment which had been painful and ineffectual, for the satis- 
faction of his family and friends, finding it was difficult to 
swallow, and feeling that he had but a few more hours to re- 
main in this life, he might be indulged to sleep them away. 

He fell into a doze ; and about 3 o 'clock on the morning of 
the 9th, he expired, without a struggle or a groan,! The sol- 
emnity of this scene, the most impressive I ever witnessed, 
affected and depressed my mind in a peculiar manner. It was 
such an emotion of soul, such as any of you would have felt 
at contemplating so much virtue, goodness and greatness, 


paying the debt of mortality! Our President is no more! 
At this mournful event, every bosom heaves the heartfelt sigh ; 
every mind is affected with grief, sorrow and regret ! 

To you, respectable relicts of his departed worth, the loss 
is peculiarly afflicting — is irreparable — but I am advancing 
on forbidden ground. A regard, I hope a delicate and proper 
one, for the feelings of some of those who honor me with their 
presence, forbids my touching on a subject so affecting. It 
would be rude indeed thus publicly to intrude upon the sanc- 
tuary of recent sorrow. The feeling bosom can well appreciate 
this truth, that there is a degree of woe which must be suffered 
to retire and weep. It is only the silence and secrecy of sorrow 
that are truly devine. What consolation can we offer to the 
immediate relatives of our departed President, when we have 
not yet obtained consolation for ourselves! The emotions of 
joy which should have hailed the access of this day, the first 
anniversary of the birth of Medical Science in our state, are 
destroyed by the melancholy recognition of the death of its 
progenitor and father! The hall of philosophic fraternity 
is converted into the Temple of Mourning ! The orphan genius 
of our Infant Institution celebrates the first annual morn of 
its nativity, bathed in sorrow, and despair, for the loss of the 
venerable author of its existence. Thus, their as well as our, 
only resource lies in the mellowing influence of time, and a 
calm resignation to the will of that Being who gave and has 
recalled our, as well as their, endeared and beloved ancestor. 
Let them as well as ourselves be comforted! His venerable 
shade has flown to a mansion where it is reposing from its 
toils and labors, and enjoying an eternity of youth in the retri- 
bution of his virtues and his services. 

From that region of beatitude and everlasting joy let 
fall, Venerable Shade! the mantle of thy protection, upon 
this Infant Society. Impart to it the duration and firmness 
of thy own nature. Inspire its members with that holy ardor 
in the duties of their profession, which animated thee, and 
caused to be inscribed on the door of the Hall of its Assem- 
blies: ^^Let no man enter here, who is not devoted to Medicine/^ 


TKe Two Royal Commissions 

As GoA)ernor of tKe Pro-Oince of Georgia 

When the charter creating the ''Trustees for Establishing 
the Colony of Georgia in America" was surrendered and it 
became necessary for the British sovereign to appoint a gov- 
ernor of the Province, George III. made choice of John Rey- 
nolds to fill that office. It does not appear that the commis- 
sions issued to him have anywhere been printed in full; but 
Colonel Charles C. Jones, Jr., in his ''History of Georgia," 
Vol. I, pages 462-463, gives a synopsis of what they contain. 
In the sixth and seventh volumes of the ' ' Colonial Records of 
Georgia," published by the State, the minutes of the Presi- 
dent and Assistants and Governor and Council appear in 
almost complete form;, but they show only that Governor 
Reynolds "produced" his commission, on each occasion and 
that it was "read," but not recorded, while the oath taken 
by him is printed. 

At a meeting of the Georgia Historical Society, held on 
Monday, December 6, 1875, Mr. George Wymberley Jones 
DeRenne presented certified copies of the two commissions 
in the following letter: 

Savannah, Ga., December 6, 1875. 

To the President of the Georgia Historical Society : 


I desire to present through you to the Georgia Historical 
Society certified copies of the first royal commissions issued 
to the Governor of the Colony of Georgia, 1754. 

As you are doubtless aware, the charter granted to the 
trustees was surrendered by them in 1752, and became thence- 
forth little more than a historical curiosity. The real Con- 
stitution of Georgia before the Revolution is to be found in 
these commissions to the first Governor, yet of such important 


papers but one copy existed and that in manuscript, their 
very existence having been apparently forgotten. 

That the knowledge of these commissions, the foundation 
of the whole colonial government and legislation of our State, 
may not perish, I have caused properly authenticated copies 
to be made and now give them to the Society for preserva- 
tion in its archives and for publication among its collections 
if deemed fit. 

I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) G. W. J. DeRENNE. 

George the second, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King defender of the faith and so forth. 
To our trusty and well beloved John Reynolds, Esquire, Greet- 
ing: We, reposing especial trust and confidence in the pru- 
dence, courage and loyalty of you, the said John Reynolds, 
of our especial grace certain knowledge and mere motion 
have thought fit to constitute and appoint, and, by these 
presents, do constitute and appoint you, the said John Rey- 
nolds, to be our Captain General and Governor in Chief in 
and over our Colony of Georgia in America, lying from 
the most northern stream of a river there commonly called 
Savannah, all along the sea coast to the southward unto the 
most southern stream of a certain other great water or river 
called Altamaha, and westward from the heads of the said 
rivers respectively in straight lines to the south seas, and of 
all that space circuit and precinct of land lying within said 
boundarys, with the Islands in the sea lying opposite to the 
eastern coast of the said lands, within twenty leagues of the 
same, and vfe do hereby require and command you to do and 
execute all things in due manner that shall belong unto your 
said command, and the trust we have reposed in you according 
to the several powers and authorities granted or appointed 
you by this present commission, and the instructions here- 
with given you, or by such further powers, instructions and 
authorities as shall at any time hereafter be granted or ap- 


pointed you under our signet and sign manual, or by our 
order in our privy Council, and according to such reasonable 
law and statutes as now are in force or hereafter shall be 
made and agreed upon by you, with the advice and consent 
of our Council and the assembly of our said colony, under 
your government, in such manner and form as is hereafter 
expressed, and our will and pleasure is that you, the said John 
Reynolds, after the publication of these, our letters patents, do, 
in the first place, take the oaths appointed to be taken by an 
act passed in the first year of our late royal father's reign, 
entitled an act for the further security of His Majesty's 
person and Government, and the succession of the Crown in 
the heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being protestants, and 
for extinguishing the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales 
and his open and secret abettors, as also that you make and 
subscribe the declaration mentioned in an act of Parliament 
made in the twenty-fifth year of the reign of King Charles 
the second, entitled an act for preventing danger which may 
happen from popish recusants, and likewise that you take the 
usual oath for the due execution of the office and trust of our 
Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over our said 
Colony of Georgia, for the due and impartial administration of 
justice; and further that you take the oath required to be 
taken by Governors of plantations to do their utmost that the 
several laws relating to trade and the plantations be observed. 
Which said oaths and declaration our Council in our said 
colony, or any three of the members thereof, have hereby full 
power and authority and are required to tender and adm.inister 
unto you, and in your absence to our Lieutenant Governor, if 
there be any upon the place, all which being duly performed 
you shall administer to each of the members of our said Council, 
also to our Lieutenant Governor, if there be any upon the 
place, the oaths mentioned in said act entitled. An act for the 
further security of His Majesty's person and Government, 
and the succession of the crown in the heirs of the late 
Princess Sophia, being protestants, and for extinguishing 
the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales and his open and 


secret abettors, as also to cause them to make and subscribe the 
forementioned declaration and to administer to them the oath 
for the due execution of their places and trusts. And we do 
hereby give and grant unto you full power and authority to 
suspend any of the members of our said Council from sitting, 
voting and assisting therein if you shall find just cause for 
so doing, and if there shall be any Lieutenant Governor him 
likewise to suspend from the execution of his command, and 
to appoint another in his stead until our pleasure be known. 
And if it shall at any time happen that by the death, de- 
parture out of our said colony, or suspension of any of our 
said councillors, or otherways there shall be a vacancy in our 
said Council, any three whereof we do hereby appoint to be 
a quorum, our will and pleasure is that you signify the same 
unto us by the first opportunity, that we may, under our 
signet and sign manual, constitute and appoint others in their 
stead ; but, that our affairs may not suffer at that distance for 
want of a due number of Councillors, if ever it shall happen 
that there shall be less than seven of them residing in our said 
colony, we do hereby give and grant unto you, the said John 
Reynolds, full power and authority to choose as many persons 
out of the principal freeholders, inhabitants thereof, as will 
make up the full number of our said Council to be seven, and 
no more, which persons so chosen and appointed by you shall 
be to all intents and purposes Councillors in our said colony, 
until either they shall be confirmed by us or that by the nom- 
ination of others by us, under our sign manual and signet. 
Our said Council shall have seven or more persons in it, and 
we do hereby give and grant unto you full power and author- 
ity, with the advice and consent of our said council, from time 
to time as needs shall require to summon and call General As- 
semblies of the said freeholders and planters within your gov- 
ernment, in manner and form as directed by the instruction 
herewith given you. And our will and pleasure is that the per- 
sons thereupon duly elected by the major part of the freehold- 
ers of the respective districts, counties, and places, and so re- 
turn shall before their sitting take the oath mentioned in the 


said act entitled, An act for the further security of His Majes- 
ty's Person and Government and the succession of the Crown 
in the heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being protestants, and 
for extinguishing the hopes of the Pretended Prince of Wales 
and his open and secret abettors, as also make and subscribe 
the aforementioned declaration which oaths and declaration 
you shall commissionate fit persons under our seal of Georgia 
to tender and administer unto them, and until the same shall 
be so taken and subscribed, no person shall be capable of 
sitting, though elected, and we do hereby declare that the 
persons so elected and qualified shall be called and deemed the 
General Assembly of that our, colony. And you, the said John 
Reynolds, with the consent of our said Council and Assembly, 
or the major part of them respectively, shall have full power 
and authority to make, constitute and ordain laws, statutes 
and ordinances for the public peace, welfare and good govern- 
ment of our said colony and of the people and inhabitants 
thereof, and such others as shall resort thereto, and for the 
benefit of us, our heirs and successors, which said laws, statutes 
and ordinances are not to be repugnant but as near as may 
be agreeable unto the laws and statutes of this our King- 
dom of Great Britain: Provided, that all such laws, statutes 
and ordinances of what nature or duration soever, be, 
within three months, or sooner, after the making thereof, 
transmitted unto us under our seal of Georgia for our 
approbation or disallowance of the same, as also duplicates 
thereof, by the next coveyance; and in case any or all 
of the said laws, statutes and ordinances being not before con- 
firmed by us shall at any time be disallowed, and not approved, 
and so signified by us, our heirs and successors, and under our 
or their sign manual and signet, or by order of our or their 
privy Council unto you, the said John Reynolds, or to the Com- 
mander in Chief of our said colony, for the time being, then 
such and so many of the said Laws, Statutes and Ordinances 
as shall be so disallowed and not approved shall from hence- 
forth cease, determine and become utterly void and of none ef- 
fect, anything to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. And to 


the end tliat nothing may be passed or done by our said Council 
or Assembly to the prejudice of us, our heirs and successors, 
we will and ordain that you, the said John Reynolds, shall 
have and enjoy a negative voice in making and passing all laws 
statutes and ordinances, as aforesaid, and you shall and may 
likewise, from time to time as you shall judge it necessarj^, ad- 
journ, prorogue and dissolve all general Assemblies as afore^ 
said. And our further will and pleasure is that you shall and 
may use and keep the public Seal of our colony of Georgia for 
sealing all things whatsoever that pass the great seal of our 
said colony under your government. And we do further give 
and grant unto you, the said John Reynolds, power and au- 
thority from time to time or at any time hereafter, by your- 
self or by any other to be authorized by you in that behalf, 
to administer and give the aforementioned oaths to all and 
every such person and persons as you shall think fit who 
shall at any time or times pass into our said colony or shall be 
resident or abiding there. And we do further by these presents 
give and grant unto you, the said John Reynolds, full power 
and authority, with the advice and consent of our said Council, 
to erect, constitute and establish such and so many courts of ju- 
dicature and public justice within our said colony under your 
government as you and they shall think fit and necessary for 
the hearing and determining all causes as well criminal as civil, 
according to law and equity, and for awarding of execution 
thereupon with all reasonable and necessary powers, authori- 
ties, fees and privileges thereto, as also to appoint and com- 
missionate fit persons in the several parts of your government 
to administer the oaths mentioned in the aforesaid Act en- 
titled An Act for the further security of His Majesty's per- 
son and governmxent and the succession of the crown in the 
heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being protestants, and for 
extinguishing the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales and 
his open and secret abettors, as also to tender and administer 
the aforesaid declaration unto such persons belonging to said 
courts as shall be obliged to take the same. And we do hereby 
authorize and empov/er you to constitute and appoint judges, 


and in cases requisite commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, 
Justices of the Peace, and other necessary officers and minis- 
ters in our said colony, for the better administration of jus- 
tice and putting the laws in execution, and to administer or 
cause to be administered unto them such oath or oaths as 
are usually given for the due execution and performance of 
officers and places and for the clearing of truth in judicial 
causes. And we do hereby give and grant unto you full power 
and authority where you shall see cause or shall judge any 
offender or offenders in criminal matters, or for any fines or 
forfeitures due unto us fit objects of our mercy, to pardon all 
such offenders and to remit all such offenses, fines and for- 
feitures, treason and wilful murder only excepted, in which 
cases you shall likewise have power upon extraordinary oc- 
casions to grant reprieves to the offenders, until and to the in- 
tent our royal pleasure may be known therein. And we do, 
by these presents, authorize and empower you to collate any 
person or persons to any churches, chapels, or other ecclesiat- 
tical benefices within our said colony aforesaid, as often as 
any of them shall happen to be void. And we do hereby 
give and grant unto you the said John Reynolds, by your- 
self or by your captains and commanders by you to be 
authorized full power and authority to levy, arm, muster, 
command and employ all persons whatsoever residing 
within our said colony of Georgia under your government, 
and, as occasion shall serve, to march from one place to an- 
other, or to embark them for the resisting and withstanding 
of all enemies, pirates and rebels, both at sea and land, and 
to transport such forces to any of our plantations in America, 
if necessity shall require, for the defense of the same against 
the invasion or attempts of any of our enemies, and such 
enemies, pirates and rebels, if there shall be occasion, to pursue 
and prosecute in or out of the limits of our said colony and 
plantations, or any of them, and if it shall so please God them 
to vanquish, apprehend and take, and being taken, either ac- 
cording to law to put to death or keep and preserve alive at 
your discretion, and to execute martial law in time of inva- 


sion, or other times when by law it may be executed, and to 
do and execute all and every other thing and things which to 
our Captain General and Governor in Chief doth or ought of 
right to belong. And we do hereby give and grant unto you 
full power and authority by and with the advice and con- 
sent of our said council to erect, raise, and build in our said 
colony of Georgia such and so many forts, platforms, castles,, 
cities, boroughs, towns and fortifications as you by the advice 
aforesaid shall judge necessary, and the same or any of them 
to fortify and furnish with ordnance, ammunition, and all 
sorts of arms fit and necessary for the security and defense 
of our said colony, and by the advice aforesaid the same again 
or any of them to demolish or dismantle as may be most con- 
venient. And, for as much as diverse mutinies and disorders 
may happen by persons shipped and employed at sea during 
the time of war, and to the end that such as shall be shipped 
and employed at sea during the time of war may be better gov- 
erned and ordered, we do hereby give and grant unto you, 
the said John Reynolds, full power and authority to consti- 
tute and appoint Captains, Lieutenants, Masters, of ships and 
other commanders and officers and to grant unto such Cap- 
tains, Lieutenants, Masters, of ships or other commanders and 
officers, commissions to execute the law martial during the 
time of war according to the directions of two Acts, the one 
passed in the thirteenth year of the reign of King Charles the 
second, entitled An Act for the establishing articles and orders 
for the regulating and better government of His Majesty's 
Navies, Ships of War and forces by sea, etc. The other passed 
in the eighteenth year of our reign, entitled An Act for the 
further regulating and better government of His Majesty's 
Navies, ships of "War and forces by sea and for regulating 
proceedings upon Courts Martial in the sea service, and to 
use such proceedings, authorities, punishments, corrections and 
executions upon any offender or offenders who shall be mu- 
tinous, seditious, disorderly, or any way unruly, either at sea 
or during the time of their abode or residence in any of the 
ports, harbours, or bays of our said colony, as the cause shall 


be found to require, according to martial law, and the said 
directions, during the time of war as aforesaid, provided that 
nothing herein contained shall be construed to the enabling 
you or any by your authority to hold plea or have any juris- 
diction of any offense, cause, matter or thing committed or 
done upon the high sea, or without any of the havens, rivers 
or creeks of our said colony under your government, by any 
Captain, Commander, Lieutenant, Master, Officer, Seaman, 
Soldier or other person whatsoever who shall be in our ac- 
tual service and pay in or on board any of our ships of war or 
other vessels, acting by immediate commission or warrant from 
our Commissioners for executing the offices of our High Ad- 
miral, or from our High Admiral of Great Britain for the time 
being, under the seal of our Admiralty; but that such Cap- 
tain, Commander, Lieutenant, Master, Officer, Seaman, Sol- 
dier or other person so offending shall be left to be proceeded 
against and tried as their offenses shall require either by com- 
mission under our great seal of Great Britain, as the statute 
of the twenty-eighth of Henry the Eighth directs, or by com- 
mission from our said commissioners for executing the office of 
our High Admiral or from our High Admiral of Great Britain 
for the time being according to the aforementioned Acts for the 
establishing Articles and Orders for the regulating and better 
government of His Majesty's Navies, Ships of war and forces 
by sea, and not otherwise provided. Nevertheless, that all dis- 
orders and misdemeanors committed on shore by any Captain, 
Commander, Lieutenant, Master, Officer, Seaman, Soldier or 
other person whatsoever, belonging to any of our ships of war or 
other vessels acting by immediate commission or warrant from 
our said Commissioners for executing the office of our High 
Admiral or from our High Admiral of Great Britain for the 
time being under the seal of our Admiralty, may be tried and 
punished according to the laws of the place where any such 
disorders, offenses, misdemeanors, shall be committed on shore, 
notwithstanding such offender be in our actual service and 
borne in our pay on board any such our ships of war or other 
vessels acting by immediate commission or warrant from our 


said commissioners for executing tlie office of our High Ad- 
miral, or from our High Admiral of Great Britain for the time 
being as aforesaid, so as he shall not receive any protection 
for the avoiding of justice for such offenses committed on 
shore from any pretense of his being employed in our service 
at sea. And our further will and pleasure is that all public 
money raised, or which shall be raised by any act to be here- 
after made within our said colony be issued out by warrant 
from you by and with the advice and consent of our Council 
and disposed of by you for the support of the government and 
not otherways. And we do hereby likewise give and grant unto 
you full power and authority by and with the advice and con- 
sent of our said Council to settle and agree with the inhabitants 
of our colony aforesaid for such Lands, Tenements, Heredi- 
taments as now are or hereafter shall be in our power to dis- 
pose of, and them to grant to any person or persons upon such 
terms and under such moderate Quite Kent Services and ac- 
knowledgements to be thereupon reserved unto us as you, by 
and with the advice aforesaid, shall think fit, which said grants 
are to pass and be sealed by our seal of Georgia, and, being en- 
tered upon record by such Officer or Officers as are or shall be 
appointed hereunto, shall be good and effectual in law against 
us, our heirs and successors. And we do hereby give you, the 
said John Reynolds, full power and authority to order and 
appoint fairs, marts, and markets, as also such and so many 
ports. Harbors, Bays, Havens and other places for the con- 
venience and security of shipping, and for the better loading 
and unloading of goods and merchandise as by you, with the 
advice and consent of our said Council shall be thought fit and 
necessary. And we do hereby require and command all Officers 
and Ministers, Civil and Military, and all other inhabitants 
of our said colony, to be obedient, aiding and assisting unto 
you, the said John Reynolds, in the execution of this our com- 
mission and of the powers and authorities herein contained; 
and in case of your death or absence out of our said colony to 
be obedient, aiding and assisting unto such person as shall be 
appointed by us to be our Lieutenant Governor or Commander 


in Chief of our said colony, to whom we do therefore, by these 
presents, give and grant all and singular the powers and au- 
thorities herein granted to be by him executed and enjoyed 
during our pleasure, or until your arrival within our said 

And if, upon your death, or absence out of our said colony, 
there be no person upon the place commissionated or appointed 
by us to be our Lieutenant Grovemor or Commander in Chief 
of our said province, our will and pleasure is that the eldest 
councillor whose name is first placed in our said instruction 
to you and who shall be, at the time of your death or absence, 
residing within, our said colony of Georgia shall take upon 
him the administration of the government, and execute our 
said commission and instructions, and the several powers and 
authorities therein contained, in the same manner and to all 
intents and purposes as other our Governor or Commander 
in Chief of our said colony should or ought to do in case of 
your absence, until your return or in all cases until our further 
pleasure being known therein. And we do hereby declare, 
ordain and appoint that you, the said John Reynolds, shall and 
may hold, execute and enjoy the office and place of our Cap- 
tain General and Governor in Chief in and over our colony 
of Georgia, together with all and singular the powers and 
authorities hereby granted unto you for and during our will 
and pleasure. In witness whereof we have caused these our 
letters to be made patent. Witness ourself at Westminister the 
sixteenth day of August in the twenty-eighth year of our reign. 

By writ of privy seal, 

(Great Seal) YORK & YORK. 


Office Secretary of the State. 

Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 1, 1875. 
I hereby certify that the above and foregoing thirteen pages 
contain a true and correct copy of the original commission 
from the records of this office. 

Given under my hand and official seal. 

(Signed) n. C. BARNETT, Secretary of State. 


George the Second by the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. To our 
beloved John Reynolds, Esqr., our Captain General and Gov- 
ernor in Chief of our province of Georgia in America, Greet- 
ing : We, confiding very much in your fidelity, leave, and cir-^ 
eumspection in this behalf, do, by these presents which are to 
continue during our pleasure only, ordain, constitute & de- 
pute you, the said John Reynolds, Esqr., our Captain General 
and Governor in Chief aforesaid, our Vice Admiral, Commis- 
sary and Deputy in the Office of Vice Admiralty, in our Prov- 
ince of Georgia aforesaid, and territories thereon depending, 
and in the maritime parts of the same and thereto adjoining, 
whatsoever, with power of taking and receiving all and every 
of the fees, profits, advantages, emoluments, commodities and 
appurtenances whatsoever due and belonging to the said office 
of Vice Admiral, Commissary and Deputy in our said Province 
of Georgia and Territories dependent thereon and maritime 
parts of the same and adjoining to them whatsoever accord- 
ing to the ordinances and statutes of our high court of Ad- 
miralty of England, and we do hereby commit and grant 
unto you, the aforesaid John Reynolds, Esqr., our power and 
authority in and throughout all our province of Georgia 
aforementioned, and territories thereof and maritime parts 
whatsoever adjacent thereto, and also throughout and every 
part of the sea shores, public streams, ports, fresh water rivers, 
creeks and arms, as well of the sea, as of the rivers and 
coasts whatsoever of our said Province of Georgia and terri- 
tories dependent thereon and maritime parts whatsoever of 
the same and thereto adjacent as, well within liberties and 
franchises as without to take cognizance of and proceed in all 
causes, civil and maritime, and in complaints, contracts, of- 
fenses or suspected offenses, crimes, pleas, debts, exchanges, 
accounts, charter parties, agreements, suits, trespasses, injuries, 
extortions, and demands, and business, civil and maritime 
whatsoever, commenced or to be commenced between mer- 
chants or between owners and proprietors of ships and other 


vessels and merchants or others whomsoever, with such owners 
and proprietors of ships and all other vessels whatsoever em- 
ployed or used within the maritime jurisdiction of our Vice 
Admiralty of our said province of Georgia and territories de- 
pending on the same, or between any other persons whomsoever 
had made, began or contracted for any matter, thing, cause or 
business whotsoever done or to be done within our maritime 
jurisdiction aforesaid, together with all and singular their 
incidents emergencies, dependencies, annexed and connexed, 
causes whatsoever, wheresoever or howsoever, and such causes, 
complaints, contracts and other the premises abovesaid, or 
any of them, which may happen to arise, be contracted, had 
or done. To hear and determine according to the rights, 
statutes, laws, ordinances and customs anciently observed, 
and moreover in all and singular complaints, contracts, agree- 
ments, causes and business, civil and maritime, to be per- 
formed beyond the sea or contracted there, howsoever arising 
or happening, and also in all and singular other causes and 
matters which in any manner whatsoever touch or any way 
concern or anciently have and do or ought to belong unto the 
maritime jurisdiction of our aforesaid Vice Admiralty in our 
said province of Georgia and territories thereon depending, 
and maritime parts thereof, and to the same adjoining, what- 
soever and generally, in all and singular other causes, suits, 
crimes, offenses, excesses, injuries, complaints, misdemeanors 
or suspected misdemeanors, trespasses, regratings, forestall- 
ings, and maritime businesses whatsoever throughout the places 
aforesaid within the maritime jurisdiction of our Vice Ad- 
miralty of our Province of Georgia aforesaid, and terri- 
tories thereon depending, by sea or water, or the banks 
or shores of the same, howsoever done, committed, per- 
petrated or happening, and also to inquire by the oath of 
honest and lawful men of our said province of Georgia and 
territories dependent thereon and maritime parts of the 
same and adjoining to them whatsoever dwelling both within 
liberties and franchises, and without as well of all and sin- 


gular such matters and things which of right and by the 
statutes, laws, ordinances and customs anciently observed were 
wont and ought to be enquired after, as of wreck of the sea 
and of all and singular the goods and chattels of whatsoever 
traitors, pirates, manslayers and felons howsoever, offending 
within the maritime jurisdiction of our Vice Admiralty of our 
province of Georgia aforementioned, and territories thereunto 
belonging and of the goods, chattels and debts of all and singu- 
lar their maintainors, accessories, councillors, abettors or as- 
sistants whomsoever, and also of the debts, goods and chattels 
of whatsoever person or persons, felons of themelves by what 
means or howsoever coming to their death within our aforesaid 
maritime jurisdiction wheresoever any such goods, debts and 
chattels or any part thereof by sea, water or land in our said 
province of Georgia and territories thereon dependent and 
maritime parts of the same and thereto adjacent whatsoever 
as well as within liberties and franchises as without have been 
or shall be found forfeited or to be forfeited, or in being and 
moreover as well of the goods, debts and chattels of what- 
soever other traitors, felons and manslayers wheresoever 
offending, and of the debts, goods and chattels of their main- 
tainors, accessories, councillors, abettors or assistants as of the 
goods, debts and chattels of all fugitives, persons convicted, 
attained, condemned, outlawed or howsoever put or to be put 
inexigent for treason, felony, manslaughter or murther, or 
any other offense or crime whatsoever, and also concerning 
goods waveing Flotson, Jetson, Lagon, shares and Treasure 
found or to be found, Deodands, and of the goods of all others 
whatsoever taken or to be taken as derelict or by chance found 
or to be found or howsoever due or to be due and of all other 
casualties as well in, upon, or by the sea and shores, creeks 
or coasts of the sea, or maritime parts as in, upon, or by all 
fresh water ports, public streams, rivers or creeks, or places 
overflown whatsoever, within the ebbing and flowing of the 
sea, or high water upon the shores or banks of any of the same 
within our maritime jurisdiction aforesaid, howsoever, when- 


soever, or by what means soever arising, happening, or proceed- 
ing or wheresoever such debts goods and chattels, or other the 
premises, or any parcel thereof, may or shall happen to be 
not with or found within our maritime jurisdiction aforesaid, 
and also concerning anchorage, lastage and ballast of ships 
and of fishes royal, namely Sturgeons, Whales, Porpoises, Dol- 
phins, Riggs and Grampuses, and generally of all other fishes 
whatsoever which are of a great or very large bulk of fatness, 
anciently by right of custom or any way appertaining or be- 
longing to us. And to ask, require, levy, take, collect, receive 
and obtain and to the use of us and the office of our High Ad- 
miral of Great Britain aforesaid, for the time being, to keep 
and preserve the said wreck of the sea and the goods, debts and 
chattels, and all and singular other the premises, together with 
all and all manner of fines mulcts, issues, forfeitures, amerce- 
ments, ransoms, recognizances whatsoever forfetied or to be 
forfeited and pecuniary punishments for trespasses, crimes, in- 
juries, extortions, contents and other misdemeanors, whatso- 
ever, howsoever imposed or inflicted or to be imposed or in- 
flicted for any matter cause or thing whatsoever in our said 
Province of Georgia, and territories thereunto belonging, and 
maritime parts of the same and thereto adjoining, in any court 
of our Admiralty there held or to be held presented or to be 
presented, assessed, brought, forfeited or adjudged, and also all 
amercements, issues, fines, perquisites, mulcts and pecuniary 
punishments whatsoever, and forfeitures of all manner of 
recognizances before you or your Lieutenant, Deputy or Depu- 
ties in our said Province of Georgia, and Territories there- 
unto belonging, and maritime parts of the same and thereto 
adjacent whatsoever, happening or imposed or to be imposed 
or inflicted or by any means assessed, presented, forfeited, 
or adjudged or howsoever by reason of the premises due or to 
be due in that behalf, to us or our heirs and successors ; 
and further to take all manner of recognizances, cautions, ob- 
ligations, and stipulations, as well to our use as at the instance 
of any parties for agreements or debts and other causes what- 


soever, and to put the same in execution, and to cause and 
command them to be executed and also to arrest and cause and 
command to be arrested according to the civil and maritime 
laws and ancient customs of our said court all ships, persons, 
things, goods, wares and merchandizes for the premises, and 
every of them, and for other causes whatsoever concerning 
the same whensoever they shall be met with or found through- 
out our said Province of Georgia and territories thereunto be- 
longing and maritime parts thereof and thereto adjoining 
within liberties and franchises, or, without, and likewise for 
all other agreements, causes or debts howsoever contracted or 
arising, so that the goods or persons of the debtors may be 
found within our jurisdiction aforesaid and to hear, examine, 
discuss and finally determine the same with their emergencies*^ 
dependencies, incidents annexed and connexed, causes and 
businesses whatsoever, together with all causes, civil and mari- 
time and complaints, contracts and all and every the respec- 
tive promises whatsoever, above expressed, according to the 
laws and customs aforesaid, and by all other lawful ways, 
means and methods, according to the best of your skill and 
knowledge, and to compel all manner of persons in that behalf 
as the case shall require to appear and to answer with power 
of using any temporal coercion, and of inflicting any other 
penalty or mulct according to the laws and customs aforesaid, 
and to do and minister justice according to the right order 
and course of the law summarily, and plainly looking only 
into the truth of the fact and to fine, correct, punish, chastize 
and reform and imprison, and cause and command to be im- 
prisoned, in any gaols being within our Province of Georgia 
aforesaid and territories thereunto belonging to parties guilty 
and the contemners of the law and jurisdiction of our Ad- 
miralty aforesaid, and violators, usurpers, delinquents and 
contumacious absenters, masters of ships, mariners, rowers, 
fishermen, shipwrights, and other workmen and artificers 
whatsoever, exercising any kind of maritime affairs, accord- 
ing to the rights, statutes, laws, ordinances and customs an- 


ciently observed, and to deliver and absolutely discharge and 
cause and command to be discharged whatsoever persons im- 
prisoned in such cases who are to be delivered and to preserve 
and cause to be preserved the public streams, ports, rivers, 
fresh waters and creeks whatsoever within our maritime juris- 
diction aforesaid, in what place soever they be in our said 
Province of Georgia and territories thereunto belonging and 
maritime parts of the same and thereto adjacent whatsoever, 
as well for the preservation of our Navy Royal and of the 
fleets and vessels of our kingdoms and dominions aforesaid as 
of whatsoever fishes increasing in the rivers and places afore- 
said, and also to keep and cause to be executed and kept in 
our said Province of Georgia and territories thereunto be- 
longing and maritime parts thereof and thereto and adja- 
cent whatsoever, the rights statutes, laws, ordinances and cus- 
toms anciently observed to do, exercise, expedite and execute 
all and singular other things in the premises, and every of 
them, as they by right and according to the laws and statutes, 
ordinances and customs aforesaid should be done, and more- 
over to reform nets too close and other unlawful engines, 
or instruments whatsoever, for the catching of fishes where- 
soever, by sea or public streams, ports, rivers, fresh waters or 
creeks whatsoever throughout our Province of Georgia afore- 
said, and territories dependent thereon and maritime parts of 
the same and thereto adjacent, used or exercised by water 
within our maritime jurisdiction aforesaid wheresoever, and to 
punish and correct the exercises and occupiers thereof ac- 
cording to the statutes, laws ordinances, and customs afore- 
said, and to pronounce, promulge and interpose all manner 
of sentences and decrees and to put the same in execution 
with cognizance and jurisdiction of whatsoever other causes 
civil and maritime which relate to the sea or which any man- 
ner of ways respect or concern the sea, or passage over the 
same, or naval or maritime voyages, or our said maitime juris- 
diction, or the places or limits of our said Admiralty and cog- 
nizance aforementioned, and all other things done or to be done, 


with power also to proceed in the same according to the sta- 
tutes, laws, ordinances and customs aforesaid, anciently used 
as well of meer office, mixt or promoted as at the instance of 
aaiy party as the case shall require and seem convenient. 
And likewise with cognizance and decision of wreck of the sea, 
great or small, and of the death, drowning and view of dead 
bodies of all persons howsoever killed, or drowned or mur- 
dered, or which shall happen to be killed, drowned, or mur- 
dered, or by any other means come to their death in the sea, 
or public streams, ports, fresh waters or creeks, whatsoever, 
within the flowing of the sea and high water mark thoughout 
our aforesaid Province of Georgia and territories thereunto be- 
longing and maritime parts of the same and thereto adjacent, 
or elsewhere within our maritime jurisdiction aforesaid, to- 
gether with the cognizance of mayhem in the aforesaid 
places within our maritime jurisdiction aforesaid and 
flowing of the sea and water there happening, with power 
also of punishing all delinquents in that kind according to the 
exigencies of the law and customs aforesaid, and to do, exer- 
cise, expedite and execute all and singular other things which 
in and about the premises only shall be necessary or thought 
meet according to the rights, statutes, laws, ordinances and cus- 
toms aforesaid, with the power of deputing and surrogating in 
your place for the premises one or more deputy or deputies, as 
often as you shall think fit, and also with power from time to 
time of naming, appointing, ordaining, assigning, making and 
constituting whatsoever other necessary fit and convenient offi- 
cers and ministers unto you, for the said office and execution 
thereof, in our said province of Georgia and territories there- 
unto belonging and maritime parts of the same and thereto ad- 
jacent whatsoever (saving always the right of our high court 
of Admiralty of England and also of the judge and register 
of the said court from whom or either of them it is not our 
intention in anything to derogate by these presents and saving 
to every one who shall be wronged or grieved by anj^ defini- 
tive sentence or interlocutory decree which shall be given in 


the Vice Admiralty court of our Province of Georgia afore- 
said, and territories thereunto belonging, the right of 
appealing to our aforesaid high court of Admiralty 
of England) provided nevertheless, and under this ex- 
press condition, that if you, the aforesaid John Reynolds, 
Esq., our Captain General and Governor in Chief aforesaid 
shall not yearly (to-wit) at the end of every year, between the 
Feasts of St. Michael the Archangel and All Saints duly 
certify or cause to be effectually certified (if you shall be 
thereunto required) to us and our Lieutenant Official Prin- 
cipal and Commissary General and Special and Judge and 
President of the high court of our Admiralty of England 
aforesaid all that which from time to time by virtue of these 
presents you shall do, execute, collect, or receive in the prem- 
ises, or any of them, together with your full and faithful 
account thereupon, to be made in an authentic form and sealed 
with the seal of our office remaining in your custody, that 
from thence and after default therein these our Letters Patent 
of the office of Vice Admiral aforesaid as above granted shall 
be Null and Void and of no force or effect. Further, we do, 
in our name, command all and singular our Governors, Jus- 
tices, Mayors, Sheriffs, Captains, Marshals, Bailiffs, Keepers 
of all our goods and Prisons, Constables, and all other our 
officers and faithful and Liege Subjects whatsoever, and every 
of them, as well within liberties and franchises as without. 
That in and about the execution of the premises and every of 
them they be aiding, favoring, assisting, submissive and yield 
obedience in all things as is fitting to you, the said John 
Reynolds, Esq., our Captain General, Governor in Chief of 
our Province of Georgia aforesaid, and to your deputy 
whomsoever and to all other officers (by you appointed or to be 
appointed) of our said Vice Admiralty in our province of 
Georgia aforesaid and territories thereunto belonging and 
maritime parts of the same and thereto adjoining, under pain 
of the law and the peril which will fall thereon. Given at 
London in the High Court of our Admiralty of England afore- 


said under the great seal thereof on the thirteenth day of 
August in the year of Our Lord, One Thousand and Seven 
Hundred and Fifty-four, and of our reign the twenty-eighth. 

(L. S.) SAM HILL, Register. 


Office Secretary of the State. 

Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 1, 1875. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing eleven pages contain 
a true and correct copy of the original commission from the 
records of this office. 

Given under my hand and official seal. 

(Signed) N. C. BARNETT, 

Secretary of State. 








Printed for the Society by 


SavanDah, Georgia 




Adams, Jno. Quincy, Letter 
of 36, 37 

Adams, Sam'l B.__88, 116, 119, 134 

Adler, Leopold 116, 119 

Amelia Island 7 

Anderson, Hugh 122 

Anderson, Jno. W 41 

Anderson, Neal L 116, 119 

Anderson, Page W 116, 119 

Appalachee Bay 7 

Armstrong, L. G 116, 119 

Arnold, R. D 

41, 58, 123, 133, 134, 135 

Ashmore, Otis 

_-_53, '54, 58, 65-67, 72, 95, 101, 
102, 111, 112, 116, 119, 133, 137 

Bacon, Hal H 116, 119 

Baillie, Kenneth 8 

Baker, Wm. H 136 

Baldwin, Geo. J 58, 132, 137 

Balfour, J 41 

Barclay, Anthony 128 

Barnard, Jas. 41 

Barrow, Craig 116, 119 

Barrow, David C, 88, 110, 111, 138 

Barrow, Elfrida 116, 119 

Bartow, J. B 41 

Basinger, Wm. S 134 

Beck, Chas. G 116, 119 

Beckwith, Elisabeth 

54, 112, 116, 119 

Bee, Thos 27 

Bell, Chas. G 116, 119 

Bell, P. G 116, 119 

Berrien, Jno. M., 41, 55, 58, 83, 132 
Bibliography of Georgia His- 
torical Society 122-131 

Binney, Jos. G 41 

Black, Geo. R 86 

Bloodworth, F. D 116, 119 

Blun, Henry 116, 119 

Bogart, Wm. S 134 

Bolton, Reginald 86 

Bond, J. Sullivan 116, 119 

Bosomworth, Adam 10, 11 

Bosomworth, Mary 9, 10, 11 

Bosomworth, Thos.__9, 10, 11, 16 

Bowen, Wm. P 41 

Box, Philip 86, 131 


Brandt, Carl L 83 

Brock, P. F 93, 101 

Brooks, R. P., 93, 101, 110, 111, 138 

Brown, Morgan 41 

Bryan, Jno. M 134 

Bullard, Elizabeth M 116, 119 

Bulloch, Archibald 84 

Bulloch, J. G. B 84 

Bulloch, Wm. B 41, 133 

Bulloch, Wm. H 41 

Burroughs, Jos. H 41 

Campbell, Archibald 27 

Campbell, D. C 41 

Cann, Geo. T 134 

Cann, Jas. F 135 

Carnegie, Andrew 58, 59 

Carr, Jos. J 118 

Caruthers, Wm. A 41, 126 

Charlton, Robt. Milledge 

41, 125, 126, 135 

Charlton, Thos. J 

53, 54, 110, 132, 137 

Charlton, Walter G 136 

Charters, Wm. M 132, 136 

Church, Alonzo 126 

Clapp, Dexter 136 

Clark, Archibald 41 

Clay, Jos 125 

Clay, Wm. L 137 

Clinch, J. H. M 137 

Cobb, Andrew J 

__90, 103-105- 110, 111, 132, 138 

Cobb, Maud Barker 89, 90 

Cohen, Solomon 

41, 127, 132, 133, 134, 136 

Colding, Henry S 116, 119 

Connerat, Clarence S 134 

Coppee, Edward 41 

Cornwallis, Lord 28 

Coulter, E. M 92 

Couper, Jas. Hamilton 41 

Crabtree, Wm., Jr 41 

Crawford, Wm. H 130 

Cumberland Island 7 

Gumming, Geo. B 41 

Gumming, Jos 41 

Cunningham, Henry C._-133, 137 

Cunningham, Lilla W 116, 119 

Cunningham, Nora L. 116, 119 




Cunningham, T. M., Jr 

_._53, 54, 111, 112, 116, 119, 138 

Cuthbert, Jno 8 

Cuyler, Wm. H 41 

Daniell, Wm. C 41 

Davis, Fred A 116, 119 

De La Motta, J. . 41 

DeLorme, Jane 116, 119 

Denmark, Brantley A 137 

Denmark, Remer L 116, 119 

DeRenne, Augusta F 116, 119 

DeRenne, Geo. W. J 

124, 132, 136, 159, 160 

DeRenne, Wymberley J 137 

DeRenne, Wymberley W 

53, 68, 110, 116, 119, 137 

Douglas, D 122 

Dudley, Geo. M 41 

Dunbar, Geo 8 

Duncan, Wm 41, 136 

Editor's Notes 35-37 

Edwards, Chas. G 116, 119 

Elbert, Samuel__85, 124, 130, 131 
Elliott, Stephen 

84, 126, 127, 132, 133, 135 

Ellis, Chas 53, 54, 71, 95, 

101, 102, 110, 112, 116, 119, 137 

Ellis, Marie 116, 119 

Epping, Wm 135 

Espy, Carl 116, 119 

Evans, Beverly D., 53, 54, 71, 95, 

101, 102, 111, 112, 116, 119, 138 
Evans, Lawton B 

53, 54, 95, 101, 

102, 111, 112, 116, 119, 133, 138 

Falligant, Robt 133, 136 

Fay, Jos. Story 41, 136 

Fay, S. H 41 

Ferrill, Jno. O 146 

Fleming, Wm. B 41 

Flippin, P. S 

93, 101, 110, 111, 138 

Floyd, Chas. R 84 

Floyd, John _^ 85 

Foster, Augusta 116, 119 

Foster, J. A 116, 119 

Franklin, Mrs. H. M 88 

Frederica 5, 7 

Freeman, Davis 116, 119 

Fulton, Chas. F 137 

Galphin, Geo 10, 86, 131 

Gamble, Thos 116, 119 

Garrard, Wm 137 

Gay, C. E., Jr 116, 119 

Georgia Historical Association 

75 et seq., 88-106 

Georgia Historical Society 

17, 35, 41-138 

Georgia Medical Society 

17-32, 141-159 

Georgia Newspapers 81 

Gibbs, Chas. M 116, 119 

Glaiber, Maude 116, 119 

Glen, Catherine 17, 18 

Glen, John 18 

Goetchius, Henry R 

53, 54, 111, 112, 137 

Gordon, Beirne.-- 134 

Gordon, G. Arthur 116, 119 

Gordon, Wm. W 53, 

54, 68, 71, 111, 112, 116, 119, 137 

Grayson, Wm. L 116, 119 

Greene, Gen'l Nath'l 27, 30 

Griffin, J. F 41 

Griffin, Robt. H 135 

Grimes, Catherine (Glen), 17, 18 
Grimes, Dr. John, article by_- 

17-32, 141-159 

Groves, Chas. F 

53, 60-64, 111, 116, 119, 134 

Guerry, DuPont-__53, 54, 110, 138 

Habersham, Jas. 124 

Habersham, John 83 

Habersham, Joseph 83 

Habersham, Jos. Clay 42 

Habersham, Robt 41 

Habersham, Wm. Neyle 

41, 42, 106 

Haines, H. S 137 

Hardee, N. A 116, 119 

Harden, Edward J 

42, 128, 132, 133, 134, 136 

Harden, Wm 53, 69, 

70, 81-87, 111, 116, 119, 130, 135 

Harden, W. D 133, 136 

Harris, S. L. W 42 

Harris, Thaddeus Mason 125 

Harriss, Juriah 133, 136 

Hawkins, Benjamin 

55, 85, 123, 125 

Henri, Robert 74 

Henry, Chas. S 41, 132, 135 

Heron, Col. Alex 11 




Heyward. Thos., Jr 27 

Hiers, J. Lawton 116, 119 

Hitch, Robt. M 116, 119 

Hodgson Hall__50, 78, 79, 86, 128 
Hodgson, Margaret Telfair 

58, 78, 86 

Hodgson, Wm. Brown 

83, 86, 123, 135 

Hogan, Walter F 116, 119 

Holt, W. N 134, 136 

Hooper, W. D 90 

Horrigan, J. J 116, 119 

Horton, Maj. Wm 11 

Howe, Robt 85, 131 

Howze, Eva B 116, 119 

Hubbell, Lester 137 

Huger, Catherine B 116, 119 

Hull, Jos 116, 119 

Hull, Robt. M 116, 119 

Hunter, Geo. Wallace 41 

Hunter, Wm 106, 134 

Huntingdon, Selina, Countess 

of 83 

Hyrne, Maj. Edmund 27 

Indian Dance 33 

Irvine, Dr. John 17 

Jack, T. H 89 

Jackson, Henry R.__130, 132, 136 

Jackson, James 85, 131 

Jackson, Jos. W 42, 135 

Janssen, Stephen 3 et seq. 

Jasper, Sergt. Wm 125, 129 

Jenkins, Chas. J 85 

Jenkins, H. V 116, 119 

Johnson, H. Wiley__116, 119, 134 
Jones, Chas. C, Jr 

123, 127-130, 133, 136 

Jones, George 42 

Jones, Jabez 116, 119 

Jones, Noble 21, 25 

Jones, Dr. Noble Wymberley, 

Eulogy on, by Dr. Jno. 

Grimes 17-32, 141-159 

Jones, Thos. A 116, 119 

Judge, Jane 116, 119 

Karow, Anna Belle 54, 112 

Kehoe, Wm 116, 119 

King, Alex. C 

53, 71, 111, 112, 133, 137 

King, Mitchell 126 

King, Ralph _42 


King, Thos. Butler 42 

Knight, Lucian Lamar 88, 90 

Knorr, Louis 135 

KoUock, Geo. J 42 

KoUock, Dr. Lemuel 17 

Kollock, Dr. P. M 42 

Konemann, C. H 116, 119 

Lambeth 21, 23 

Lancaster, J. S. F 135, 136 

Larcombe, Richard J 136 

Law, Wm.__..41, 122, 125, 133, 135 

Lawton, Alex. Robert 133, 136 

Lawton, Alex. Rudolf 

53, 54, 71-80, 95, 101, 102, 110, 
112, 114, 115, 116, 119, 132, 137 

Lawton, A. R., Jr 116, 119 

Lawton, Beckwith 116, 119 

Lawton, Elizabeth S 116, 119 

Lawton, Ella B 116, 119 

Lawton & Cunningham__118, 121 

Lee, Gen'l Henry 85, 131 

Lee, Dr. Lawrence 116, 120 

Leman, Jno. 8 

Levy, Benj. H 

___53, 54, 110, 112, 116, 120, 137 

Levy, Henry __ 116, 120 

Levy, Jacob C 136 

Lienau, Detlef 86 

Louisville 28 

Lovenstein, L. R 116, 120 

Lucas, Jonathan 116, 120 

Luden, Wm 10, 11 

McAdoo Family 85 

McAllister, Matthew Hall 

41, 132, 135 

McAlpin, Henry 116, 120 

McArdell, C 42 

McCall, Hugh 83 

McCall, Mrs. H. H 88 

McCain, J. R 89 

McCauley, Ray G 116, 120 

McCauley, W. F 116, 120 

McCranie, R. A 116, 120 

MacDonell, Alex. H 134 

Mcintosh, Aeneas 8 

Mcintosh, John 8, 16 

Mcintosh, Gen'l Lachlan__85, 131 

Mackall, Leonard L 54, 90, 112 

Mackall, R. C 134 

Mackall, Wm. W 

51 et seq., 71, 132, 137 

Mackay, Hugh ., 8 



McLaws, Gen'l Lafayette 129 

McLaws, Uldrick H,_-___134, 137 

MacQueen, James 8 

McNamara, P. J 116, 120 

McNeill, Florence -116, 120 

McPherson, J. H. T- 88 

McPherson, Robt 8 

McPherson, Thos. 8 

McWhir, Wm 42 

Malatchi Oheya 9 

Mallard, Jno. B 42, 135 

Mallard, Wallace W 116, 120 

Mallon, Bernard 136 

Mann, Wm. Grayson 133 

Marcer, Sam'l 10, 11 

Marcus, Wm 116, 120 

Marriott, Thos 4, 5, 9 

Martin, John 85, 131 

Martyn, Benj 16, 122 

Meidrim, Frances G 116, 120 

Meldrim, Judge P. W 

113, 115, 121 

Mendel, Carl 116, 120 

Mercer, Geo. A 132, 133, 136 

Middleton, Arthur 27 

Millen, John 42 

Miller, Wm. H 42 

Mills, Euphemia 116, 120 

Mills, Geo. J 116, 120 

Minis, J. Florance 53, 54, 67, 

84, 111, 112, 116, 120, 133, 137 

Minis, Louisa P 116, 120 

Mitchell, David B 83 

Montgomery, Chas. Jenkins___85 

Montiano, Don Manuel de 124 

Moore, Francis 122 

Morel, Jas. S 42 

Morgan, David B 116, 120 

Myers, L. R 116, 120 

Myers, M 42 

Nanninga, Henry 116, 120 

Neufville, Rev. Edward 42 

Newell, Alfred C 

90, 110, 111, 138 

Nichols, Mongin B 116, 120 

Nicoll, John C 41, 135 

Nisbet, E. A „___42 

Norwood, Thos. M 136 

Nunn, Dr. Richard Jos 

78, 132, 133, 137 

Nunn Trust Fund 61, 78 

O'Byrne, M. A 116, 120 

Oemler, Aug 137 

Oemler, A. G 42 

Oglethorpe, James 

—21, 23, 30, 55, 83, 122, 123, 125 
Oglethorpe's Treaty with 

Lower Creek Indians 3-16 

Olmstead, Chas. H 

117, 120, 129, 133, 136 

O'Neill, Rev. J. F 42 

Ossabaw Island 7, 9 

Owens, Geo. W 117, 120 

Padelford, Edward 42 

Paine, Thos 42 

Paine, Wm. W 133, 136 

Palmer, A. B 117, 120 

Park, Orville A 90, 93, 101 

Payne, W. O 90, 103-105 

Perry, W. G 90 

Phillips, Barnet 136 

Phillips, U. B - 90 

Pierce (or Piercey), Jos 10, 11 

Pierpont, W. J 117, 120 

Pinckney, Wm 9, 11 

Pooler, R. W 42 

Porter, Anthony 42 

Posey, Dr. Jno. F 42 

Pratt, W. N 117, 120 

Prescott, Helen M 90 

Preston, Henry Kollock ' 

41, 134, 135 

Preston, Rev. WiHard 42 

Pulaski, Count Casimir 128 

Puder, J. Conrad 117, 120 

Purse, Thos 42 

Queries and Answers 33-34 

Ramsay, David 27, 30, 85 

Randolph, R. H 42 

Rankin, Jas. L 134 

Ravenel, Thos. P.___117, 120, 134 

Read, A. C 117, 120 

Read, J. Bond 42 

Reese, Rt. Rev. F. F 117, 120 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua 83 

Reynolds, Gov. John, Royal 

Commissions to 159-178 

Reynolds, L. O 42 

Richmond, Henry A 136 

Robertson, F. M 42 

Robertson, Wm 42 

Rockwell, T. D 134 

Rosenthal, E. W 117, 120 

Ross, Sam 117, 120 




Rush, Dr. Benj 28, 30 

Rutherford, Mildred 88 

St. Catherine's Island 7, 9 

St. John's River 7 

St. Simon's Island 124 

Sapelo Island 7 

Saussy, Gordon 117, 120 

Saussy, Hattie 117, 120 

Saussy, Joachim R 137 

Savannah Public Library 57 

Savannah River 7 

Schley, George 42 

Schwaab, Aug 136 

Screven, Elizabeth M 117, 120 

Screven, John 84, 132, 133, 136 

Semmes, Kate F 117, 120 

Shaffer, J. L 42 

Shotter, Spencer P 137 

Silk Culture in Georgia 33-34 

Slack, H. R 110, 111, 138 

Smart, Horace P., Sr 137 

Smart, Horace P., Jr 

117, 120, 137 

Smets, Alex. A 

41, 133, 134, 135 

Smith, James 42 

Solomon, Arthur P 117, 120 

Sorrel, G. Moxley 132, 133 

Spalding, Ella B 117, 120 

Spalding, Thos. 122 

Stephens, Chas 42 

Stephens, Wm 82, 122 

Stephans, Wm. B 117, 120 

Stevens, Wm. Bacon 

41, 122, 125, 127, 134, 135 

Stiles, B. E 42 

Stiles, Wm. H 42 

Stoddard. John______132, 133, 136 

Strachan, H. G 117, 120 

Strobhar, A. D 117, 120 

Strobhar, W. G 117, 120 

Tailfer, Pat 122 

Talmage, Samuel K 126 

Tattnall, Jno. R. F 137 

Tattnall, Josiah 84 

Teasdale, Mary S 117, 120 

Tefft, Chas. E 135 


Tefft, Israel K 37, 41, 83, 133 

Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, 54, 56, 58, 60, 63, 64, 
74, 94, 95, 100, 106-109, 113, 121 

Telfair, Alexander 58 

Telfair, Edward 85, 131 

Telfair, Mary 

58, 86, 100, 106, 107, 131 

Thomas, W. E 110, 111, 138 

Thompson, Mildred 92 

Tomochichi 3 et seq. 

Travis, John L 117, 120 

Tustin, J. P 134 

Van Keuren, R 117, 120 

Verelst, Harman 34 

Wade, W. H 134 

Walker, H. N 117, 120 

Wallin, Henrik 117, 120 

Walsh, Joanna E 117, 120 

Ward, John E 42, 85, 126, 127 

Waring, T. P 117, 120 

Washington, George-_29, 30, 131 

Watson, Chas 11 

Wayne, Gen'l Anthony 30 

Wayne, James M.__41, 55, 58, 132 
Webster, Daniel, Letter from, 36 
West, Chas. N.__130, 133, 134, 137 

White, George 42 

White, Geo. R 117, 120 

White, Wm. P 42 

Whitefield, George 83 

Wilde, Richard Henry 128 

Willcox, A. L 117, 120 

Willcox, C. DeWitt 124 

Williams, Wm. Thorne 41, 135 

Williamson, Wm. W 

53, 54, 71, 110, 112, 117, 120, 137 

Wilson, Caroline 117, 120 

Wilson, W. L 117, 120 

Winburn, W. A 117, 120 

Wood, Mary S. Irwin 117, 120 

Wright, Anton P 

95, 101, 102, 117, 120 

Wright, Sir James 27, 56, 123 

Yonge, Easton 134 

Zachary, John 34 



m. MAR 92